First Comprehensive Characterization of Genetic Diversity in Sub-Saharan Africa Published

Medical Xpress, December 3, 2014

Researchers from the African Genome Variation Project (AGVP) have published the first attempt to comprehensively characterize genetic diversity across Sub-Saharan Africa. The study of the world’s most genetically diverse region will provide an invaluable resource for medical researchers and provides insights into population movements over thousands of years of African history. These findings appear in the journal Nature.

“Although many studies have focused on studying genetic risk factors for disease in European populations, this is an understudied area in Africa,” says Dr Deepti Gurdasani, lead author on the study and a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. “Infectious and non-infectious diseases are highly prevalent in Africa and the risk factors for these diseases may be very different from those in European populations.”

“Given the evolutionary history of many African populations, we expect them to be genetically more diverse than Europeans and other populations. However we know little about the nature and extent of this diversity and we need to understand this to identify genetic riskfactors for disease.”

Dr Manjinder Sandhu and colleagues collected genetic data from more than 1800 people–including 320 whole genome sequences from seven populations–to create a detailed characterisation of 18 ethnolinguistic groups in Sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic samples were collected through partnerships with doctors and researchers in Ethiopia, the Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda.

The AGVP investigators, who are funded by the Wellcome Trust, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the UK Medical Research Council, found 30 million genetic variants in the seven sequenced populations, a fourth of which have not previously been identified in any population group. {snip}

“The primary aim of the AGVP is to facilitate medical genetic research in Africa. We envisage that data from this project will provide a global resource for researchers, as well as facilitate genetic work in Africa, including those participating in the recently established pan-African Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) genomic initiative,” says Dr Charles Rotimi, senior author from the Centre for Research on Genomics and Global Health, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, USA.

The authors also found evidence of extensive European or Middle Eastern genetic ancestry among several populations across Africa. These date back to 9,000 years ago in West Africa, supporting the hypothesis that Europeans may have migrated back to Africa during this period. Several of the populations studied are descended from the Bantu, a population of agriculturists and pastoralists thought to have expanded across large parts of Africa around 5,000 years ago.

{snip}

The study also provides interesting clues about possible genetic loci associated with increased susceptibility to high blood pressure and various infectious diseases, including malaria, Lassa fever and trypanosomiasis, all highly prevalent in some regions of Africa. These genetic variants seem to occur with different frequencies in disease endemic and non-endemic regions, suggesting that this may have occurred in response to the different environments these populations have been exposed to over time.

{snip}

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  • JohnEngelman

    As more is learned about the Negro genome there will be more evidence of innate Negro inclinations toward low intelligence and crime. As the Nazi movement and the Holocaust fade from living memory it will become more difficult to suppress this evidence. An additional factor making suppression difficult will be the persistence of black low intelligence and high black crime wherever these can be accurately measured.

    • Tarczan

      I’ve already made that leap, based upon my own highly unscientific analysis. I love it when science slowly proves year by year, study by study what most of us here know to be true.
      RACIAL DIFFERENCES ARE REAL

      • JohnEngelman

        Prejudice is as often the wisdom of the uneducated, as is enlightenment the mistaken conceit of intellectuals.

        Semi literate low income whites in the South have had a better understanding of innate racial differences than the sophisticates of fashionable salons in the North.

        • kikz2

          Prejudice originates from intimate and sustained observational experience.

          • JohnEngelman

            Prejudice comes from previous experience. Affluent whites are likely to come into contact with few blacks. These few are exceptional, or they occupy subordinate positions without resentment.

            This is why affluent white liberals and affluent white conservatives have trouble understanding concerns expressed by many American Renaissance posters, including me.

          • LexiconD1

            I had no problem with those of other races, until I went to work around them. That’s when I saw their true natures.

            Before that, even living in a suburb of Los Angeles, I went to all white schools. The only black kid who attended our school came by the short bus (yes, he was ‘special’.) Even my son, who is 17, went to an almost white k-8, in the same area.

            You’re right, the only people who don’t have a problem with blacks and hispanics, are those who have never spent any significant time around them. If they did, they’d change their tunes faster than you can say john jacob jingleheimer schmidt….

          • benvad

            They’ve never had the pleasure of living with blacks.

          • David Ashton

            Technically, prejudice means judgement before experience, and should not be used to describe judgement based on experience.

          • JohnEngelman

            Technically, perhaps. Nevertheless, if I have had bad experiences with a group of people I am likely to think less of a member of that group, even if I know nothing of that person.

