|American Renaissance magazine|
|Vol 9, No. 10||October 1998|
Another Successful AR Conference
Many call the 1998 conference the best ever.
Approximately 200 people from all over the country gathered in northern Virginia for the third American Renaissance conference. Though there was a threat of protest, all events proceeded smoothly and many participants described it as the best AR conference yet.
Held during the last weekend in August at the Dulles Airport Hilton, the conference began on Friday evening with welcoming remarks from the AR staff and a cocktail reception. The camaraderie established that evening set the tone for the entire weekend.
Syndicated columnist Samuel Francis opened the general session on Saturday morning by noting that the Founders and most of the great men of the past clearly intended the United States to be a white nation. Even well into the 20th century, Woodrow Wilson, Theodore Roosevelt and Calvin Coolidge talked openly of the American identity in European — even Nordic — terms. Dr. Francis pointed out the irony in the liberal claim that those who today speak out against the concept of America as a universal nation are “un-American.” Even “conservatives” like George Will, Ben Wattenberg and John Miller have endorsed the view that we live in a “proposition nation,” founded not on race, but on abstract principles like liberty and equality. Dr. Francis closed his remarks by saying that Americans must choose between a traditional European understanding of America or a multicultural version because “you cannot have it both ways.”
Glayde Whitney, AR contributing editor and professor at Florida State University, followed with a presentation on the biological reality of race. Though it is now fashionable to talk about the “myth of race,” he listed some of the striking differences in racial abilities. He noted that blacks make up 80 percent of the players in the National Basketball Association and that most of the world’s top distance runners come from just one tribe in Kenya, the Kalenjin. The evidence for biological differences between the races is overwhelming and was once widely acknowledged. “The only thing that has changed,” said Prof. Whitney, “is the politics.”
He also argued that the behavior of blacks in America is like that of a conquering tribe. He described the massive transfers of wealth that go from whites to blacks every year through welfare and affirmative action, and observed that whole areas of our major cities are occupied by blacks and are essentially off limits to whites. He also explained that conquerors often rape the women of the conquered, and described the many rapes of white women by blacks as a typical expression of dominance.
Paul Gottfried, who teaches humanities at Elizabethtown College in Pennsylvania, spoke on “The Decline of WASPdom in America.” He began by stating that America’s founding culture is thoroughly demonized by the non-WASP groups that now dominate the establishment. Prof. Gottfried went on to say that although its strengths can be seen in the development of republican government, the Industrial Revolution, and the growth of the middle-class, WASP culture has serious weaknesses. Contrary to assertions that it is closed and exclusive, Prof. Gottfried argues that WASPdom is too open . It has granted entreé to innumerable critics who promote WASP self-loathing. Prof. Gottfried believes that WASP individualism is ultimately self-destructive because WASPS do not unite in defense against such forces as feminism, xenophilia and multiculturalism. Prof. Gottfried also warned that self-loathing is spreading to other Europeans.
Jared Taylor reminded the audience what AR is fighting for. “We stand in defense of our people and way of life,” he said. “We owe this to our children, who must not become despised minorities in their own land.” He decried the prevalence of anti-white sentiment among whites: Susan Sontag calls whites “the cancer of history” and Congressman Robert Dornan accepts the disappearance of “blue eyes and fair hair” in America. Mr. Taylor argued that whites are encouraged to think of themselves in explicitly racial terms only in order to feel shame and to ask for forgiveness. For non-whites it is the opposite. They are proud of their racial identities and make no pretense of embracing “diversity.” Mr. Taylor ended on a high note, confident that whites will reclaim their racial identity.
Philippe Rushton spoke on “Ethnic Nationalism and Genetic Similarity Theory.” He pointed out that it is almost universal for people to seek others who are genetically similar to themselves not only when they marry but also when they choose friends, associates, and political leaders. Similarity in appearance is nature’s sign that a stranger is likely to be friend rather than foe, and it can indicate compatibility in goals and temperament as well. It is therefore entirely natural that genetically — and racially — similar people should feel strong loyalties for each other. Attempts to suppress group identification are likely to fail because they are contrary to instincts that are almost always beneficial.
The general session closed with brief announcements. Gordon Baum of the Council of Conservative Citizens described the successful activist work of his group. Alan Spitz, who has won the Republican nomination for the 5th congressional district in Illinois, spoke of his campaign against affirmative action, multiculturalism, and mass immigration. If he wins in November, he will be a strong voice in Congress for policies that are crucial for our country.
Later that evening, conferees gathered for a rousing piano sing-along. They sang Anglo-Saxon favorites like “Dixie,” “Rule Britannia” “Men of Harlech,” and “Maryland, My Maryland,” and saluted their continental cousins with vigorous renditions of “God Save the Czar,” “The Marseillaise” and “Watch on the Rhine.” It was an inspiring and festive prelude to the banquet.
Mr. Walker argued that in France, the groundwork for the Front National’s later successes was laid in the late 1960s. As a reaction to student riots, conservatives met and resolved to work their way through the institutions to one day gain power. Members of this group, called GRECE, became academics, journalists and teachers, and are now important supporters of Jean-Marie Le Pen. They defend Mr. Le Pen against left wing smears and, as a result, outspoken nationalism is not as unpopular in France as in the United States. The charismatic leadership of Mr. Le Pen, along with sound financial management, have led the FN to the point where it could conceivably enter the government. Mr. Walker believes that the absence of prominent, conservative-nationalist intellectual movements in American and other European countries has hampered the progress of nationalist politics. In Germany, where repression is greatest, a successful nationalist party could well be found to violate the Constitution and be forcibly disbanded.
The conference resumed on Sunday with a speech by New York City school board member Frank Borzellieri. Mr. Borzellieri recounted his efforts to fight the anti-Western and anti-American propaganda of the public schools. He poked fun at the hypocrisy of white liberals on the board who vote for multiculturalism but live in white neighborhoods and send their children to white schools. He also decried the cowardice of teachers and administrators who say they agree with him but will not speak out. Mr. Borzellieri takes on his opponents with determination and a sense of humor, and has strong popular support. He is by far the top vote-getter in school board races, and is planning another run for a seat on the New York City Council.
