How Europeans Evolved White Skin

Ann Gibbons, Science Mag, April 2, 2015

Most of us think of Europe as the ancestral home of white people. But a new study shows that pale skin, as well as other traits such as tallness and the ability to digest milk as adults, arrived in most of the continent relatively recently. The work, presented here last week at the 84th annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, offers dramatic evidence of recent evolution in Europe and shows that most modern Europeans don’t look much like those of 8000 years ago.

The origins of Europeans have come into sharp focus in the past year as researchers have sequenced the genomes of ancient populations, rather than only a few individuals. By comparing key parts of the DNA across the genomes of 83 ancient individuals from archaeological sites throughout Europe, the international team of researchers reported earlier this year that Europeans today are a mix of the blending of at least three ancient populations of hunter-gatherers and farmers who moved into Europe in separate migrations over the past 8000 years. The study revealed that a massive migration of Yamnaya herders from the steppes north of the Black Sea may have brought Indo-European languages to Europe about 4500 years ago.

Now, a new study from the same team drills down further into that remarkable data to search for genes that were under strong natural selection–including traits so favorable that they spread rapidly throughout Europe in the past 8000 years. By comparing the ancient European genomes with those of recent ones from the 1000 Genomes Project, population geneticist Iain Mathieson, a postdoc in the Harvard University lab of population geneticist David Reich, found five genes associated with changes in diet and skin pigmentation that underwent strong natural selection.

First, the scientists confirmed an earlier report that the hunter-gatherers in Europe could not digest the sugars in milk 8000 years ago, according to a poster. They also noted an interesting twist: The first farmers also couldn’t digest milk. The farmers who came from the Near East about 7800 years ago and the Yamnaya pastoralists who came from the steppes 4800 years ago lacked the version of the LCT gene that allows adults to digest sugars in milk. It wasn’t until about 4300 years ago that lactose tolerance swept through Europe.

When it comes to skin color, the team found a patchwork of evolution in different places, and three separate genes that produce light skin, telling a complex story for how European’s skin evolved to be much lighter during the past 8000 years. The modern humans who came out of Africa to originally settle Europe about 40,000 years are presumed to have had dark skin, which is advantageous in sunny latitudes. And the new data confirm that about 8500 years ago, early hunter-gatherers in Spain, Luxembourg, and Hungary also had darker skin: They lacked versions of two genes–SLC24A5 and SLC45A2–that lead to depigmentation and, therefore, pale skin in Europeans today.

But in the far north–where low light levels would favor pale skin–the team found a different picture in hunter-gatherers: Seven people from the 7700-year-old Motala archaeological site in southern Sweden had both light skin gene variants, SLC24A5 and SLC45A2. They also had a third gene, HERC2/OCA2, which causes blue eyes and may also contribute to light skin and blond hair. Thus ancient hunter-gatherers of the far north were already pale and blue-eyed, but those of central and southern Europe had darker skin.

Then, the first farmers from the Near East arrived in Europe; they carried both genes for light skin. As they interbred with the indigenous hunter-gatherers, one of their light-skin genes swept through Europe, so that central and southern Europeans also began to have lighter skin. The other gene variant, SLC45A2, was at low levels until about 5800 years ago when it swept up to high frequency.

The team also tracked complex traits, such as height, which are the result of the interaction of many genes. They found that selection strongly favored several gene variants for tallness in northern and central Europeans, starting 8000 years ago, with a boost coming from the Yamnaya migration, starting 4800 years ago. {snip}

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  • Samuel Hathaway

    However whiteness happened or when it started, I’m just glad to be part of it.

    • MG Huffman

      Just say you’re glad to be White.

      • Samuel Hathaway

        “I’m glad to be white.”

        And I’m glad you are, too.

        Happy Easter!

    • daddio

      As the realists used to say, Black May be beautiful but White Is Right.

      • Samuel Hathaway

        White is Beautiful… and White Is Right… .as I say.

      • Americaandthewestshouldbewhite

        Whoever said Black is beautiful (Marcus Garvey) was just trying to get out of his insecurity for being black like a fox that said that grapes are sour when it could not get the grapes.

      • whiteisrightblackiswhack

        I like what Robert Ransdell said in an interview;

        “We’re white, we’re right and we’ll fight.”

  • superlloyd

    So what? White skin is a superficial difference. It’s the differences in intelligence and behaviour that really highlight the distinctions between whites and negroes. These differences are profound and mark the borderline between civilised society and barbaric primitivism.

    • Tim_in_Indiana

      This shows that major differences between the races (which include IQ) don’t necessarily need an extremely long time to evolve, contrary to what the race deniers claim.

      • APaige

        Exactly. “Europeans today are a mix of the blending of at least three ancient populations of hunter-gatherers and farmers “. That means that we are different, because Africans are not from the blending of three ancient populations living in Europe.

    • Samuel Hathaway

      Whenever someone remarks that there is no such thing as race, that it’s only about skin color, I always remind them that skin color is only a symptom of a deeper, human chasm in the DNA that cannot be bridged or wished away. Working with the DNA and working your way out, yes, the distinctions you described between civilized society and barbaric primitivism couldn’t be more obvious.

    • Charles Martel

      Yea we have creativity and blacks can run faster which is good if packs of hyenas are hunting people and with sickle cell they can resist malaria without whiteys meds.

      • Samuel Hathaway

        The people-chasing hyenas brings up another interesting theory about why black women’s behinds tend to be so large. Back in Africa when carrying water back to the village with those large, clay pots held over their heads with one hand, the weight of the pot pushed fat down the neck, the back and settled in their rear-ends.