            The same is true in reverse. For example, during my life I have had good experiences with observant Christians. If I know little about someone other than the fact that that person attends church regularly, I will be prejudiced in favor of that person.

          • David Ashton

            The word “observant” is usually used by Jews of Jews who attend shul, keep High Holy Days, believe in G’d if not the entire Torah, and even use their elbows to pick up the phone on Saturdays if a “Shobbos” Goy is not available. I have never seen it used of Christians by another Christian, except here. Is it now an American usage – like the “carols” Rudolf the Reindeer or Jingle Bells?

          • JohnEngelman

            Whatever. I suppose I could have used the word “practicing.”

        • Weisheit77

          I swear you’re getting better and better, John. You make me want to clap almost as frequently as you make me want to punch the computer screen.

          My parents were southerners and I attended grade and middle school in the south. My relatives were a mixture of blue collar and middle class. We aren’t related to what is know derisively as “white trash”.

          Attending school in the south, I was never far from blacks, nor was I deluded as to their general behavior. I believe that this is true of many areas in the South. One has to head up into the hills to avoid large black populations. It wasn’t until I went to 8th grade and onward in a school district with bussing that I really became “hardened”. If I’m not wrong, you’re familiar with the area. It’s northern Delaware. It was only in college did I find an environment that I liked although it was full of those of “mistaken conceit” who couldn’t tolerate my interpretations of what I had experienced. Oh, and the fact that my multicultural education left me, at first, woefully unprepared for the rigors of college.

          I swear I think I have PTSD from those years. Not to take away from those who actually have war induced PTSD, but sometimes I can get so worked up about blacks and I don’t live or work around them anymore. I guess it’s the burning fear that one wrong turn and I could be back in a place where wondering if the neighbor is going to shoot you instead of waving at you is the norm. A day or so after the Ferguson thing I really fell off the wagon for two days on Heineken and Ardbeg and Laphroaig and during the hangover/guilt faze of it I was wondering what triggered such an outburst. After much reflection, I wondered if seeing that triggered something in my mind. I was in that bussed school system during the Rodney King adventure.

        • benvad

          Who better to know about lions than a lion trainer?

          • ghettovalley

            John certainly isn’t your typical AmRen poster. I do not agree with everything that he says. But generally he sticks to the facts. It is true that Asians in western countries tend to do very well. A large part of this, in my opinion, stems from their culture. They place a great emphasis on education. But what we see in our countries are the cream of the crop. We don’t see the shoeless Chinese peasant farmers. We don’t see the millions of factory workers performing what amounts to slave labor. We don’t see the Asian’s barbaric practices of killing and eating dogs, cats, whales, or dolphins. In a region with billions of people all possible parts of the bell curve are going to be well represented. They aren’t all physicists, mathematicians, and rocket scientists. In fact, a majority of them are uneducated, poverty stricken, and live a pretty miserable existence. If we’re going to be honest about this, we should be honest about all aspects. Despite being the model minority so to speak, they still belong in their own countries, not ours.

          • JohnEngelman

            I believe in race realism. I am not a white nationalist. I am certainly not a white supremacist.

    • David Ashton

      No Blacks were gassed or shot in “the Holocaust” but some were recruited into the Nazi armies. Far from “the Holocaust” being allowed to fade, history is being rewritten in terms of it as a Pole Event, replacing the previous religion of the Sacrifice of the Son of God, with the State of Israel representing the resurrection of the Chosen People of God.

      • none of your business

        There is even a great grand children of holofraud survivors organization. The members don’t do anything. It is just a front group for the gimme gimme donations to prevent another holofraud crew like Foxman.

      • JohnEngelman

        The reason the Nazi movement and the Holocaust is of significance to race realism is that opponents of race realism have been able to use the guilt by association fallacy against race realism. They say that because the Nazis said racial differences are important, they are not.

        • David Ashton

          We agree on something at last.

  • Yeah, great science and stuff. But, can you genetically engineer these creatures to even faintly resemble my definition of human? You know, intelligent, with self control, altruistic, etc. All the qualities that I associate with the white race.

    Or is this just a scheme to keep more Africans alive to destroy the wildlife (Drudge ran a story on the extinction of the giraffe today) and ultimately send them to Europe to overwhelm us like in Camp of the Saints.

  • Zimriel

    Yay, another genetics study! These are the best links on this site IMO.

    FASCINATING that there is 7000 BC influx of European DNA in west Africa. I’m not entirely surprised, given that the Bantu tend to brown-black where, say, the Nilotics are black to the point almost of turning blue on the other end.