Steven Barry, editor of The Resistor, spoke about the racial antics in the United States Army. He spoke from the perspective of a non-commissioned officer who has recently retired from the Special Forces after 22 years of service. He pointed out that the Department of Defense has been using the military for social engineering since soon after the Second World War. He said that riots and sabotage by black soldiers during the 1970s were hushed up; instead of throwing out the miscreants, the army instituted “dialogue,” which gave angry blacks a chance to scream at their officers.
Though the Special Forces are still mostly white, they have started lowering standards so as to get more blacks. Mr. Barry argues that the deterioration of standards in the military is far worse than any civilian can imagine, and that the new motto of the army should be “Tolerance Makes Us Free.”
Michael Levin, speaking at his third AR conference, considered the question of whether there is a superior race. As a philosopher, he took the view that people choose standards that suit their own prejudices, and that there is nothing inherent about the accomplishments of Western man that make him superior in any absolute sense. However, he argued that every other group implicitly recognizes the superiority of Europeans by imitating them. Western technology and social organization are the models for virtually all people, who recognize that Europeans have devised the most effective ways to achieve goals that all people strive for.
Sam Dickson closed the conference with a “secular benediction.” He said that Americans are a rebellious people and will eventually repudiate the present system. He spoke of the growing number of whites who speak out against dispossession, but emphasized that only we can save ourselves. He predicted that the white majority will not quietly fade away, and that with the right leaders we can look forward to victory.
Several reporters attended the conference, and a 17-inch story about it appeared in The Washington Times. It was a straightforward, informative account with the striking headline, “Whites Ponder Future of Their Race.” C-SPAN taped the speech by Samuel Francis and aired it four times over the next several days. With publicity of this kind the AR office was swamped with calls from people delighted to hear of the conference and eager for information.
The conference attracted some unfavorable notice. A group called Anti-Racist Action tried to put pressure on the hotel to cancel its contract for the weekend. They issued an amusing e-mail statement, saying that “This disgustingly racist, anti-Semitic, and anti-lesbian/gay gathering should be opposed by all who stand against racism and any other form of oppression.”
They concluded that “groups like American Renaissance must be opposed wherever and whenever they crawl out of their holes!” and called for a demonstration.
They got one. Five lost-looking demonstrators — all white — wandered around on the grass off the hotel property, so far away they could be neither seen nor heard. They had no signs and no bull-horns, and a police car kept them under close observation. The hotel is well outside of town so there were not even any pedestrians for the demonstrators to harangue. They soon gave up and went home.
Their dispiriting experience was the very opposite of that of the men and women inside the Hilton Grand Ballroom. They returned to their homes encouraged and inspired, reinvigorated for the struggle they know to be right.
The Galton Report
A sampling of recent scientific literature
The Cause of Urban Squalor
A new study of race and urban squalor from Harvard Medical School is unusual in the frankness of its conclusions: “The most conspicuous observation is not that blacks are more susceptible to poverty and other socioeconomic ills, but that blacks are widely linked to these problems, regardless of external circumstances. Attempts to hold whites responsible fail when one examines the history of formerly wealthy Haiti, long-independent Liberia, and richly-endowed states like Nigeria, the Congo, and Zambia.”
This new study compared 77 U.S. cities with populations of over 200,000, with respect to racial composition and a variety of socioeconomic indexes. The black population of these cities ranged from one percent to 76 percent. Overall, the percentage of city residents who are black was almost double their proportion in the country as a whole, and the population of whites in cities was about 25% lower than their percentage of the entire population.
The statistically significant correlations will not surprise AR readers. The author points out that “as the percentage of city blacks increases, the propensity towards social breakdown increases, as indicated by significant correlations between criminal activity, overall poverty and diminished educational attainment. The positive correlation in taxation suggests that as the percentage of black residents increases, city government services require greater amounts of revenue to function.”
The author adds: “The squalor of black urban centers cannot be attributed solely to decreased city services. Taxpayers in predominantly black cities pay more taxes than those in mostly white cities. Also, residents of black cities receive more police protection in terms of dollars and number of police officers, while a higher proportion of residents receive social services (e.g. welfare) than in white cities . . . Furthermore, black crime is disproportionately high in relation to their numbers, as evidenced by rates of reporting by victims, as well as rates of arrests and incarceration . . . In black-dominated cities, increased city revenue is associated with increased city expenditure, so the charge of ‘racism,’ in the form of reduced city services, is not a viable explanation for the decay of such cities.”
This paper is remarkable for a field that usually buries its research under convoluted euphemisms and obfuscatory doublespeak. Two of the many quotable passages are reproduced below:
Standard socio-politico-economic explanations that place responsibility for social decay on the white population are both useless and dangerous. These explanations only lead to the further deterioration of urban life in America: poorly-conceived federal policies to ‘fight poverty,’ based on these assumptions, have led to the wasting of trillions of dollars since the 1960s and have failed to significantly reverse the decline of American cities. Instead, whites and successful blacks continue to abandon the major urban centers in droves. These urban areas are then mismanaged and large areas are transformed into no man’s lands. In short, Americans are abandoning the cities which previous generations of Americans, through tireless effort and at great cost, planned, built and maintained. There is a real danger that if the present demographic urban trends continue, American cities — the hallmark of civilized group living and of American civilization — will crumble into further decay, notwithstanding attempts to resuscitate them through federal funding.
It must be remembered that specific behavioral tendencies that have evolved within particular breeding populations have existed for many thousands of years and will persist until and unless the genetic basis is modified by selection. [Hama, A., (1998). Demographic change and social breakdown in U.S. cities. The Mankind Quarterly, v.38, #3, pp. 299-309.]
Race and the Genetics of Alcoholism
It has long been known that there is substantial racial variation in susceptibility to alcoholism. Even in colonial times it was common knowledge that the Red Man was particularly vulnerable to Fire Water.
Scandinavians also suffer a high rate of alcoholism, and from Ireland to Russia, wherever the marauding Vikings planted their seed, there grow today crops of families suffering from the same scourge. On the other hand some racial groups, notably Semites including Jews, and East Asians such as Chinese and Japanese, have rather low rates of alcohol abuse. Now with the new DNA technology the genes responsible are being located.
We went through a phase when the cultural anthropologists tried to explain all such differences as the result of historical accident and culture, but 40 and more years ago the genetic roots of alcoholism were established through scientific investigations with mice and adopted children. My own doctoral dissertation 35 years ago was one of the studies with mice that showed multiple genes to be involved in preference for alcohol. A textbook of the early 1990s pointed out that the best predictor of eventual alcoholism for men was alcoholism in a first-degree biological relative (father, brother, son, etc.). At that time it was frustrating not to be able to specify the actual genes involved.