        • Lygeia

          I’ve always wondered, what kind of an idiot carries something on their head? Your head is for thinking, not carrying things.

          • Samuel Hathaway

            It’s a cultural thing. They need to hold the clay pot up on their head with one hand while using the other hand to keep one of the children from running off.

          • listenupbub

            It is actually very easy to do it. It takes no arm strength.

          • SentryattheGate

            How about a cart on wheels? A few years ago, I came across an article about 2 young American women who came up with an idea to help African women ans children carry water; an exercise-type large inflatable ball, on wheels! aND WHY NOT MORE WELLS IN aFRICA? Instead of walking miles to get dirty river water? Have they not figured that out either????

          • Alden

            Peace corps build the wells blacks neglect and destroy them

          • Michael Ryan

            ive read as mu ch as 300 lbs of firewood is carried on ones head give credit where due

          • Alden

            It is because they never invented any kind of cart, sled, or any way to carry a load other than with human arms
            They never invented even any kind of back pack or method of dragging things along
            African women do ALL and I do mean ALL the work even work that is considered men’s work in every other society such as construction Of course in Africa the most advanced construction is an 8 by 8 4 ft high hut

        • JGTThrasher

          One of the speakers at AmRen last year made reference to a tribe or tribes where the women stored nutrients in their rears much like camels. This trait was passed on and when those descendants ended up in food rich (Western) nations they became susceptible to obesity.

          • Alden

            The reason African women developed that trait is because the men eat first and women were starved in times of scarcity

            Muslims still feed the men first and even pregnant women get the left overs if there are any.

          • Lygeia

            I pray to God you mean they gained weight around their hips and backside.

          • JGTThrasher

            The big “booty” is reveared for a reason.

        • MikeofAges

          Microevolution occurs as the result of selection in favor of inherited traits. You have to show not only that some trait is a good idea in some certain circumstances, but that it first of all existed and secondly led to differential survival rates among the offspring of the carriers. Evolution is a material process, not a cultural process. Culture, however, can drive sexual selection, the favor of mates with certain traits. But for sexual selection to work there still has be differential survival. The appearance in our society seems to be that those people who are prized and sought for highly desirable traits have a lower reproductive rate than those who are less desirable. Probably long has been so, going back to the ancient world.

          Keep one thing in mind about evolution. You have to be prepared to argue not only that some development is desirable, but that the material for it to occur actually was present and actually was selected in favor of. You can’t make a silk purse out of a sow’s ear. Or a sow’s ear out of a silk purse either. You can only work with what is.

        • Dave6034

          Fatty tissue is an insulator. Eskimo women carry fat all over their bodies to stay warm. African women carry fat on their asses to stay cool.

          Try carrying something heavy on your head. It’s harder to get the load up there, but much easier to carry once you do, as long as you don’t have to pass through any doorways. It’s good for your posture too, as it forces you to hold your spine straight. I suppose our ancestors forgot all this as soon as they invented the wheelbarrow.

  • connorhus

    I get the impression these scientist are trying to down play White skin and features by suggesting it is only a recent development in archaeological terms anyway. What they don’t get is that if it is a relatively recent occurrence it must be a giant step up the evolutionary for Whites to take over Europe in less than 1000 years and become almost world dominant in less than 6000 years. Even less than that really since Alexander was reported to have been quite fair skinned along with early Pharaohs. In fact their 8K years stuff doesn’t really add up now that I think about it.

    • ElComadreja

      They try to make “negros” out of us every chance they get. It’s just more PC BS.

    • Alden

      There is a good mosaic of Alexander . It clearly shows light brown eyes and hair and of course fair skin

  • Frank_DeScushin

    If it took approximately 32,000 years for Europeans skin to adapt to their new environment, it doesn’t make me feel optimistic that blacks and Hispanics will adopt white norms any day now like Liberals assure us.

    • APaige

      Funny, true and frightening.

    • Charles Martel

      Well with food stamps and welfare there is no environmental bias toward being able to build shelter and plan to store enough food to last all winter. Blacks are still selected for who can run from the cops the fastest.

      • Exactly! Pathological altruism was the downfall of the White Race. In only one hundred years, we went from a third of humanity to only about ten percent, and declining. If we were as selfish as the Asians, we would still be at least a third of the human race, there would be no Islamic terrorism, and our living standards would be at least double what they are now. We have paid a heavy price for our generosity.

        • bv

          Sad and true

        • Uncle Wardle

          Sad but very true! If you go to a national park, they tell you all about the dangers and damage you do by feeding the wildlife. It’s about time that we all realize that the same applies between some groups of humans.

          • I said that I would not step on any roaches that actually made it into my kitchen. Further, I decided to leave some sugar and ice cream and food on the floor for the roaches that were there. I did not want them to starve. To my surprise, I then got tons of roaches! Gosh, what went wrong? I mean, I only did what Obama advised me to do.

    • Ella

      It takes one generation of mixed relationship to destroy it ironically.

      • journey

        And the ones encouraging this miscegenation are well aware – a sure way to dumb down the white gene pool.

        • Ella

          We married white and can’t really understand younger adults who openly flaunt and date nonwhites. I see it more commonly now than the last 5-10yrs. There is an old saying for some, “young and dumb.”

          • Susannah

            You’re right about that. Until fairly recently, it was something of a rarity. I’m forty, and I rarely remember seeing it in my teens and even twenties. It was also certainly not as prevalent in the media as it is today. You might see it here and there, but it was not yet aggressively promoted.

