Sometimes Discrimination Is More About Favoritism Than Hostility, Research Says

Eliana Dockterman, TIME, May 20, 2014

Discrimination we see in the United States is more complicated than we might assume, according to a review of recent research by two psychologists. Psychology has traditionally defined discrimination as hostility toward those unlike ourselves (or outgroups), but these psychologists believe that more recent cases of bias in the U.S. likely stem from our tendency to favor people who are like ourselves (or ingroups).

Tony Greenwald of the University of Washington and Thomas Pettigrew of the University of California, Santa Cruz reviewed studies on discrimination from the last decade and found that prejudice is often rooted in a preference for similar people, rather than in an intent to cause harm to others. They assert that the majority of cases of discrimination in the U.S. don’t stem from hostile actions like homophobic speech or acts of violence spurred by racist feelings. Instead, unintentional discrimination through favoritism is often the culprit. “This is not to say that prejudice and hostility are not related to outgroup discrimination,” Pettigrew said. “But they are not as central to most discrimination as ingroup favoritism.”

And those similar people may not necessarily look like you. “Your ‘ingroup’ involves people that you feel comfortable with, people you identify with,” Greenwald said in a statement. {snip}

So when an employer is considering two candidates–think of one who grew up with a similar background, went to a similar school and is perhaps the same race, compared with another person who has had completely different life experiences–he’s more likely to hire the candidate with whom he identifies. {snip}

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  • Tarczan

    So then why do darkies with money ALWAYS move into white areas?

    • JohnEngelman

      They know they will be safer there.

      • Tarczan

        Yeah, they know what darkies bring.

      • MrMagog

        黙って座る

      • MrMagog

        你有沒有薄煎餅混合 !!!

      • MrMagog

        I guess this shoots your belief, that people prefer not to have jews around themselves out of “jealously”, all to hell…. huh? I guess when it is negroes we are talking about, you allow other factors such as preference for one’s own kind, but when it comes to your favorite pets that motive can not be allowed into the equation…huh..

      • MrMagog

        I guess the premise of this story blows your theory about “jealously” being the source of anti jewish feelings. The thing about being “anti” anything, means you are FOR it’s opposite. Antisemitism is a term used to make whites defensive about liking their own kind and promoting their own interests

        • JohnEngelman

          Those who are characterized by ethnic and racial hostility are often if not usually motivated by self contempt, which they are projecting outward.

          Happy, well adjusted people do feel a need to hate.

          • LHathaway

            You being the exception, eh?

          • JohnEngelman

            The exception to what?

          • LHathaway

            If you aren’t the exception to hate. . . I guess that means the beating you took made you less happy, and now you project your unhappiness, your disgust at yourself for not fighting back when u were nearly killed by youths, you turn that unhappiness outward into your hate-bound posts disguised as ‘race realism’ and ‘facts on crime’?

            If this is true or not. . . the other day I was actually wishing those youths had hit you a little harder. . . you still think the only thing the media misrepresents is the nature of interracial crime? Other than the reverso-whammy on hate crimes, the media is just fair and balanced?

            I hope you can see our point here on occasion, Mr Engleman. We certainly get yours. And we need to hear it, on occasion, in my opinion.

          • JohnEngelman

            I hate criminals. I want them to suffer. I associate blacks with crime. Do you have a problem with that?

          • LHathaway

            That sounds a bit like ‘Nazi Germany’ reasoning A + B = C. What is the term that is used on here? Freedom, no, ‘guilt by association’. We resent it when we are defamed for simply knowing another individual, or lumped in, uh, associated with Nazi’s to make us guilty. . . and objects of hatred.

            Associating blacks with crime is therefore hatred. And it is turning outward the hatred you feel for yourself upon others – by your own words.

            What do the communists (assuming for a moment they are different from the hyper politically correct) say? What is their take on crime? Are we supposed to want criminals to suffer? Of course, in a properly educated society, there would be no crime, would there?

            I think we’ve found a way to turn you back into a faithful communist. What about ‘race realists’? All they are is concerned with interracial crime. . . You have a wonderful opportunity on here to convert them to communism and a crimeless society.

          • JohnEngelman

            I am a race realist because race realism makes factual assertions that are easy to prove.

            Moreover, I have had extensive experience with different races. That experience confirms the basic assertions of race realism. The races really are different.

            Although race realism is not a movement, it does have political policy implications.

          • LHathaway

            So, you’re in favor of affirmative action, then?

          • JohnEngelman

            How did you come to that assumption? I am very much opposed to affirmative action. It is not the fault of whites and Orientals that blacks and Hispanics tend to perform poorly in intellectual areas. Because they perform poorly, fewer of them should go to college and fewer should be advanced to jobs requiring high intelligence.