Now the power of the new DNA markers is being used to locate the genes involved in alcoholism, as a first step toward their identification and eventual targeted therapy. Recent news releases from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) specify possibilities scattered across many of the 23 human chromosomes.
Two large studies of families at high risk for alcoholism are providing the data. One study is of over 500 American Indians in the Southwest. Another concentrates on a predominantly Caucasian group of 987 individuals from 105 families with a high incidence of alcoholism.
Markers on eight different chromosomes have been implicated so far, some more strongly than others. The markers are near some genes that might be causally involved in alcoholism or its avoidance. For example, it has long been known that unusual electrical activity of the brain — a low P3 spike on an EEG (electro-encephalogram) — is related to alcoholism. The study of Caucasians links markers on chromosomes 2 and 6 to variations in P3 amplitude in families with alcoholics. Among the Indians a marker on chromosome 11 is related to alcoholism. Nearby on chromosome 11 are genes for a dopamine receptor as well as dopamine and serotonin synthesis. Both dopamine and serotonin have long been suspected to play a role in the pleasurable effects of alcohol.
Among both the Caucasians and Indians a marker on chromosome 4 is related to resistance to alcoholism. This finding is interesting because the marker is close to genes associated with Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ADH), an enzyme that, along with Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH), breaks alcohol that is taken into the body. When someone drinks, his liver typically converts about 95 percent of the alcohol into sugar. ADH converts alcohol to acetaldehyde, which ALDH then breaks down into sugar.
Acetaldehyde is toxic and can produce uncomfortable facial flushing, and various other unpleasant effects of alcohol. In most heavy drinkers and alcoholics, the two enzymes, ADH and ALDH, work together smoothly so that acetaldehyde is promptly broken down as soon as it appears in the body; heavy drinkers therefore rarely feel the effects of acetaldehyde poisoning. Some East Asians (and certain laboratory mice) are protected from alcoholism because they have low levels of ALDH. Since acetaldehyde remains in the body for some time, drinking is very unpleasant. Now it appears that high ADH activity has a similar effect. The body produces more acetaldehyde than the ALDH can break down — with the same uncomfortable results.
With the breakthroughs promised by the new DNA technology we should soon benefit from treatments for alcoholism tailored to a patient’s specific genetic anomaly. Expect such targeted treatments to differ between the races, and even between different individuals within a race. [Additional information about alcoholism and alcohol research is available at http://www.niaaa.nih.gov. The research reported here is presented in various papers in the May 1998 issue of Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology (v. 108, #3), and Neuropsychiatric Genetics (v. 81, #3).]
Asian Brain Size and IQ
Professor J. Philippe Rushton has added newborn Asians to his massive compilation of data on the relationship between race, brain size, and IQ. Prof. Rushton has previously reviewed eight studies that show adult brain size is related to IQ. Using the most modern techniques of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with a total sample size of over 380 adults, he has concluded that there is an average overall correlation of .44 between brain size measured by MRI and IQ. There is much other work to support the view that whites exceed blacks in both measures.
Now, for the first time, Prof. Rushton has studied the sub-sample of Asian Americans from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, which involves over 53,000 children from birth to age seven. He concludes: “The Asian sub-sample averaged a higher IQ (110) at age 7 than did the white (102) or the black sub-samples (90). At birth, 4 months, 1 year, and 7 years, the Asians averaged a larger cranial capacity than did the whites or blacks despite being smaller in stature and lighter in weight.” [Rushton, J.P., (1997), Cranial size and IQ in Asian Americans from birth to age seven. Intelligence,v. 25, pp. 7-20.]
A recent paper published in Population and Environment explores what may be one of the reasons for high rates of immigration to the United States. According to its abstract: “This paper discusses Jewish involvement in shaping United States immigration policy. In addition to a periodic interest in fostering the immigration of co-religionists as a result of anti-Semitic movements, Jews have an interest in opposing the establishment of ethnically and culturally homogeneous societies in which they reside as minorities. Jews have been at the forefront in supporting movements aimed at altering the ethnic status quo in the United States in favor of immigration of non-European peoples. These activities have involved leadership in Congress, organizing and funding anti-restrictionist groups composed of Jews and gentiles, and originating intellectual movements opposed to evolutionary and biological perspectives in the social sciences.” [MacDonald, K., (1998). Jewish involvement in shaping American immigration policy, 1881-1965: A historical review. Population and Environment: A Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. v. 19, #4, pp. 295-356.]
IQ Influences Wealth
Although IQ, wealth, poverty, and social discord may interact in a myriad of complex ways, liberal egalitarians claim that poverty lowers IQ. However, the findings of differential psychology suggest that low IQ tends to cause poverty. The 1994 book The Bell Curve went far toward sorting out the directions of causality, but was met by a firestorm of criticism.
Now Charles Murray, the surviving co-author of The Bell Curve, has conducted a new study that should forever settle the discussion. Starting once again with the large data set from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), he gets at the causes of income inequality by comparing siblings. By looking at full siblings — who have the same environment but who differ in IQ — he automatically controlled for many of the variables that are often thought to affect income: race, social status of the parents, quality of home environment, etc. By the time they are young adults, the higher-IQ siblings tend to have higher incomes.
Mr. Murray goes further and constructs what he calls “the utopian sample.” This is a set of siblings who have benefited from all of what are usually thought to be the environmental benefits: intact family during the formative years, no poverty, and all the middle-class amenities of good schools, good neighborhoods and good incomes. And yet the different adult outcomes even of children who benefit from this environment tend to be predicted by IQ.
“How much difference would it make if, magically, every child in the country could be given the same environmental advantages as the more fortunate of our children?” asks Mr. Murray? The answer is almost no difference at all. Throwing the dice of genetic recombination would result in a new generation of individuals with the full range of IQs. They in turn would recreate almost the entire range of outcomes. [Murray, C. (1998) Income, Inequality, and IQ. Washington DC: The AEI Press. Available by calling (800) 269-6267.]