    • De Doc

      The evidence discussed in the article seems to refute the idea that skin color was such a slow adaptation. It seems it was pretty quick, once the mutations were introduced by outside groups, who likely also bequeathed us the Indo-European languages. Indeed the time frame mentioned imply sexual selection as a driving force to lightening European skin color.

      An interesting find in Spain from La Brana (the article was posted here in AmRen a while back) showed a Mesolithic male, whose genes indicated dark skin, but blue eyes. The facial reconstruction is decidely European in appearance and his genome has many Northern European elements to it. The Y-haplogroup of this individual was C2, which is pretty much non-existent in Europe today. The major Y-haplogroups among European males were likely imports from late Mesolithic onward and I’m willing to bet that the older, indigenous male lines were exterminated one way or another. The female lines (via mitochondrial DNA) among today’s White Euros still contain significant amounts from the Paleolithic.

      • Alden

        Maybe he was tan
        If White skin is caused by cold climates why have not the Canadian Indians and Eslimos and their distant cousins in Siberia not bleached out over the last 15,000 years or so?

        • De Doc

          The supposed link has to do with vitamin D deficiency. Hunter-Gatherers get plenty of this essential vitamin from their diets, while pastoralists/agriculturalists (the populations that migrated to Europe from late Mesolithic onward) would have lacked it. Light skin allows humans to manufacture Vit D in the skin by UV rays that change the cholesterol molecules. However, based on the latest data, it seems likely that the populations that replaced the H-G folk in Stone Age Europe were already light skinned and their genes became more common via sexual selection and increased fecundity. Agriculture allows populations to grow very rapidly compared to others that get by on substitence Hunter Gather techniques.

  • anony

    White privilege has to be older than 8000 years! How could have possibly achieved so much in so little time?

  • journey

    Funny how these theories always skip the poor Eskimos. By inherent right, they should be blonde, blue eyed, etc. After all, they always have lived in the most colder regions of this planet.

    And to have any credibility, of course, all articles, must mention the out of Africa theory.

    • John Smith

      I don’t disbelieve the “out of Africa” theory, since it’s where you find most of the lower primate species (or fossil remnants) today that we evolved from. It was likely that leaving Africa was what was needed to evolve intelligence and create civilization. Groups like the Egyptians and Berbers/Numidians are back-migrations.

      • journey

        Those physical findings do not prove humans evolved out of Africa. Just by chance, they were found then the consequent theories followed.

      • Lygeia

        There may have been white populations in Africa that left for Europe; but I refuse to believe that white people are descended from black people.

        • GIJoeJones

          You should read up on mitochondrial DNA and human genealogy, and how they support current human migration theories. What’s so bad about the ‘whites came from blacks’ theory? It means that white people are more evolved. Kind of like the humans came from monkeys theory.

        • journey

          Agreed. And whites did not descended from blacks, impossible.

    • LackawannaErie

      It’s assumed that a high meat diet had something do with this. Remember that Eskimos and other East Siberian/Native American people have a large amount of prehistoric Caucasian Indo-European type ancestry from before when those people started to lighten. Since then, they have been isolated from other human genes and cultures until a few hundred years ago.

      • John Smith

        I believe it has been determined that they split off around 23,000 years ago.

      • journey

        Diet/physical environment cannot change the color genome on skin, eye, etc. no more than it can change inherent racial IQ/intelligence. Those characteristics are coded into the genome. The only trigger is through inter-racial breeding.

      • Ella

        I thought it might have to do with higher radiation levels near polar region.

      • journey

        Also, the Laps fall into the same category as the Eskimos – dark hair/skin/eyes even though have primarily lived in cold environments.

        • Alden

          And just a few mikes away from pale pale Swedes, Finns and Norwegians

      • Alden

        There is no evidence what so ever that high meat diets have anything to do with skin color or that White people ate more meat than others
        Since they were so primitive, black Africans who lived by hunting and eating insects grubs, worms etc had a more high protein diet than the races who lived by farming and had a high vegetarian diet

    • Zimriel

      The Arctic cold might be a little different from the south-Scandinavian cold. Arctic people will be living there during the summers, when the sun is up for 22 hours a day. They *will* be catching some rays, at least in the face and eyes.

      What will be selected for in the Arctic, mostly, is a way to keep ice from blasting into one’s eyeballs.

      • journey

        Except you got the Laps living in the same environment as the Northern whites. And, they have been living in that cold environment longer than the whites. I suspect the Laps are remnants of the Eskimos that stayed behind – same gene pool.

  • LackawannaErie

    Modern Europeans are a hybrid of three races. 1.) The paleolithic indigenous hunter gatherers who survived in the Ice Age refugia of far Southern Europe and who moved north as the glaciers retreated. 2.) The neolithic farmers and goat herders who settled Europe on a SE to NW axis, coming from modern day Turkey, Northern Syria, Northern Iraq, the South Caucuses and maybe modern day Iran. 3.) The iron age cattle herders and horsemen who conquered Europe from a homeland that stretched across the Eurasian steppes into Siberia.
    It appears all three groups were developing lighter pigmentation patterns independently of each other before they mixed. Obviously lighter skin was adaptive some reason. Pure blooded Berbers in North Africa also have light skin. It’s a mystery why Egyptians stayed dark when the Caucasian people around them — Libyans, Semites — lightened. Note that modern “Arabs” with dark skin have substantial descent from African slaves, Indians and Persians and even from SE Asians and Mongol people. Arab sailors were bringing back people from around the Indian Ocean for thousands of years. That darkened some of the people of the Arabian peninsula compared to their Assyrian and Sumerian ancestors.