    But is the influx Europe-Europe, or Berber? I’d thought that the “Hamitic” peoples had already colonised the north African coast by then. I also understand that the Sahara was a little more passable then than it is now, with more oases and some grassy patches.

    • none of your business

      Supposedly Berbers are related to the Irish and Spanish people who live in the northwest of Spain. It makes sense as they could have gone back and forth by sea. Or maybe the Europeans were slaves.

  • Mack0

    Researchers will never reveal to the public those genetic variations we all know exist because the implications are to dangerous

    • JInSanD

      Dr. Zaius: Don’t look for it, Taylor. You may not like what you find.

      • Mack0

        I honestly believe a planet of the blacks would be less technologically and socially advanced than a Planet of the Apes

      • me

        Hahahaha!

        • ghettovalley

          What a nice looking interracial couple.

    • ghettovalley

      The Chinese, who are not constrained by the pc thought police, will likely be the ones who expose the genetic differences between the races and their implications.

  • MartelsGhost

    So what’s the correlation with higher IQ and amounts of European DNA as far as the “Africans” go? I’m willing to bet that those with more “Europe” have a slightly higher IQ than their more Bantu-istic cousins.

    As a side note: I find it very interesting that the two groups of peoples on Earth who exhibit higher IQ’s by average also have the most Neanderthal DNA in their genetic code…………….

    • JInSanD

      IQ by nation.
      Red – Lowest
      Orange
      Yellow
      Green
      Blue
      Indigo
      Violet – Highest

      • ElComadreja

        Imagine if the US didn’t have all these blacks and mestizos dragging the average down.

        • none of your business

          Average IQ in America is now 98. I hate to think what the average IQ in California is what with hispanic indians being almost half the population.

    • voxvot

      There is a new Neanderthal hypothesis in which the Neanderthal was a far more brute like carnivorous predator than is presented by establishment anthropology, whom the Eurasian branch of humanity had to engage in a life and death struggle with for species survival; it was this extreme selective pressure that impelled genetic adaptations that enhanced human intelligence. In this scenario the relic Neanderthal DNA is simply coincidental to enhanced intelligence and not causative; merely dark evidence of thousands of years of propinquity.

      • JInSanD

        We are currently in a losing struggle with brutes living among us and we aren’t even fighting.

        And we aren’t fighting because we have a unique, high level of altruism which is being exploited while at the same time we are also hit with psychological warfare in the form of political correctness, white guilt, “diversity is good”, and “multiculturalism is good.”

        • JohnEngelman

          White liberals are too civilized for their own good. They have difficulty understanding the mentalities of individuals and races that are less civilized.

          • voxvot

            I don’t know about that. White people in the past had just as great a genetic predisposition to altruism but that didn’t stop fierce national and racial pride and total resistance to alien incursions.

            I think it has a lot to do with the disappearance/suppression of religion among Europeans in the modern era. I am not religious but It seems to me that religion fulfills a basic human psychological need. Religion has gone but the psychological necessity for religion remains. This has created a vacuum which cultural-Marxists have filled with an alternative corpus of morally fulfilling myths, centered around discrimination, civil rights and egalitarianism. Looked at objectively these protests, resemble the insanity of religious hysteria, an insanity complete with martyrs and a catechism of slogans and fables.

          • ghettovalley

            I believe that an article here called it pathological altruism. A fitting term. This is one of the greatest problems of the white race. We are simply too nice and caring for our own good. This would be beneficial in an ethnically homogenous society, looking out for our own, but is absolutely disastrous when applied to minority groups that either cannot or will not take care of themselves.

      • JohnEngelman

        The Neanderthal genes that survived in the Caucasian and Mongoloid genomes were genes that enhanced survival in cold climates with seasons that varied throughout the year. In addition, there may have been some genes that gave resistance to local diseases.

        • The disease aspect makes a lot of sense; Neanderthals had been in Eurasia far longer than we have, so they would have been subjected to natural selection to cope with precisely those diseases.

      • ghettovalley

        I suppose that this makes some sense. But it seems like there would not be such a large amount of their DNA within us if this were the case, right? Perhaps it was a bit of both. Maybe like us they had different groups, some peaceful and some more aggressive. Or maybe we simply picked up this DNA from a common ancestor shared with the Neanderthals? My knowledge in this subject is extremely limited, but it sure is fascinating.

    • JohnEngelman

      The Neanderthals had a few beneficial genes, but they were not IQ genes.

      • RationaliseThis

        Since we haven’t identified many IQ genes how can we say that yet?