          • LHathaway

            They perform poorly, because they are different than whites and Asian’s. The only way to treat them ‘equally’ would be to give a hand up to those among them that are intellectually (in some areas) disadvantaged.

          • DonReynolds

            I disagree that all people are magically equal, and those that insist on equality, contradict themselves by saying some people need help in order to be equal. We are all different and that makes us all unique…..and being unique makes us valuable. We are not clones and it is not anyone’s goal to be like everyone else. We are everyone else.
            One of the more serious weaknesses of the Leftists and Liberals is their mania for egalitarianism and that, boys and girls, is why they will fail.

          • JohnEngelman

            Affirmative action is wrong for many reasons. Not only does it discriminate against men, whites, and Asians, but it advances people to positions where they are not able to perform adequately.

          • MrMagog

            I think it is AWESOME that you two fools are entangled with each other!

          • Most jailed criminals have families who wish they were home. My last cellmate’s wife wrote to him every day; I know because I used to pick up his mail for him. He wanted to be an identity thief when he got out. I didn’t tell him he had intestinal cancer – the smell is distinctive. Sure enough, he violated probation in the first six months he was out, and later died of cancer in prison. Another cellie’s wife divorced him and kept their house, but his mother continued writing to him. He was in for too much Sudafed (he was taking it to a meth cook) and illegal fireworks. The Sudafed was six months, but the feds gave him a 10-year “explosives” enhancement for the fireworks. He now lives with his mother as a full-time caregiver. Sayaka wrote to me the whole time I was locked up, and we got married almost three years after my release. Once I was in Texas, my mother only flew out to visit me once, but I didn’t mind. I’d already been away to college in California and Australia and war in Croatia, so federal prison wasn’t much different. I certainly wasn’t hard-timing it; I made a lot of friends and had plenty to read.

            The exception to the rule is probably my old housesitter. He’s now seven and a half years into a life sentence for child molestation. I doubt anyone misses him.

          • JohnEngelman

            Most jailed criminals have families who wish they were home.

            – Michael Christopher Scott

            That reminds me of a little joke.

            The good news is your brother is out of prison.

            The bad news is he wants to live with you.

          • I am very happy I was able to keep my townhouse through three years of federal incarceration. I’d have had to live with my mother otherwise, and while she loves me a lot, she is a bit demanding about how things get done in her home. I always agree with her right away because I know I’m going to eventually do it anyway, and it saves us a lot of fuss if I do it immediately. I got out when I was 37, and I think a person that age living with his mother is a very suboptimal situation.

          • MrMagog

            well you need a place to store your chains, don’t you

          • MrMagog

            Federal prison is like “college”?!!…. come to think of it, I think one has more freedom of speech in prison.

          • No co-eds. Also very little booze.

          • MrMagog

            so, it’s a trade off then

          • John R

            Associating blacks with crime. Gee, now why would ANYONE do that? Sort of like associating Santa Claus with Christmas!

          • MrMagog

            This is the kid that was always picked on and beaten up. He hates all whites now because of this.

          • I was little and picked on and beaten up until I started using weapons. By high school I did not need weapons anymore, even against the police, but I just felt more comfortable breaking the other guy’s leg swinging three feet of heavy chain into it. I once had to take a bunch of adults down, and when reports reached my parents, my mother asked “What are you going to do next, stab someone?”

            My answer was “Yes”. The next month, I had to take my now ex-father down.

            I love swinging heavy chain and pulling a bully down with it. I always use weapons.

            I don’t hate him for sending me to prison so much as I hate him for beating my mother. I love my mother, and I love heavy chain.

          • MrMagog

            be all you can be

          • MrMagog

            playing stupid?,,,oh never mind

          • MrMagog

            Elliot Rodgers

          • MrMagog

            preference for one’s own kind is not hate. it is love. You wish to call it hate because it is YOU that hates.

    • Funruffian

      Better yet, why do darkies with money prefer White women over Black females? The reason is actually quite clear.

    • John R

      Because they know THEIR own kind better than we know them!

    • Laura Dilworth

      and without money

  • Memin Pinguin

    Well, duh. Even little babies know this.

  • r j p

    So when an employer is considering two candidates ……. he’s more likely to hire the candidate with whom he identifies.

    So when an employer is considering two candidates ……he’s more likely to hire the candidate whom he doesn’t think will KILL him in a fit of rage.

  • Sue

    But they don’t tend to help each other. Look at their charities, colleges, even blood banks.

    • DonReynolds

      When I go into a fast food restaurant, I can tell you about the manager just by looking at the other employees. A black manager will have an all-black staff. A hispanic manager will have all hispanic employess. A white manager will have white, black and hispanic employees. Wanna bet? Sure, I will win far more bets than I will lose on that issue.