    • Zimriel

      To answer that: Egyptians farmed up the Nile, which made it adaptive to work fields in the sun. Often the Upper (southern) Egyptians would conquer the northern Lower / Delta Egypt and spread their genes that way. The 25th Dynasty were actual Nubians who painted their portraits with black skin.

      Egypt is one place where the genetic-inferiority of darker skin is more of a correlation than a causation – in fact, might even have worked the other way (because the Delta Egyptians were degenerate city-folk, whilst the Upper Egyptians and Nubians had to work and fight for their lives). Also, for what it’s worth, the Nubians were/are Nilotic, not Bantu.

      • kikz2

        my understanding was the Kush 25th was a short run of only 3? rulers and less than 100yrs.

  • Uncle Bob

    Our ancestors have lived in a northern climate for tens of thousands of years – if not more.
    We have lived through ice ages and have worn clothes for countless ages, so what purpose would it serve to have dark skin? This is junk science and I don’t believe it for a minute. 8000 years is a blink of the eye in terms of human evolution – not enough time to evolve into a new race without race mixing. I call BS.

    • The Dude

      Actually, it said that people in northern Europe already had light skin 8,000 years ago.

      “Seven people from the 7700-year-old Motala archaeological site in southern Sweden had both light skin gene variants, SLC24A5 and SLC45A2. They also had a third gene, HERC2/OCA2, which causes blue eyes and may also contribute to light skin and blond hair. Thus ancient hunter-gatherers of the far north were already pale and blue-eyed, but those of central and southern Europe had darker skin.”

      Skin color is not the only thing that sets a race apart. If Southern and Central Europeans mingled with lighter-skinned peoples from the Near East, then it’s not that unconceivable that they have become lighter-skinned as a result of this themselves. It doesn’t mean that they have “changed race”; they have just acquired more of the light-skin genes.

      • Uncle Bob

        It implies that whites are a young race when we are in fact an elder race that has had modern human intelligence far longer than the other races of men. Our ancient ancestors, dressed in leather and furs, lived to see the coming of the naked apemen from Africa. Neanderthals were probably so white that even blacks that mated with them had white children.
        It seems strange that this study would claim we were darker during the ice age and turned lighter in an age of global warming.

    • Alden

      I don’t believe any if the theories either Out of Africa is totally false the entire thing was skewed in favor of Out of Africa from the first
      Maybe someday some scientist will discover the truth but it won’t be until the sciences get rid of their present anti White animus

      Anyway, the why is not important as is, it is what it is

      It is true that a lot if tribes migrated to Europe from Central Asia But they were White. Their descendants didn’t suddenly become White in a few centuries

  • Bottom line: Nearly ALL modern races are descended from people who migrated out of Africa, and adapted to cooler climates, some 40-60,000 years ago. Only the black Africans remained behind, and never adapted to any other environment. So, to this day, black peoples are always the lowest in intelligence. That is hard to refute.

    • Uncle Bob

      If we are related to Neanderthals, then Eurasia has been our home for hundreds of thousands of years – when Africans were still H. Erectus.

      • Lexonaut

        That is precisely the thesis of a book on population genetics titled “Homo Erectus Walks Among Us”. (I think that’s the title.) The author believes that sub-Saharan Africans still are H. Erectus.

        • I am no professional taxonomist, but I call them Bongopithicus oogabooga.

          • Lexonaut

            Well now … I don’t think you’re old enough to remember the Andrews Sisters, who had an early 50s hit with a song called “Civilzation”, the lyrics to which, as I recall, included such a propos lines as …

            Bingo, bango bongo
            I don’t want to leave the Congo
            Oh no, no, no.

            and

            Bingle, bangle, bungle
            I don’t want to leave the jungle
            Oh no, no, no

            I may have some of those lyrics wrong but the whole piece was in that kind of vein. Such a song could never be played today, just as “Please, Mister Custer” could not.

      • anony

        Whites and Asians have some Neanderthal genes; black africans do not.

    • Peters

      How about Australian aborigenes and various Pacific islanders? Where do they fit in your bottom line?

      • Oh no! Liberal alert. One snuck in. Okay, my theory is these people are really related to Negroes. They have to be. Just look at them. I think Australia and New Guinea separated from Africa and these people were left there. (Hey, moderator, did you have to let him in?)

        • They’re not very closely related at all. If they reached Australia 50K years ago, hominids obviously left Africa much earlier; I’m going with about 160K years ago.

          When abos and whites interbreed, the dark coloration disappears very quickly. One close friend from Down Under is 1/4 aborigine. He has white skin, blue eyes, red hair and freckles, due to his Scottish and Russian ancestry. Dan looks completely white, though he can’t handle liquor very well. He married a nice Chinese gal, and their two kids have blond hair.

        • Alden

          Who knows who cares.

      • InitialSegment

        The Australian aboriginals, as well as the “Negrito” peoples of southern Asia and parts of Oceania, are descended from one of the earliest human migrations out of Africa and arrived in Australia 40-50,000 years ago. Their migration route was probably through India and southeast Asia (including now-submerged areas), i.e., mostly tropical enviroments similar to Africa’s. So the selective pressures operating on populations in more northerly locations wouldn’t have been as significant.

        The average IQ of indigenous Australians was estimated by Richard Lynn as 62, about 5 points lower than that of black Africans.

      • Alden

        Aborigines are supposed to be an offshoot of the Caucasian race
        Polynesians were once classified as another kind of White offshoot but are now considered Malays

        Anthropology is as subject fads as music It is not a science it began as an attempt at being a science but became just another took if the anti White agenda

    • David Ashton

      This is the short if sotto voce answer to “We are all Africans”.