        Neanderthal Brains were apparently larger than ours. Their downfall was likely that their powerful bodies needed twice as many calories as ours, 4000-5000. As they were built for ambushes in dense forrests the more open plaines that arose when climate changed worked against them. Only a 0.1% advantage in fertility and survival is enough to see Homo Sapiens dominate in 4000 years.

        • JohnEngelman

          In Neanderthal brains the frontal lobes were smaller. This is where conscious thought takes place. Intelligent people are known for having high foreheads.

          The shape of the Neanderthal brain indicates less intelligence, more coordination and better reflexes. The bones in their arms and legs indicate more strength. They would have been good boxers, if they listened to their corner men. They would not have excelled at mathematics.

          In addition, the remains of their campsites indicate less intelligence. They do not seem to have practiced trade. They do not seem to have been able too look a year into the future. Their stone tool kits were more limited.

          • Their stone tool kits were more limited, but so were those of early modern humans in Eurasia. Neanderthals weren’t much into art, either, but neither were many groups of early moderns. They took care of their injured, which is evidenced by some of the devastating – and healed – bone fractures found in some of the fossils.

        • ghettovalley

          Climate probably did have something to do with it. I had no idea about their large caloric intake. Perhaps whatever large animals were sustaining them died out? Or perhaps they simply couldn’t compete against more intelligent modern humans for their food sources? Personally I don’t believe that they were all mentally deficient brutes. Hasn’t it been shown that they buried their dead, made art, and even created musical instruments? That doesn’t sound like a mindless savage to me.

    • John Smith

      Environment probably had something to do with the non-African human populations having more intelligence, since warm Africa places fewer selective pressures to adapt than colder climes that require more resourcefulness. It’s not that some Africans don’t show intelligence, but only that they seem to be an order of magnitude below those found in non-African recent origin populations for frequency.

      • MartelsGhost

        My question was more in relation to how the africans stack up against each other in the intelligence department seeing as how they all basically come from the same environment.

        I know all about the need for intelligence and problem solving when living in a cold environment and how that affects the selection process for the corresponding humans.

        Thank you for your answer though, I hope I didn’t come across as to pedantic or snippy.

  • JustSayin

    The more they discover the more they’ll have to hide.

  • Yves Vannes

    There were probably many waves of caucasoids migrating to Africa whenever the continental glaciers advance far enough south to crowd out southern Europe and the Near East. The Niger-Bantu or the group they descend from were probably pushed south of the Sahara by these migrations.

  • IstvanIN

    Are the Indians (Deepti Gurdasani, Manjinder Sandhu) up to planning some sort of biological warfare?

    • ghettovalley

      Maybe that is why they defecate, dispose of their their garbage, dump dead bodies, and bathe all in the same river. They are trying to breed some kind of super disease.

      • John Smith

        Survival of the fittest – that puts strong selective pressure on developing better immune systems.

  • Untel

    In genetics, the place of origin should have the most genetic diversity. For example, if wheat shows the greatest genetic diversity in southeastern Turkey, then that is probably where it originated, and from where it spread. Similarly, if a population has less genetic diversity, it is not the point of origin. It seems that a lot is shared between east and west Africa, which would point to relatively low genetic diversity. If the “out of Africa” hypothesis were correct, then Africa below the Sahara would not be this uniform.

    • JohnEngelman

      The article calls sub Saharan Africa “the world’s most genetically diverse region.”

      • RationaliseThis

        The descendants of emigrations are of course less diverse as they come from only a small section. There is evidence that Australian Aborigines are more genetically diverse. That might even turn things on their head as well.

        • JohnEngelman

          DNA evidence indicates a break 60,000 to 70,000 years ago.

      • Untel

        I see that I got the “less genetic diversity” in east and west Africa from a related article that is linked to on the same page: “East and West African sickle cell anaemia are genetically similar.”

  • RationaliseThis

    The human genome project is being very careful not to embarrass any race since cooperation is required to obtain samples and family history. It is being promoted as a way to trace human migration etc. Many ethnic activist oppose the project. Any genetic information will be well guarded in gobbildy gook. Several genes are now correlated to intelligence and temperament.

    • ghettovalley

      Our genes play a role in our every feature. To suggest that they play no role in intelligence, that humans evolved to look completely different on the outside over millions of generations, but our brains remained the same in every possible conceivable way, is just stupid. You don’t have to have an IQ of 160 and three master’s degrees to see that.

  • LHathaway

    They should have named it the vibrancy project. Sounds like they tried to.