A Gene For High Intelligence
The first report has appeared of a specific gene that contributes to high intelligence. It is a marker piece of DNA within a gene on human chromosome six that is named “insulin-like growth factor-2 receptor” (IGF2R). Little is known about the function of IGF2R; it contains information used to build a receptor for a little-understood hormone-like substance. If IGF2R’s association with intelligence is confirmed, it will be an important landmark because until now the only genes known to influence IQ have been ones that cause various forms of genetic retardation. Almost all of our evidence for the heritability of normal variation in intelligence has been statistical and theoretical, assuming that many different genes account for patterns of IQ distribution.
The IGF2R gene may be one of those many genes that cause individual differences in intelligence. The discovery was made by comparing DNA markers between a group of very high-IQ children and a control group with normal IQs. Then — and this is important for claims in science — the finding was replicated in another independent sample.
In the first study, a group of 51 children with an average IQ of 136 was compared to a control group of 51 children with an average IQ of 103. A particular form (allele) of the IGF2R gene was more frequent in the high IQ group. Then in the second study a set of 52 children with even higher IQs was compared with a new control group of 50 children with average IQs of 101. In the second study, the bright group was taken from children scoring in the top 0.0033 percent on the SAT and estimated to have IQs over 160. Once again, the same form of the IGF2R gene marker was most prevalent among the high-scoring group. The results suggest that one IGF2R allele, previously named allele 5, or a gene closely linked on the same chromosome, contributes to high intelligence.
The authors emphasize that this particular trait-enhancing gene is neither necessary nor sufficient for high IQ; it is just one of a number of genes that probably work together to determine the genetic propensity for intelligence. In this study, 46 percent of the high-scoring individuals had at least one copy of allele 5, compared to 23 percent of the individuals in the control groups. So, although the frequency among people with high IQs is twice that of the controls, fewer than half of the high scorers had the IGF2R allele 5. Presumably the IQ levels of the others were influenced by a variety of other genes. From the present samples of children, the authors estimate that the IGF2R gene might account for about two percent of the total variance in general intelligence, or about four points on an IQ test, other things being equal.
The discussion section of the paper notes that an important consideration in studies of this kind is the possibility of “ethnic stratification,” that is, there may be different gene frequencies in people of different races that may have nothing to do with intelligence. For that reason this study sample was limited to Caucasians. [Chorney, M. J., and 11 co-authors, (1998), A quantitative trait locus associated with cognitive ability in children. Psychological Science, v.9, pp. 159-166.]
Contributing editor Glayde Whitney is professor in psychology, psychobiology and neuroscience at Florida State University.
For Faith and Nation
Immigration and Nation: a Biblical View, John Vinson, American Immigration Control Foundation, 1997, 22 pp., $2.00.
Although polls show that Americans who are religious are more likely than the non-religious to oppose immigration, many Christian organizations support massive Third-World immigration. John Vinson, head of the American Immigration Control Foundation, explains that this is not just ironic, it is dangerous: Christians could eventually be outnumbered by newcomers who are hostile to their faith. Immigration and Nation, a Biblical View, convincingly shows that “[t]he Bible does not require American Christians to sacrifice their country and their children’s future on an altar of false generosity.” From the book of Genesis on, it is clear that the division of mankind into nations is part of God’s commandment to “fill the earth” (Genesis 1:28). Mr. Vinson points out that this is completely at odds with the one-world globalism of immigration boosters. According to Scripture, nations are divinely ordered entities and not arbitrary human creations. Nor does God find all nations and cultures equal. The Bible puts Israel above other nations (Deut. 32: 8-10) and forbids Israel to intermarry with surrounding nations.
Though God ordered Israel to “love the stranger,” He also affirmed that the interests of Israel come first. Foreigners were not permitted to rule over Israelites (Deut. 17:15) and they were required to obey religious laws. Moreover, Israel was not a nation of immigrants. Mr. Vinson writes:
[N]aturalizations did occur, as in the case of Ruth. Significant about the story of Ruth, however, is that she identified completely with her new nation (Ruth 1:16), and made no boast about ‘enriching’ it with her previous background.
Christians must remember that the principles of Biblical nationhood apply to America as much as they do to ancient Israel. Just as the Israelites were punished for not obeying God’s commandments, so too will Christians suffer if they continue to let themselves become strangers in their own land. Already there are more Muslims than Episcopalians or Presbyterians in America. Though most Hispanic immigrants are Christians, their faith bears little resemblance to Biblical Christianity. Mr. Vinson writes that “Latin American Christianity quite often is a blend of Christian sentiments and symbols, pre-Colombian Indian or African religions, and various folk superstitions.” Hispanics are unlikely to strengthen traditional Christianity and could change or even destroy it as their numbers increase.
What will be the fate of Christians if they become outnumbered in their own land? Mr. Vinson quotes Deuteronomy (28:32): “Your sons and your daughters shall be given to another people, while your eyes shall look on and yearn for them continually; but you will have no strength in your arms to save them.” To those who continue to promote destructive and unbiblical immigration policies that are turning the United States into a tower of Babel, Mr. Vinson recommends the words of Paul to Timothy: “. . . if anyone does not provide for his own, and especially those of his household, he has denied the faith and is worse than an unbeliever.”
Letter from Silicon Valley
There has been much discussion about the advisability of letting in more foreign engineers to work in American high-tech companies. Here is a report from an American engineer who wishes to remain anonymous.
The well-publicized downturn in the semiconductor industry finally took its toll on my company and I was laid off on July 1st. Since then I have been looking for work. Yesterday’s interview for an engineering position at a Milpitis chip company had quite an effect on me. All the engineers there are foreigners from East Asia. I believe the interview was an exercise in futility, an act of going through the motions.
One of the interviewers asked me how I would feel about being culturally isolated at the company: “Many of us speak Chinese to each other. We’re all from the Orient.” I said something PC. The three Chinese interviewers were nice and intelligent people, but very foreign, and the interviews were uncomfortable and awkward. We neither connected well nor had much in common. I answered their technical questions well, but the problem is culture and nationality, not engineering. I think the interview was just for the purpose of using me as proof that they “searched” for an American whereas what they really want is to hire a Chinese H-1B worker. [H-1B visas are granted to workers with special skills that presumably cannot be found in the American workforce.]
A recent interview with a Sunnyvale chip company was similar: The company is all foreign-born Asians. I had a thorough tour of the company, so I know. One of the interviewers was almost incomprehensible with his thick accent and poor English. I was thinking, “Why do I have to put up with this in my own country? Why is he the one with the power over me?”
I had a similar experience at a Fremont chip company, where three of the four interviewers were Indian. The one white asked me how I would feel working in an all-Asian environment.