      • IstvanIN

        There was a KFC that I occassionaly went to years ago that had an all black staff in heavily black area. Not having been there in a while and wanting some fried chicken I went in. The staff was suddenly all Mexican, including the manager who was near the counter. I was stunned (shouldn’t have been).

      • Sue

        I know. I’ve noticed. Makes me ill.

      • I once ran a Subway, and we had whites. I gave an application to a black guy, and said we would have him a him a daytime job in the next week. Then he pulled out his gun and robbed the store.

    • Sick of it

      That’s exactly what I was thinking when watching some commercial showing nonwhites handing out food to the homeless. Having been involved in community activism, I can tell you that you almost never see that. Not even with “the good blacks” who you honestly expected to help out.

      • Sue

        Know what you mean. After super storm Sandy all volunteers without exception were white. The people whose homes were not affected went to their own pantries and prepared food for the devastated. As an added the first one to hand out food from a business in the area was chick-fil-a. Riding up and down the streets with hot food to anyone in whatever vehicles they had.

      • r j p

        The good black are all there on the day the TV cameras show up though.

  • TruthBeTold

    Discrimination we see in the United States is more complicated than we might assume

    Discrimination is not complicated. That’s the narrative they want us to believe.

    Discrimination for a myriad of reasons is a nature part of self-survival. That it extents to all aspects of our lives (survival) just proves we’re normal.

  • DonReynolds

    Discrimination is not hostility. I prefer strawberry ice cream. I am not hostile to vanilla or chocolate.
    Self-defense is not murder either.

    • paul marchand

      And non-suicide is not a character fault ( to put it flipping mildly).

  • Martel

    Everyday we are proven right.

  • kjh64

    The author cites favoritism as a form of “discrimination” in the US. I have a news flash, ALL peoples, All over the globe, favor their own people. It is human nature. Only Whites in America or other Western nations put other peoples on the same level or above as themselves.

  • Anna Tree

    Exactly! Discrimination was negative when Whites were doing it against
    non-whites, but is positive when non-whites are doing it against Whites!

  • paul marchand

    And there aint a daggone thing wrong with using objective and subjective criteria in hiring in a private business. If you OWN it, you GET TO MAKE THE FLIPPING CHOICES. And with GOVERNMENT JOBS, it should be 100% objective ( to the extent possible) MERIT.

    • paul marchand

      If I own a business, it is TYRANNY for the government to make racial demands.
      If a black or other thinks they are getting passed over, the free market allows him to move on to a location where somebody will utilize his / her talents.
      Again, it is THUGGERY for the US govt to FORCE me, or anybody, to hire by color. And the same goes with renting MY apartments, or selling MY house.

      • Nonhumans

        I agree 100%. You could always just “lose” those applications. “Nope, Ive checked my files, and I never received an app from L’Dontashavaboon.”

        • LHathaway

          ‘Tashavabon’? lol, I sense a new thread next week. New names for black folks after the Obama era. Would that be hatred? Is this hatred?

          • Nonhumans

            Dont buy into the lib terms. Regardless if it is, I would term it “Observation of the Asinine.”

      • r j p

        Mr. Flanagan will get control of his rental property back in January 2016.

        www(DOT)justice(DOT)gov/opa/pr/2011/January/11-crt-070(DOT)html

        Of course property will be ready for a gut rehab by then, and the street’s diversity will have changed significantly, thereby destroying the value of the property itself.

  • LHathaway

    I have this theory that the ‘chitterlings’ smell so bad, it effects the young men on some kind of primitive level and they associate this with black women, increasing their odds of a whitening. I can have a theory, can’t I?

  • LHathaway

    Science and nature may be against tolerance, or ‘anti-racism’ but political correctness trumps them. How else to explain, not whites favoring their own, but favoring others, especially black Americans?

  • Boiled down, the article says that people feel most comfortable with folks like themselves. This is about as newsworthy as “dog barks at fire engine”.

    • MrMagog

      Yes, when we have “Elliot Rodgers” types amongst us, we are not safe.

      • IstvanIN

        This guy? half jew, half Chinese? He wanted to kill blondes. Non-whites are not our friends.

        • Medizin

          Could you post the location you found he is Jewish-Chinese?

          His grandfather, George Rodger, is Scottish. Elliot’s mother is Malaysian. Her name is Li Chin. His parents divorced shortly after they were married. Couldn’t find anything on his grandmother, George’s wife.

          George Rodger, Scottish, Elliot’s grandfather, was born in England, the first photographer to photograph dead bodies at Bergen-Belsen, following World War II where people died of starvation and typhus.