  • James Hamilton

    Rubbish. I have it on good authority that race is a social construct with no basis in biology.

    • Alden

      I don’t believe a word of anything written about White people by any scientists, anthropologists etc
      They wouldn’t have jobs if they not anti White. Everything they do must fit the anti White agenda

      History channel has that program on about ancient aliens coming down from the sky and breeding with the daughters of men
      That theory has the same validity as anything about Whites coming out of academia

      • journey

        Actually, the “alien” theory is quite correct. Remember, the bible is a living history book. And in there, it speaks of such things. It is rather unfortunate that through out man’s history, ancient recordings of events have been destroyed such as the library in Alexandria. It would been very interesting to see the stacks there.

        • Christians destroyed that library.

          • Alden

            Absolutely not true The first destruction was done by Julius Cesar around 50
            BC when set fire to the wooden ships of the Egyptian navy The library was right on the water of the harbor of Alexandria where both the navy and most of the fishing and merchant fleet was moored
            Cesar’s motive was destruction of the fleets and government buildings around the harbor

            The next destruction was done by the Christian bishop of Alexandria
            He objected to another Christian sect, the Arians. He ordered the Arian books removed and destroyed but left the buildings and the rest of the scrolls and books alone

            The big destruction and end of the library happened around 900AD
            It had nothing to do with literature or theology
            There was a severe cold spell that lasted decades The Egyptians were freezing they were burning furniture fences carts wagons everything so the caliph decided it was necessary to start burning the books and scrolls in the library The scholars objected and supposedly the Caliph replied The only book we need is the Koran”
            By that time Muslims had ruled Egypt for about 250 years. Christians had already removed many Christian, Jewish and Greek books and scrolls to the famous St Catherine’s monastery in Egypt many monasteries in still heavily Christian and the Libraries of Constantabopile

      • journey

        And the anti-white agenda in anthology started in the early 1900’s especially by a person named Boas. Prior, this country was on the correct track as shown by Madison Grant, Lothrop Stoddard, et. al.

      • GIJoeJones

        If you look at the bigger picture, the ‘anti-white’ agenda is not really detrimental to white people as some of you think. Yes, you have to deal with annoyances such as praise and admiration being displaced onto more ‘inferior persons’ like African American singers and athletes. But what is the flip side of that?

        Are whites not still 95% of the CEOs of fortune 500 companies. Are whites still the overwhelming majority of leadership in higher education? Are they not the leaders in wealth accumulation? Of course they are. The ‘anti-white agenda’ has not done much to affect those stats. What it has done is diffuse some of the anger, unhappiness, and discontent that has been simmering among poorer minorities. It grants false hope to the hopeless. Many black children grow up thinking that maybe they can be a Beyonce or a Michael Jordan. When successful blacks are paraded in front of the rest of them, they are less likely to believe that there is a massive conspiracy holding them all back. The lower the collective anger within the black community, the more likely they are to stay where they are, remain peaceful, and uphold the status quo.

        Do you really think that the civil rights legislation was about White people feeling bad about how poorly blacks were being treated in the U.S.? I don’t think so. I think they saw legislation as the best way to calm a group of people who had the potential to generate significant disturbances if they collectively revolted. My theory has been that keeping blacks relatively pacified, distracted, and stupid is in the best interest of whites, and any apparent benevolence or altruism is really just some of this at play.

        • Yes, you have to deal with annoyances such as praise and admiration being displaced onto more ‘inferior persons’ like African American singers and athletes.

          If the anti-white agenda was just about that, I wouldn’t care. Because shutting down the anti-white agenda would be as easy as hitting the power button.

          Are whites not still 95% of the CEOs of fortune 500 companies.

          475 white people are working high level corporate managerial jobs. Yep, Clarence Darrow, with that, you certainly proved that the anti-white agenda is no big deal.

          I think they saw legislation as the best way to calm a group of people who had the potential to generate significant disturbances if they collectively revolted.

          Okay, then why have almost all American black-white race riots since 1963, since about the year the civil rights laws were enacted, been black led?

          If any group of people are being kept “pacified, distracted and stupid” (okay, a better word would be naive and clueless), it’s white people.

          • GIJoeJones

            My main point is that Whites are the most successful group by any measure of wealth, leadership, education and they have been for a long time. This does not appear to be changing regardless of the anti-white noise that is broadcast in television and print. And yes, there have several been civil disturbances from blacks, but as someone who lives among them, I honestly believe that things would be much worse if African Americans’ revolutionary mindset had persisted from the 60s into present day America with no concessions, no progress, and no perceived improvement in their social standing in this country. Fortunately for the white people of America, blacks seem to be moving backwards given the resources that are now available to them. And they certainly don’t share a revolutionary mindset, or agenda approaching the magnitude and organization of the civil rights movement. They are disorganized, lost, and too busy getting wealthy (upper class), staying afloat (middle class) and killing each other (lower class).

          • That “revolutionary mindset” was just a delusion.

          • Alden

            But the top 500 are bound and determined to eliminate the rest of us
            I believe that White is White, even Persians, Pakistanis etc
            But a lot of people on this site don’t think many of the Fortune 500 are really White nome sain?

          • BlueSonicStreak

            Hey, Joe. Hope you don’t mind a late reply; I’ve been taking a spin through your comments.

            I have to say, I’m not entirely convinced all black people think as you suggest – at the very least, I’d say there are dramatic splits of opinion in the black community. I’m sure you have known more blacks more personally than I; but I would also suspect that a lot of people you know are a bit older (35+) and perhaps more politically moderate or more right-wing(?).