I’m in a state of shock. It really hit me after the Milpitis interview. I drove home in a trance, my mouth dry and open. The radio was on, but I didn’t hear anything. After I pulled into my driveway, I didn’t get out of the car for five minutes. I just sat there, stunned.
Reality has set in: I will have to leave California. The situation here is beyond what I can tolerate. I cannot work in an all-foreign environment, where I have nothing in common with anyone, where every communication with co-workers is strained and difficult. I’m not just a worker, I’m a human being. As soon as I walked in the door, I got on the phone to a high-tech recruiter. I told her, “Help me to get out of this place as soon as possible.”
It’s too bad, because I love California. While growing up in the Midwest and attending college in another part of the country, I dreamed of coming here. Now I realize it’s not part of the United States anymore, and I’m being pushed out.
I’m just one person in the large stream of American engineers who have left or are planning to leave. A co-worker at my last company is transferring to the company branch in Austin, Texas. His sole reason, which he made clear to everyone in our department, was to work in an environment “that doesn’t have so many immigrants.” He’ll be a loss to the Silicon Valley office because of his excellent technical abilities.
He told me privately how his patience was wearing thin trying to deal with Asian engineers at the chip companies he served. The attitudes of some of them (mainly Chinese) really got on his nerves. Apparently, they’re often pushy and rude, and treat Americans like foreigners in our own country.
During its first 25 years, nearly all of the Silicon Valley engineers were native-born. Americans invented Silicon Valley. We invented and developed all the technology we use in our daily lives. The valley and companies like Intel, Motorola, IBM, etc. would not exist if it weren’t for us. Jobs in those companies should be for us. But because of industry demands for cheap labor, and a corrupt national government, there has been a revolution: Since the mid-1980s, the valley has been transformed from a cohesive, productive, American place to work, into a nightmarish scene of foreign takeovers. These foreigners are not better engineers than we are. We just have suicidal immigration laws.
Silicon Valley is beyond hope. Every company is inundated with foreigners. If 75 percent of the engineers around here aren’t foreign, then I don’t have blond hair and blue eyes. If the number of H-1B numbers does rise to 115,000 a year, as many company owners want it to, that would be the final nail in the coffin for Americans living here.
I recently gave up the idea I had for a “Euro-American” or “American Citizens’ High-Tech Employment Group.” It’s too late for that. Foreign Asians are now the gatekeepers of the Valley; they’re the ones who call the shots on who gets hired or fired. And they hire their own people — that’s why companies are all-Asian. There would have to be a large number of Americans in high-tech positions for a Euro-American group to have any effect. That situation no longer exists.
Imagine an army in full retreat, fleeing from a massive attack from the enemy. One of the retreating soldiers steps out and throws a little rock at the attackers, who respond with mortar shells and artillery. That little rock represents the potential effectiveness of a pro-American hiring group. It would amount to nothing, because the number of American engineers here is shrinking to nothing. And Americans in other states know of the catastrophe that has struck the area, and don’t want to be part of it.
|IN THE NEWS|
O Tempora, O Mores!
AIDS and Africans
Back when it was called Rhodesia and was run by whites, Zimbabwe had one of the best medical systems in Africa. Now, tuberculosis, hepatitis, malaria, measles, and cholera — all preventable — are back on the rise. In 1989, 100 Zimbabweans died of malaria; last year the figure was 2,800. In 1986, the country had 5,000 cases of tuberculosis; last year it had 35,000. Zimbabwe also happens to have the highest HIV infection rate in the world: one quarter of adults are carriers.
In 1993, life expectancy in the country was 61. In two years it is likely to be 49, and if current trends continue it will drop to 40 in ten years. This was the figure when whites began to settle the country 100 years ago.
According to the World Health Organization, there have been 10 million AIDS deaths in Africa — 90 percent of the world total. Dr. Bonaparte Nkomo is in charge of treating sexually transmitted diseases in the Zimbabwean town of Bulawayo. He is dismayed that Zimbabweans take so few precautions against AIDS. “Sometimes I ask myself if we are all just going to disappear,” he says. (Michael Specter, Doctors Powerless as AIDS Rakes Africa, New York Times, August 6, 1998, p.1.)
Black women are eight times more likely to get AIDS than white women and three times more likely than Hispanic women. Half of all American women infected with the virus are black. Why are rates for black women so high? It has long been theorized that black men who get AIDS through homosexual intercourse and from sharing dirty needles pass the disease along to women. There are said to be strong stigmas against homosexuality among blacks, so the men lie about their behavior.
There is now increasing concern that many otherwise heterosexual blacks have sex with men while they are in prison and get the virus that way. According to William K. Hunt at U.C.L.A., American prison populations have the highest concentrations of HIV carriers in the world, so homosexual rape or faute-de-mieux dalliance can easily spread the disease. Blacks, who are vastly over-represented in the prison population, then infect women when they get out. For the time being, this is speculation because there is so little research about transmission of AIDS in prison. However, one thing is certain: There is no safe sex in prison because there are no condoms because sex is forbidden.
Dr. Wilbert Jordon, who works in an AIDS program in Los Angeles, thinks ex-cons are a big problem: “[Y]ou wouldn’t believe how many ex-inmates tell me that they are having sex, and they never tell these women about what they did in prison.” Part of the problem is that blacks are unwilling to use condoms even if they are available. According to Chandelor Daniel, a black doctor, “white people are more likely to want to use a condom. It’s not explainable. Maybe there’s a black myth. It’s the same with the black middle-class.”
Many black women refuse to believe their husbands or boyfriends go in for buggery behind bars, but Lynn Chamberlain, a black AIDS activist, says it is time to wake up: “[T]hey say their man wouldn’t do that to them . . . Well, if it were not a possibility, you would not have so many African American women becoming infected. We’ve been in denial for too long.”
Some social workers see the same trends among Hispanics, who are also a large part of the prison population and who are reluctant to use condoms. (Darryl Fears, AIDS Among Black Women Seen as a Growing Problem, Los Angeles Times, July 24, 1998, p. A1.)
Help Fight Immigration
There is an easy, free and effective way to use the Internet to fight immigration. Roy Beck of Numbers USA has a web page, www.numbersusa.com, which is dedicated to lobbying Congress. You can use the page to send faxes free of charge to your Congressmen, Senators, various conference chairmen, and even to the whole Congress. All you need is a password and a user name, which you can get on-line.