        • MrMagog

          He wanted to “possess blondes” as if they were “things” and when he could not possess them, he decided to destroy them. White people must guard against those who wish to objectify them. Whites would be better off being like the Amish, no pictures means no objectification which can come from both other whites, and even worse, from non whites.

          • Pelagian

            Excellent. Like your new name too.

          • MrMagog

            SpawnTaviousBlacknessJackson done gawn and gots goodified

          • He complained about not having a girlfriend. In southern California, in an era in which online dating sites are a dime-a-dozen. I have a very tough time believing that there’s such a person as a relatively affluent young man who can’t get laid in southern California. I suspect there is more to this case than simple envy also in part because the first three people he killed were his housemates, all of whom had Chinese names; murdering three other Chinese first thing is not quite the mark of a guy who is obsessed with blondes.

          • r j p

            I noticed the three Chinese names too. Maybe they were all from China and had little China girls that like to rut-rut. He being the son of a Hollywood director felt he deserved better, a blonde Cali beach bunny.
            Asperger’s and autism are disorders parents want to hear, means there is something “wrong” with them.
            My guess is there were some child father difficulties and he wanted what his dad didn’t get, a blonde beach bunny, as opposed to an Asian or a Muzzie, and that he didn’t want to work for it, he felt he just deserved it.

  • LHathaway

    OK, explain why foreign women sound so sexy. . .

    • DonReynolds

      Maybe you have not been around very many foreign women. I find them mostly annoying and rude.

  • StillModerated

    Everybody discriminates between quality and trash. Throughout my life, my experiences with negroes have been 90% bad. I’ve played with them as a kid, gone to school with them, worked with them, served in the military with them, and dealt with them over the phone. I’m not too happy about them in my neighborhood, but they cannot cross my threshold.
    Experience is a very important teacher. I am a proud racist. Me: quality. Them: trash.

  • They hate me because I am different. I hate them because they are all the same.

    • MrMagog

      From the movie “What’s Up Doc”

      Judy: I know I’m different, but from now on I’m going to try and be the same.
      Howard: The same as what?
      Judy: The same as people who aren’t different.

  • John R

    So obvious. But, let’s take it a step further. Okay, I’ll forget one moment that I am a race realist and pretend I actually give a crap about race relations and the acceptance of blacks in our society (Please, hear me out, thank you.). Now, don’t you think that all this talk about “White privilege” and “cultural sensitivity” to “persons of color” actually even makes non-racialist Whites squirm and decide they would rather not deal with black people? Of course it does! Blacks are hurting their own cause by being so overly sensitive. But, no matter. It certainly helps OUR CAUSE!

  • IstvanIN

    We self-segregate all the time. Look at any large family holiday gathering especially after dinner. The women congregate in the kitchen, the men in front of the TV watching feetsball, the older kids with each other, and the little kids and some of the men go out to play. Do the men, women and older kids all hate each other? No, they just have their different interests and things they want to talk about. They have stuff in common. It is normal.

    • We did that in prison. A bunch of us liked talking about building hot rods. Others liked swords & sorcery novels. I was part of both groups, but there wasn’t much crossover.

  • none of your business

    There was a standard assignment in psychology and sociology classes about 50 years ago. Students were sent to take buses and commuter trains in the after noon and late mornings before and after rush hour. They were to sit by themselves and wait to see who sat next to them. They were also to observe passengers already sitting alone. Allegedly passengers getting on the bus or train always chose to sit next to people of the same age, sex, and class, class based on how they were dressed.
    This experiment has probably been banned as racist, sexist, genderist, classist, lookist, homophobic anti disabled etc etc etc.

  • none of your business

    “Those who are characterized by ethnic and racial hostility are often if not usually motivated by self contempt, which they are projecting outward.” Thus spake englemann.
    I’ve been around jews all my life and I can tell you, they have nothing but hatred and contempt for the White goyim. I’ve 2 sisters. We went through a suburban school system that was about 50 percent jewish at the time. It is now about 90 percent jewish. My sisters are more surrounded by jews than I am due to where they live. These jews are all the atheist liberals who won’t spend a dime on temple membership but have the jewish “cause of the week” micro chip implanted in their brain.
    I go to the Beverly Hills Ca library a lot because it is the nearest to my home. It is full of orthodox women and their stepping stone families. I like to see that, a woman in her late 20’s with 4 kids oldest about 9. But unless you are wearing a long skirt, long sleeves, unfitted waist and rag on your head they look at me with a total sneer.
    I’ve had a lot of jewish girl friends in my life. I’m convinced that the reason jews love blacks and hispanics so much is because they can feel infinitely superior to them. I well remember when our SAT’s came out. The jews were horribly upset that us anglo protestants and irish catholics got higher scores than any of the jews.