            Personally, for the past 15 years or so until very recently, all of the black people I have known have been left-wing and from my own generation (Millennials), and man, are they angry. I have copies of things like Eldridge Cleaver’s “Soul on Ice,” and some of the stuff my peers are writing could easily match it in anti-white vitriol. (Ditto the stuff written by white liberals my age and younger.)

            Perhaps some of my peers will grow out of it in 5-10 years, but I think my generation has been very set up to think this way. First, by being promised the world when we were kids, and secondly by being raised in an environment where we were steeped in leftist thought. Coming here, I had to essentially question everything I’ve EVER been taught. I’m hopeful some of my age peers will change their minds and recognize how much of liberalism is a poisoned well -but realistically, I think most won’t.

            Not ALL Millennials are left-wing, of course. But the stage is pretty set for only those people to gain any real power in coming decades. Look at how my generation is controlling social media; say the wrong thing, and an army of tech-savvy twenty-somethings are going to drag all your internet accounts and potentially ruin you in offline life. If you think there’s a climate of fear surrounding saying the wrong thing on TV or around the water cooler, just wait until the angry army of MY generation is controlling everything. As slow a start as we have in leaving our parent’s basement, it has to happen sooner or later because older generations will die eventually.

          • GIJoeJones

            Hey BlueSonic,
            Thanks for writing. Took me a day or so to get the time to write back. Yeah, I would never say that all black people think any particular way. And I agree that many blacks are as angry, or angrier than the white men who often comment here. Most successful, educated blacks tend to think like me, that is ‘Keep quiet, don’t make anyone angry, and don’t attract attention to yourself.’ I appreciate this website for helping me see that the anti-white male hysteria is out of control. I probably would not have noticed otherwise. I have had my run ins with the All white male dominated power structure in my hospital, and I definitely came away from that situation very angry and determined to ‘expose’ evil for what it is. But now, seeing the flip side of the issue, I feel as if angry white men are justified in many of their gripes. I will also say that as a group, you are still kicking everyone else’s ass, but.. I understand why some of you are angry.
            Poorer Blacks tend to believe almost anything about ole Whitey. And the poorer they get, the more hostile in many cases. Yeah, there is a lot of hatred in the black community directed towards whites. But I always say that hey, we’re only 13% of population, white people are very capable of crushing us whenever they please. I lay low, treat everyone with respect, and try to get others to do the same. But, you’re correct, most don’t see it that way.

        • Susan

          All this amounts to is corrupt government using race to keep the populace divided in as many ways as possible. Divide and conquer (rule) is the best way to maintain power over people.

      • Just another reason to refrain from subscribing to cable TV. The odds of space aliens mating with humans are lower than those of you or I breeding with medium-sized reptiles.

        • Alden

          It’s part of the condo fees. Anyway ancient aliens is far more entertaining than the rest of the anti White drivel

  • journey

    If one reads about John von Neumann, Nils Aall Barricelli, James Watson, Alan Turnig, etc., etc., one can see that IQ/intelligence have been coded into the different racial groups. The vast differences in IQ/intelligence between certain racial groups cannot occur by evolution/environment alone.

  • anony

    Does that mean that “banished from the garden of eden” means colonizing earth from “out there somewhere”?

  • David Ashton

    Different, reproductively separate parental groups can and did adapt to colder climates (and other environments) in different ways.

  • David Ashton

    The problem with Genesis is the Deluge time frame.

    • The Deluge was real: what is now the Black Sea was an inland, endorheic lake (no outlet) before seawater flooded into it during prehistoric human times. Before there were people, the Mediterranean Sea was also one, with dry salt-pans. The flood through what is now the Gibraltar Strait as the ice caps melted must have been amazing. It would be nice to see a series of waterfalls that high.

      Aborigines got from what is now New Guinea to Australia by walking across dry land: Sahul. They also walked to Tasmania, which was connected to mainland Oz at the time.

      Also in pre-human times, the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and probably also the Aral Sea were connected.

      • David Ashton

        There were several great floods, and many peoples have similar survivor stories. The problems with the Deluge of Noah are (1) the fundamentalist dating to around 2000 BC, (2) the universality of the genocidal catastrophe, and (3) the functionality of the “ark”.

  • groidle

    Dat’s rayciss.

  • Mike Haywood-Woodhouse

    Europe’s oldest ethic group are the Spanish Basque.

    Ancient Iberians, Isolation was the key to their identity, warrior ancestry,clan mentality, unique language-unlike any in Europe. very rarely do they marry outside of their race, never trust outsiders, woman are greatly respected, they are regarded as one of the proudest & most independent peoples on earth.

    During Roman times they would rather kill themselves than face capture, even today the Basques have the lowest frequency of Europe of blood group B, a high frequency of blood group O, and the highest known incidence in the world of of the Rh-negative blood group.

    Basque also practice their own form of law regarding land, contrary to the Napoleonic law that divides property among all children, Basque estates pass to the eldest-male or female.

    Few people know today that Basque blood ran in the veins of Juan Sebastian de Elcano, who was one of Magellans officers & who, after Magellan was killed in the Philippines , became the captain of the first ship to navigate the globe.
    S-American revolutionary Simon Bolivar was also a basque, so was Maurice Ravel, Pio Baroja & St. Ignatius of Layola.

    Many ranchers in former Spanish colonies of America are also still basque.
    Places like Nevada,New mexico, Arizona, Texas & elsewhere like Argentina.

    • Lygeia

      I thought Ignatius Loyola was from a converso family.

      • Mike Haywood-Woodhouse

        He was born Inigo Lopez de Loyola in the municipality of Azpeitia, Spain.