  • SolStans

    Of course they’re more diverse. In everything from shaving razors to genes, mediocrity is abundant, and quality is limited. The alleles that made themselves widespread in Europe (thus reducing diversity) served a purpose, while in Africa it’s a crap shoot which plentiful, unremarkable genes will be present in a person.

    • John Smith

      Since both European and Asian populations are far more intelligent than blacks, it might be possible to conclude that the mutations responsible for increased intelligence occurred as the rest of the human species evolved outside of Africa.

      • SolStans

        So, basically, in the long run, winter is good for you.

  • Realist

    “Try telling them that Asians have lower obesity rates than Whites, or that White women have lower crime rates than White men and watch them shriek in disbelief.”

    East Asians have a higher IQ, on average, than whites.
    But every race has a higher IQ, on average , than blacks!

    • ghettovalley

      I don’t care if white people are the best. I don’t need to feel superior to anyone. I just want to live in peace, amongst other whites, to not be bothered with charges of racism, black crime, and cultural marxism. This doesn’t require white supremacy, or hatred at all. Simply a love for your own culture and heritage. I believe that everyone deserves this right.

      • Realist

        ” I just want to live in peace, amongst other whites, to not be bothered with charges of racism, black crime, and cultural marxism.”
        That’s not going to happen here.

        • ghettovalley

          Unfortunately this is correct. At least until we separate, which seems inevitable at this point.

        • benvad

          Tragically you are right.

      • ElComadreja

        Unfortunately the powers that be don’t share your opinion as it applies to white people.

      • benvad

        That’s what this site is in a nutshell. Whites don’t want to feel superior they just want to be left alone. Now what’s wrong with that?

    • none of your business

      There are several charts of national IQs on the internet. Check them out. The average IQ in China is 100, the same as Whites. Only S. Korea, Tawian and Japan have average IQs over 100. Hong Kong is not a nation, it is part of China. Singapore is not a nation. The rest of the E. Asian nations such as Cambodia, Mongolia, Laos, Thailand Vietnam etc have average IQs in the 90’s.

      For years Jared Taylor and Englemann have claimed that ALL E. Asian nations have average IQs over 100. It is just not true. I appreciate Jared Taylor and amren very much. Pointing out that Asian immigrant kids whether 90’s IQ Cambodian or 120 IQ Chinese do better than blacks although many have to learn English as well as regular course work destroys the liberal argument that blacks are dumb because of blah blah blah..

      But check out the national IQ charts and remember that Hong Kong is not a nation.

      • Realist

        I have and east Asians always rank higher than whites on IQ.

        • David Ashton

          Tests of Chinese populations around the Pacific perimeter may not reflect the IQ levels of those in the peasant interior.

  • ghettovalley

    I live in a fairly poor white area. When I say something even vaguely racist people here get really upset. Not all of them, but a lot more than you would think. In rural communities, which have little to no exposure to blacks especially in large numbers, they simply don’t know their true nature. They get their knowledge from television rather than first hand experience. Many of them genuinely believe that we are all the same deep down. Not every poor and rural white community is brimming with ignorance and hatred. These areas aren’t that different from other places in the US, just more rural, with less economic opportunity, less diverse, and almost non-existent crime rates. There are certainly worse groups in this country. I would take a rural white hillbilly over an uppity white liberal any day.

    • Weisheit77

      You’ll find this attitude all over the country side of Germany. It’s just most Germans I’ve met don’t have the American knee-jerk reaction to saying one dislikes blacks. They just kind of shrug their shoulders, declare that they’re not racist and continue to drink their beer. Of course, in the German countryside one doesn’t have many reasons to complain about blacks, unless one just really likes to complain about blacks, so it’s not a subject I harp upon like I feel inclined to in America after an hour or so of TV or life on Main Street.

    • benvad

      You must live in Maine or Vermont.

  • Realist

    Sure What color are they….case closed!

  • ghettovalley

    Have the Norwegian people been slaughtering dolphins in huge numbers for generations? Do they drink liquor with dead snakes in the bottle? Do they kill and eat house pets? I stand by my statement.

  • Realist

    “Colour is not the same thing as race.”

    Yes, that is true but not pertinent. Dark skinned people on average have lower IQ’s than lighter skinned people. There are ongoing arguments about how many races there are.

    Your argument is that there is a race with a lower IQ than “blacks”

    “Try telling them that Asians have lower obesity rates than Whites, or that White women have lower crime rates than White men and watch them shriek in disbelief.”

    Whites have lower obesity rates and much lower crime rates than blacks. And a higher IQ than blacks.
    You have no idea about my DNA or probably much about DNA period.

  • benvad

    Dog eater