You can pick the faxes you want to send. They focus on such things as overpopulation, American workers’ rights, citizenship, crime, and environmental damage. According to Mr. Beck his effort is having an effect. The faxes helped scuttle key aspects of another amnesty for illegal aliens, and could help defeat Senator Spencer Abraham’s efforts to increase legal immigration. He says the faxes have also helped persuade Newt Gingrich and Dick Armey to back off on legislation favoring more immigrants.
Costa Rica Fights Invasion
Costa Rica is the whitest and most prosperous nation in Central America. It is also facing an invasion of non-whites, mostly from neighboring Nicaragua. After Bolivia, Nicaragua is the poorest country in the Americas, and has an unemployment rate of 50 percent. Laborers sneak into Costa Rica to find work on farms or construction sites. Some 500,000 to 700,000 Nicaraguan migrants now make up 15 percent of Costa Rica’s population and the country has had enough. “Costa Rica is not prepared to deal with this massive immigration,” says immigration director Eduardo Vilchez Hurtado. “It is interfering with our system of social services and job availability,” he says, adding, “we can’t carry Nicaragua’s problems on our backs.” (Juanita Darling, An Immigration Dispute Far South of the U.S. Border, Los Angeles Times, July 28, 1998.)
Richard Katz was a longtime “progressive” Democratic member of the Los Angeles City Council. He thought he had won the approval of Hispanics by opposing propositions 209 and 187, which banned affirmative action and welfare for illegal immigrants. This summer, he ran against a Hispanic Democrat named Richard Alarcon and lost. Mr. Alarcon’s slim, 29-vote victory is thought to have been due to a last-minute direct mail piece sent out by Mr. Alarcon, suggesting that Mr. Katz is an anti-Hispanic “racist.” The money for the mailing came from California Senate Majority Leader Richard Polanco, who is also Hispanic. Mr. Polanco is increasingly seen as a power broker in California state politics, and routinely supports other Hispanics.
Mr. Katz, the “progressive” ex-councilman, has filed a lawsuit charging Mr. Alarcon with election irregularities and defamation. He claims he has a tape recording on which Mr. Polanco says, “I’ll spend whatever it takes to beat that Jew.” Roughly a week and a half after this alleged remark, Mr. Polanco gave Mr. Alarcon’s campaign $186,000 — which paid for the “racism” mailing. (Karen Ocamb, Latinos, Jews & Gays, Frontiers Newsmagazine (Hollywood), August 21, 1998.)
The city council of Lynwood, California recently changed from majority black to majority Hispanic. The change has brought predictable results. The new Hispanic-dominated council terminated city contracts with three longtime black contractors for printing, job-training and tree trimming.
In response, the contractors have filed an $800 million civil rights lawsuit against the city and three Hispanic council members. The suit claims that the new city council gave no reason for terminating the contractors, and that Hispanics have tried to fire, demote, and transfer black employees in city management. A lawyer for the plaintiffs says, “If you start putting together all the pieces of the puzzle, you’ll see there is one pattern running through it. Who gets the ax every time? Black people.”
The suit also accuses Mayor Armando Rea of calling black council member Louis Byrd, “a little animal” and of referring to blacks as “spades.” Mr. Rea says his remarks were taken out of context. What was the context? According to press reports, Mr. Rea told Mr. Byrd that, unlike him, he behaved calmly during the period when blacks dominated the city council. “It’s amazing how you get up and just jump up and down. You jump up and down like a little animal here. It’s true, it’s true. I say it like it is. I call a spade a spade.” (Jack Leonard, $800-Million Civil Rights Suit Filed Against City of Lynwood, Los Angeles Times, August 13, 1998.)
Foutanga Babani Sissoko, a “tycoon” from West Africa, was something of a celebrity in Miami. He gave $300,000 to a local high school marching band, and $1.2 million to a homeless shelter. When asked about his wealth he told a Horatio Alger story of a poor boy made good through hard work.
Lawyers from the Dubai Islamic Bank tell a different story. They say Mr. Sissoko embezzled $240 million from their bank, which is based in the United Arab Emirates. He apparently convinced a mid-level bank employee, Mohammed Ayyoub Mohammed, that he knew black magic. Mr. Ayyoub says Mr. Sissoko hung a glass ball from his bedroom ceiling and claimed he could look into it and see what Mr. Ayyoub was doing. Thereafter, Mr. Ayyoub did what he was told, and transferred millions to Mr. Sissoko’s accounts in the U.S. and Europe. The Dubai bank managed to freeze his accounts but most of the $240 million is gone. Mr. Sissoko and his entourage ran up $10 million in credit card debts, including $6 million for luxury goods.
This is not the first time Mr. Sissoko has had trouble with the law. In 1996 he tried to bribe a U.S. Customs official to approve shipment of two military helicopters from Florida to Africa. He got a $250,000 fine and a jail sentence, but a judge let him finish his sentence under house arrest in West Africa after he made the $1.2 million donation to the homeless shelter. The Black Congressional Caucus and several West African ambassadors to the U.N. also lobbied for clemency.
Mr. Sissoko now appears to be lying low in Africa. His telephone is disconnected and he has not contacted his lawyer for three weeks. (David Lyons, Tycoon From West Africa Accused of Embezzling, Miami Herald, August 2, 1998, p. 1B.)
Welfare Turns Darker
Ever since changes in welfare rules began to take effect, more whites than non-whites have been leaving the rolls. By early 1997, whites accounted for only 35 percent of the welfare population, while blacks were 37 percent and Hispanics were 22 percent. Given the disproportions in population, this means that the average black is six times more likely than the average white to be on welfare, and the average Hispanic is four times more likely.
There are considerable disparities from region to region. In Wisconsin, which has seen the most dramatic fall in recipient numbers, 96 percent of whites have left welfare while 74 percent of blacks and 78 percent of Hispanics have done so. In New York City, only five percent of current recipients are white; 33 percent are black and 59 percent are Hispanic.
Uplift specialists worry that as the rolls darken there will be more resistance to keeping the programs going at all. (Jason DeParle, Welfare Rolls Show Growing Racial and Urban Imbalance, New York Times, July 27, 1998, p. A1.)