        Ignatius (Don Inigo) was a Spaniard (Basque) of noble rank,- blue blood, a soldier first defending Spain against the attack launched by the French against Spain, led by the king of Navarre.

        He was first & foremost a military man that after being seriously wounded at the Battle of Pamplona in 1521, underwent a “spiritual conversion” while in recovery & later founding the Society of Jesus.

        • Alden

          I didn’t know he was Basque

    • Lots of Basques ranch sheep in Colorado and Wyoming, and there are plenty in Idaho. They joke that other whites have ears that are too small. I am not at all surprised that the fellow who completed Magellan’s expedition was Basque; the weather conditions in the Bay if Biscay (named after them) are frequently appalling, so they became very good seamen.

    • Alden

      Thanks for reminding us of the oldest European ethnic group

  • ElComadreja

    I am light with reddish hair and 3.2% Neanderthal. My sister is the same coloration and 3.4%.

  • Lygeia

    Human IQ begin at 46.

    The average Aboriginal IQ is 57.

  • Shadrach

    The Whites are meant to reign.

  • bilejones

    My Black cats skin is black.
    My Bulldogs skin was all over the place.

  • Mike Haywood-Woodhouse

    Remember that all the wealth that came out of S-America was controlled by The Habsburgs from the Holy roman Empire, Spain were the mere enforcers & foot-soldiers.

    • Alden

      You are right that the grandson of Ferdinabd and Isabella was both Charles 1 of Spain and Charles 5 of the Empire
      But Charles realized it was too large complicated and diverse for one dynasty so when he died he gave Spain to his son Phillip and the HRH territory to another son The union if the HRH and Spain lasted just one generation

  • Guest

    Europeans didn’t descend from negroids. This is an urban myth started by uneducated blacks and dumb, White liberals. Both races share a common ancestor. Blacks and Whites have both evolved independently since the split from this common ancestor. Hard to believe in the case of the negro, I know!

    Anthropologist Peter Frost (1999) explains in an email that:

    “True Black Africans appear as a recent adaptive radiation in the above dendrograms, apparently branching off from an ancestral Pygmy population — a line of ancestry also indicated by osteological data (Coon 1962:651-656; Watson et al. 1996). This radiation seems to have occurred somewhere in West Africa. Before the Bantu expansion about 3,000 years ago, true Black Africans were absent from the continent’s central, eastern, and southern regions (Cavalli-Sforza 1986:361-362; Oliver 1966). They were also absent from the middle Nile until about 4,000 years ago, at which time they begin to appear in paintings from Pharaonic Egypt and in skeletal remains from Nubia”.[3]

    The oldest proto-Negroid skull is from Nigeria (Iwo Eleru) and no older than 11200 ± 200 BP.[4] ASSELAR MAN IS THE OLDEST NEGRO IN MODERN FORM, AT ONLY 6500 B.P. (Camp, 1974).”

    In the out of Africa model, the ancestors of human populations left Africa some 80,000 to 60,000 years ago evolving into the caucasian and mongoloid races of today. The split between the two occurring some 40,000 years ago. So the negro branch appeared from an African branch that had already separated from humans ca. 70,000 to 50,000 years previously.

    Moreover, Bruce Lahn and Harpending and Cochran argue that humans were privy to the formation of various gene alleles around 10,000 years ago that kickstarted agricuture and the rise of civilization in the fertile crescent. Needless to say, this didn´t occur in the sub saharan, negro populations hence their stone age primitivism and total lack of cultural achievements.

    There is no evidence even to suggest that our hominoid forbears were even black in skin tone as the black skin tone was a probably a later adaptation to Higher UV levels in SS Apefrica.

  • Hilis Hatki

    Too much Lamarckism in evolutionary thinking.

    • journey

      The confusion as shown by this article is trying to employ certain evolutional concepts onto humans. Phenotypic racial differences such skin/hair/eyes color,
      IQ/intelligence, height/body built, etc. have been coded into the different racial
      genome groups. Those characteristics can only be changed by inter racial breeding, e.g. not by environment and diet.

      And, “peer review studies” only get published if it goes along the dominant thinking. That’s why in these type of articles, the out of Africa theory has to be mentioned. And, probably also to downgrade the whites and uplift the blacks.

    • Gills did come before the swim bladder. Sharks have gills, but no swim bladders. They also don’t have completely calcified skeletons.

      • John Smith

        I believe only the jaws are calcified.

    • Alden

      I’ve wondered how the cold weather causes high cheekbones and folded eyelids crew managed to explain Cambodians and Vietnamese
      Also both Asians and black Africans have broader noses than Whites.

  • David Ashton

    “A team led by [Florida University] anthropologist Dr James Pampush collected chin data from more than 100 primate species and compared it with historical data… The research, published in the ‘Journal of Human Evolution’, suggests the chin [illustrations all ‘white’ people] is…an evolutionary by-product of another event [which] had to have occurred between six million to 200,000 years ago…the timing of the split between humans and chimpanzees…when there was a jump in brain size. We had a soft diet, and we [sic] no longer needed big teeth. Homo erectus…are very human-like, but had no chins. I’m guessing the changes which ultimately led to the chin are directly related to cooking, and indirectly related to larger brains…. Cooking enable Homo erectus to spend much less time feeding [which] allowed for smaller teeth, and the reduction in tooth size may have produced the chin as a spandrel.” – “The Independent on Sunday”, April 5.

  • Mike Haywood-Woodhouse

    Have you read up on Simon Bolivar, he was also Basque.
    He led a far larger revolution in S-America than Potosi.