No Hatred Here
Last month, Richard Skelton of Wood River, Illinois went looking for his missing television set. He thought someone had taken it to nearby Alton and traded it for drugs. He took his brother, son, and daughter to help him get it back. He got into an argument — and then a fistfight — with a group of blacks. Some 25 other blacks joined the fight and began kicking and beating Mr. Skelton. He was unconscious when police arrived and died at a nearby hospital. His relatives were also injured but managed to escape.
Donald McGarvey, a white man who lives in the mixed-race neighborhood says he thinks racial hatred was behind the killing. “Two things killed that man: his ignorance and their hate. He was ignorant for coming here to begin with . . .” Mr. McGarvey, who was recently injured trying to keep a stranger out of his house, has had enough: “I’m moving out,” he says. “I gave the landlord notice.”
Twelve blacks have been arrested and charged with first degree murder but State’s Attorney William Haine will not seek a hate crime charge. “A hate crime charge isn’t needed. I’m sure Skelton had contempt for the people on the front porch because they were black, and many, if not all, in the mob had contempt for Skelton because he was white.”
Rev. Johnny Scott of the local NAACP says he is “appalled” at what happened but is worried about justice for the black killers. He has contacted the FBI “to assure the people that the investigation is not slanted in a racial way.” He wants to know if Mr. Skelton, “came with the wrong attitude and using the wrong words.” (Charles Bosworth, Neighbors Try to Cope After Alton Beating, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, August 16, 1998, p. C1.)
The nation has just seen what may be its worst-ever case of filicide, or murder of children by a parent. Khoula Her, a 24-year-old Hmong living in St. Paul, Minnesota, strangled all six of her children and left their bodies strewn through her three-bedroom apartment.
Mrs. Her was married at age 13 in a Thailand refugee camp and had her first child that year. She then moved to St. Paul, where she had frequent fights with her husband. In one 18-month period, police visited the family nearly a dozen times. The precise motive for the killing is not known but like many Hmong, Mrs. Her has not been able to adjust to life in the United States. (Jon Jeter, In Disintegration of a Marriage, Six Children are Strangled, Washington Post, Sept. 6, 1998, p. A2.)
Cleveland State has become the first university to offer a master’s degree in “diversity.” The degree program is described as “an intensive, graduate level study of diversity theory, research and practice rooted in the science of psychology.” It hopes to attract personnel managers, consultants, community activists, and police officers. (Cleveland State to Offer Nation’s First Master’s Degree in Diversity, Columbus Dispatch, July 5, 1998.)
No Divisiveness, Please
Legislators in Ohio want to grade the performance of every one of the state’s public schools, and have devised a “report card” for that purpose. Originally, the state Board of Education planned to include information on state average academic performance by race so that parents could compare a school’s performance with other schools that have similar student bodies. When legislators saw the racial disparities, they got cold feet. “I frankly think that kind of information is controversial and divisive,” says House Majority Leader Randall Gardner. The “report cards” will now go out without the racial comparisons. (Test Scores Won’t List Race, Gender, Cincinnati Enquirer, June 2, 1998.)
No Foreign Drunks
The INS has started a new plan to rid the country of legal but undesirable foreigners: Anyone who gets a third drunk driving conviction gets the boot. Operation Last Call was started in Dallas, Texas, where 150 legal aliens are now being held for deportation. “Our posture is, living in this country — if you’re not a citizen — is a privilege, not a right,” explained Lynn Ligon of the Dallas INS. Immigration activists complain that deportations will break up families. “[F]amilies get split up when people get killed in a DWI accident,” replies Mr. Ligon. (AP, INS Rounds Up Legal Immigrants Over DWI Conviction, Sept. 3, 1998.)
Leaders of Africa
In July, South African President Nelson Mandela married Graca Machel, the widow of Mozambican president, Samora Machel. Some aspects of the union were entirely traditional: Mr. Mandela handed over 60 cows in exchange for Miss Machel, after the Mandela and Machel families haggled for two months over the bride price. The king of the Tembu tribe, of which Mr. Mandela is a member, defended the bargain: “Even if Rolihlahla [Mandela] had paid a million cows for Graca, she is worth every bristle of hair and hoof.” (Reuters, S. Africa’s Mandela Paid 60 Cows for Graca: Paper, July 25, 1998.)
Meanwhile, winner of the Nobel peace price, Desmond Tutu, says South African whites should be grateful not to have been butchered wholesale since the end of apartheid. “It’s an incredible thing that has happened, that [blacks] who still live in shacks, squalor and poverty come to work in your beautiful homes, and they don’t say, ‘We’re going to murder all of you in your beds,’” the archbishop explained. He added that whites are pouting over lost privileges and need to do more to bridge the racial gap. (Tutu Says Whites Should be Grateful, San Francisco Chronicle, Aug. 19, 1998.)
The small town of Azuma, 75 miles north of Tokyo, had a problem at its public swimming pool. Foreigners — most probably Iranians or Iraqis — were paying unwanted attention to young Japanese girls. The mayor banned all non-Japanese from the pool. In reply to critics who said that this was a violation of foreigners’ rights, he explained that protecting the rights of Japanese comes first. (AP, Foreigners Barred from Swimming Pool in Northern Japan, Aug. 14, 1998.)
Down Mexico Way
There has been so much violent crime in Mexico that the U.S. State Department warns travelers about it and some foreign businesses are leaving Mexico City. In August, the police finally had a big success: They arrested “The Lopper.”
This is the nickname of Daniel Arizmendi, a former police officer who ran a gang that has committed more than 200 kidnappings. He earned his sobriquet by cutting off the ears of victims and sending them to families to encourage payment. His wife, a former nurse, supervised the removal of ears. In one notorious case, he shot to death the owner of a chain of gasoline stations but demanded a $15 million ransom anyway. The Lopper had $1 million in cash with him when he was arrested. Mr. Arizmendi’s gang operated in four Mexican states and was composed largely of former and current police officers. (AP, Police Capture Mexico’s Most Infamous Kidnapper, Aug. 18, 1998.)
South Africa Sinks Further
The South African lower house of parliament has passed a law that requires companies with more than 50 employees to submit affirmative action plans. The plans must explain how the companies will make their work forces reflect the racial proportions of the country. If a company does not submit a plan, or if the Labor Department doesn’t like the plan, the company will be fined.
The law does not use the word “quota,” but white legislators know where this is headed. Pieter Groenewald, a member of the Freedom Front, called the black labor minister a “racist” for supporting the bill. When Mr. Groenewald refused to take back the word “racist,” he was ejected from the chamber, to the cheers of members from the African National Congress. Constand Viljoen, leader of the Freedom Front, then walked out with all of his fellow party members.
A black government spokesman explained that the bill was necessary because of “the accumulation of wealth by the minority community based on the exploitation of cheap black labor.” Nelson Mandela says new regulations will “help eliminate decades, even centuries, of racism.” (Andrew Selsky, Law Shapes S. Africa Workforce Mix, AP, Aug. 21, 1998.)
Under Several Gods
Third-World immigration is making America less Christian. At more than five million there are now twice as many Muslims as Episcopalians, and they outnumber the estimated 3.3 million Jews who go to synagogue. About 40 percent of the Muslims are American-born blacks, while the rest are recent immigrants. One fourth are from India or Pakistan, and about 12 percent are from Arab countries. In the last 20 years the number of Buddhists has shot up from 75,000 to 910,000. Most are Asians, but Buddhism is also the most popular non-Christian religion for white converts.
Roman Catholics are, by far, the largest single church, with 60 million members, but 35 percent are Hispanics. The largest Protestant denomination is the Southern Baptist Convention with 15.6 million members. It is still growing, mainly because of Asian immigrant converts; 20 percent of Southern Baptists are now non-white. Methodists, Episcopalians, and Presbyterians are declining in numbers.
Princeton University professor Robert Wurthnow notes that the numbers have a political edge: “These changes make it less appropriate to impose one tradition on another in a public space. Debates about school prayer or the posting of the Ten Commandments have to take into account diversity.”
Most Americans still say they are religious. Sixty percent say religion is very important to them, and 27 percent say it is fairly important. (Rhonda Gibson, Growth, Diversity Alter Face of Religion in U.S., Salt Lake Tribune, July 5, 1998, p. A1.)
AR in the News — Read All About It
We have received a good deal of media attention on account of the third AR conference and the release of The Real American Dilemma. Jared Taylor has been on over 20 talk-radio programs this summer, and a speech he gave in Charleston, South Carolina was broadcast on C-SPAN. We have received a gratifying number of responses to these appearances.
AR was also featured in several recent magazine and newspaper articles. A review of The Real American Dilemma was carried in the Denver Post as well as several smaller papers. Mr. Taylor was quoted at some length in an article called “America’s Racial Landscape Shifts,” which appeared in a number of newspapers in the Newhouse chain. In June, the New York Post published a very confused column by Jack Newfield, in which he reported that AR is a “front for the American Nazi Party” and is based in Tennessee. A British “anti-racist” magazine called Searchlight printed a very worried but generally accurate story about AR and preparations for the conference. These last two, in particular, make for amusing reading.
|LETTERS FROM READERS|
Sir — I was recently able to purchase a copy of the second printing of Michael Levin’s book Why Race Matters and found it every bit as good as you indicated. However, there is a word missing in the book: “preservation.”
Naturally, the word is never found in the works of integrationists, because the purpose of segregation is the preservation of the Euro-American nation. This includes, of course, the preservation of our culture, language, history, institutions, customs, and traditions. It is not a question of IQ or character or ability but simply a question of the people to which we belong. The Asians may be smarter than we are but that does not mean we must integrate with them and lose our own identity and ways.
On page 300, Prof. Levin defines racism as “irrational race-based aversion.” If you want to preserve your race and nation, I cannot think of many occasions when it would be irrational.
Herbert Mertz, North Palm Beach, Fla.
Sir — The fears you whites have of becoming a minority are certainly natural — after all, your resistance to living with people of color (the majority on this planet) is legendary. May I suggest using the technology that is supposedly one of your predilections to develop a space vehicle capable of exporting yourselves to another planet where you can maintain your separateness. This would seem like a practical project for American Renaissance.
Henry Michaux, Lenoir, N.C.
Sir — I read every issue of AR and pass it around to my friends. However, I think you are editorially a bit too gloomy about the future of our country. Am I worried because illegal immigrants may retake the territory Mexico sold to us after the war of 1848? Nope. Am I worried because the Indians may recover Maine through their lawsuits to get it back? Nope again.
California, Maine, and other borderlands may be too far from the center to be ruled effectively. President John Quincy Adams said that annexing Texas “would have the effect of placing the City of Mexico nearer the center of its territories.” Later, President Polk shortened the Mexican government’s lines of communication by a thousand miles! If we can no longer keep the Southwest secure, watered, and regulated, why not turn it loose? And why not give that dreary wilderness north of nowhere back to the MicMacs if they want it? I believe that if we return every culturally unproductive, politically troubled territory to those who formerly had a claim to it, the core of the United States would be wealthier and its citizens more secure.
Loring Emery, Shartlesville, Penna.
Sir — In the August issue, you write that Pepsi left South Africa in 1985 as a protest against apartheid. In fact they left because they were losing the economic war to Coca Cola. I happened to be in South Africa at the time and was involved, through acquaintances, in the effort to raise capital for Pepsi. But Coca Cola had a head start and a huge market share, so Pepsi quit the field. The withdrawal was made over money not morals; sales and not sentiment.
Charles Pace, Greenville, N.C.
Sir — If the Mexicans want to reconquer parts of the United States, I say let ’em. It will take something like that to awaken the rest of the country to the terrible crisis we face.
Name Withheld, Saginaw, Mich.
Sir — I thought Ray Batz’ article about firefighting was one of the most interesting things I have read in AR for a long time. Some of the best stories you publish are not by eggheads or professional writers but by ordinary people who are living every day with the consequences of our insane policies. I always enjoy the views of people like Jared Taylor and Samuel Francis, but there is nothing like a real, utterly believable dispatch from the front lines.
Carl Hollins, Florence, Ala.
In last issue’s review of The g Factor, we mistakenly reported that if populations of blacks and whites are matched for brain size they have the same IQs. Arthur Jensen does report in the book that black and white populations matched for IQ have the same average brain sizes, but we incorrectly assumed that the relationship also works in reverse. In fact, some blacks may have brains as large as those of whites but be less intelligent because there are other aspects of the brain besides size — neurofunction, brain metabolism, etc. — that contribute to intelligence. On average, the races appear to differ in these functions as well as in brain size. Therefore, for blacks to have IQs equivalent to those of whites, equivalent brain size appears to be a necessary condition but not a sufficient one.