    Also, the Jesuits were expelled from S-America a few times & also Spain for various reasons.

  • journey

    Actually, the yellow race was the first to notice seeds sprouting and from their farming started. This was prior to the appearance of today’s white race which is a blending of many races, primarily the superior.

    • Director

      That’s not true at all.

      Grain was developed initially in Anatolia around 10,000-8,000 years ago, which was most likely one of the white homelands. Likely that the people that domesticated sheep there were also ancestors of the whites.

      • journey

        It does not necessarily have to be grain that the yellow race initially noticed.

    • Orientals first cultivated rice, and also first domesticated chickens (the wild bird was native to SE Asia).

      • journey

        And, the yellow race was the first to abandon the chase and to develop home life and communities based on agriculture.

        The red man was chased out of Asia some 85,000 years (crossed the Bering Strait into North America) by the yellow race because the yellow race early on learned strength was from working together.

      • Alden

        Chickens were domesticated in India probably before the Aryan invasion

    • Alden

      All historians think it was the Middle East. A new theory is that it was Ukraine. Before the ice melted at the end of the ice age.

      • journey

        But, the physical findings certainly support the Middle East. Of course, ISIS is extremely busy destroying it.

  • journey

    So, you think this planet is the only planet with life on it, in the whole wide universe/cosmos? Of course, it is a complete waste of money to go looking for life in our local solar system, as there are none.

    As for scientology = silly.

    • I believe we are not the only civilization in the cosmos, but I once wrote about the time frames and distances involved, and explained that not only will there be no space wars, there will not even be any peaceful contact.

  • journey

    Again, those are theories working/looking backwards after the events.

    • MikeofAges

      Do you have a special way of looking forward from some day and time in the distant past?

      • journey

        Do you, by any chance?

        • MikeofAges

          No. We can only look back. Well, some people claim to have other ways of looking. I don’t necessarily think all of them are kooks trying to get attention or people with limited discernment, but they can speak for themselves and their mental experiences.

          • journey

            The ability to see the future, past, and present simultaneously is not for most humans on this level as we are limited to perceiving reality linearly. But, once we leave this physical level, time (sequence of events) is circular meaning we can see the past, future, and present at the same time.

            Yes, some humans on this level can perceive time circularly. But only one was perfect at it and he will be the only one for now until in the far, far future.

  • MartelsGhost

    poppycock

  • journey

    As you can see, I am responding to you.

  • Whiteplight

    This story doesn’t take the all important Ice Age into consideration. It is well understood by anthropology that human populations fled and then returned to Europe. This article reads as if no one was there ever before. Also, I think that articles like this are set-ups to suggestions such as white skin not being that much of a definition for European identity, white skin and blue eyes, an undesirable result of not enough light, etc. Information like this does not have any real scientific value unless it is put into context with the rest of known evolution and anthropology, etc. That makes it less available for negative racial propaganda.

    One item that ought to be remembered in such discussions is that negro genetics are the oldest, that means the most undifferentiated of all homo sapiens. This means that they are more primitive while whites represent perhaps the highest point of evolution to date (and I only see it devolving now).

  • Hammerheart

    I thought the Nation of Islam theory that Yakub created us all in his ancient African science labs via forbidden experimentation and a blood pact with a demon was true!?

    • Alden

      Makes as much sense as all the rest of the nonsense the liberals have come up with

      I like the Southwest American Indian thing
      God decided to make humans. So he made a batch out if clay and built a fire in his oven. But the oven wasn’t hot enough and the first batch came out too pale
      He built up the fire and the next batch was too dark
      Finally he got the perfect batch, a perfect nice light brown So he breathed life unto them .
      Such a coinincidence
      , the perfect batch looked just like us, the Indians

  • Hilis Hatki

    As I jokingly use to tell people, they are going to say dark skin people settled Europe first. Looks like its headed that way.

  • 李冠毅

    “Part of East Asia would have also experienced race replacement by Whites as well.”

    That may have already happened. There is archaeological evidence of blond-haired, green eyed people in ancient China, and that North Chinese may have intermixed with them. An AmRenner has speculated that this was how North Chinese got their high IQs.

    • Alden

      The mummies even wore plaid

  • scutum

    This is an obvious example of a theory looking for an explanation or an answer. The conclusion? We are all related to LaTavius and Shanequa

  • Alden

    Red hair has something to do with an excess of iron

  • Alden

    The aborigines had no form if water craft at all when the Whites arrived
    Most anthropologists speculate that they walked over land bridges but again, who really knows

  • Fed Up

    It’s not just skin pigmentation. It’s the White mentality also! Even if Europeans actually had dark skin — they’d still be 20,000 years AHEAD of Africans!

  • journey

    There were other grains grown for food. And, again, modern man can only theorize from chance findings. If the evidence is long one, then man will never know.

  • Alden

    Good point Maybe it is the beginning of the justification for killing all of us in Europe to make way for browns and blacks ruled by a mysterious middle eastern Origen group that some think White and others think Arab

  • Alden

    The Potosi clan are and have long been one if the wealthiest families on earth

  • Alden

    Read the last couple paragraphs They imply the indigenous inhabitants of Europe were dark skinned

  • Hilis Hatki

    Out of Africa is the cry because its where most of the fossils are found, which is a false correlation. Did they not find a lemur species, thats a ancestor of humans, in Germany? I have theories that center around what I call “popcorn” evolution. Humans popped up everywhere, yet could still breed. which is what a species is, a enclosed potential breeding group. Any see the Liger that was a cross between a Lion and a Tiger. Ive seen cats that hop like rabbits, its a folk legend that cats and rabbits interbreed.