When Did Humans Come to the Americas?

Guy Gugliotta, Smithsonian, February 2013

{snip}

For years adventurous divers had hunted fossils and artifacts in the sinkholes of the Aucilla [River] about an hour east of Tallahassee. They found stone arrowheads and the bones of extinct mammals such as mammoth, mastodon and the American ice age horse.

Then, in the 1980s, archaeologists from the Florida Museum of Natural History opened a formal excavation in one particular sink. Below a layer of undisturbed sediment they found nine stone flakes that a person must have chipped from a larger stone, most likely to make tools and projectile points. They also found a mastodon tusk, scarred by circular cut marks from a knife. The tusk was 14,500 years old.

The age was surprising, even shocking, for it suddenly made the Aucilla sinkhole one of the earliest places in the Americas to betray the presence of human beings. Curiously, though, scholars largely ignored the discoveries of the Aucilla River Prehistory Project, instead clinging to the conviction that America’s earliest settlers arrived more recently, some 13,500 years ago. But now the sinkhole is getting a fresh look, along with several other provocative archaeological sites that show evidence of an earlier human presence in the Americas, perhaps much earlier.

Which is why I found myself on the banks of the Aucilla with Michael Waters, director of the Center for the Study of the First Americans at Texas A&M University. {snip}

Waters’s team, led by Texas A&M underwater archaeologist Jessi Halligan, worked at the Page-Ladson sink, named for Buddy Page, who discovered it, and John Ladson, the property’s owner. {snip}

{snip}

The peopling of the Americas, scholars tend to agree, happened sometime in the past 25,000 years. In what might be called the standard view of events, a wave of big game hunters crossed into the New World from Siberia at the end of the last ice age, when the Bering Strait was a land bridge that had emerged after glaciers and continental ice sheets froze enough of the world’s water to lower sea level as much as 400 feet below what it is today.

The key question is precisely when the migration occurred. To be sure, there were constraints imposed by North America’s glacial history. Researchers suggest that it happened sometime after gradual warming began 25,000 years ago during the depths of the ice age, but well before a severe cold snap reversed the trend 12,900 years ago. Early in this window, when the weather was very cold, migration by boat was more likely because immense expanses of ice would have turned an overland journey into a nightmarish ordeal. Later, however, the ice receded, opening up plausible land bridges for trekkers coming across the Bering Strait.

For decades the most compelling evidence of this standard view consisted of distinctive, exquisitely crafted, grooved bifacial projectile points, called “Clovis points” after the New Mexico town near where they were first discovered in 1929. With the aid of radiocarbon dating in the 1950s, archaeologists determined that the Clovis sites were 13,500 years old. This came as little surprise, for the first Clovis points were found in ancient campsites along with the remains of mammoth and ice age bison, creatures that researchers knew had died out thousands of years ago. But the discovery dramatically undermined the prevailing wisdom that human beings and these ice age “megafauna” did not exist in America at the same time. {snip}

The idea that the Clovis people, as they came to be known, were the first Americans quickly won over the research community. {snip} Clovis sites, it turned out, were spread all over the continent, and “there was a clear association of the fauna with hundreds, if not thousands, of artifacts,” Goebel said. “Again and again it was the full picture.”

Furthermore, the earliest Clovis dates corresponded roughly to the right geological moment—after the ice age warming, before the great cold snap. {snip} “It was a very nice package, and that’s what sealed the deal,” Goebel said. “Clovis as the first Americans became the standard, and it’s really a high bar.”

{snip}

The hunters spread through the United States and Mexico, the story went, pursuing prey until too few animals remained to support them in the last cold snap. Radiocarbon dates show that most of the megafauna became extinct around 12,700 years ago. The Clovis points disappeared then as well, perhaps because there were no longer any large animals to hunt.

{snip}

{snip} In the late 1970s, the U.S. archaeologist Tom D. Dillehay and his Chilean colleagues began excavating what appeared to be an ancient settlement on a creek bank at Monte Verde, in southern Chile. Radiocarbon readings on organic material collected from the ruins of a large tent-like structure showed that the site was 14,800 years old, predating Clovis finds by more than 1,000 years. The 50-foot-long main structure, made of wood with a hide roof, was divided into what appeared to be individual spaces, each with a separate hearth. Outside was a second, wishbone-shaped structure that apparently contained medicinal plants. Mastodons were butchered nearby. The excavators found cordage, stone choppers and augers and wooden planks preserved in the bog, along with plant remains, edible seeds and traces of wild potatoes. Significantly, though, the researchers found no Clovis points. That posed a challenge: either Clovis hunters went to South America without their trademark weapons (highly unlikely) or people settled in South America even before the Clovis people arrived.

There must have been “people somewhere in the Americas 15,000 or 16,000 years ago, or perhaps as long as 18,000 years ago,” said Dillehay, now at Vanderbilt University.

Of the researchers working sites that seemed to precede Clovis people, Dillehay was singled out for special criticism. He was all but ostracized by Clovis advocates for years. When he was invited to meetings, speakers stood up to denounce Monte Verde. “It’s not fun when people write to your dean and try to get you fired,” he recalled. “And then your grad students try to get jobs and they can’t get jobs.”

The Monte Verde site gained wider acceptance after a panel of well-known archaeologists visited it in 1997 and reached a consensus. Dillehay was pleased that the panel had verified the integrity of his team’s work, “but it was a small group of people,” he said, meaning others in the profession continued to harbor doubts.

{snip}

At the Buttermilk Creek Complex archaeological site north of Austin, Texas, in a layer of earth beneath a known Clovis excavation, researchers led by Waters over the past several years found 15,528 pre-Clovis artifacts—most of them toolmaking chert flakes, but also 56 chert tools. Using optically stimulated luminescence, a technique that analyzes light energy trapped in sediment particles to identify the last time the soil was exposed to sunlight, they found that the oldest artifacts dated to 15,500 years ago—some 2,000 years older than Clovis. The work “confirms the emerging view that people occupied the Americas before Clovis,” the researchers concluded in Science in 2011. In Waters’ view, the people who made the oldest artifacts were experimenting with stone technology that, over time, may have developed further into Clovis-style tools.

Waters recently landed other blows to the Clovis orthodoxy in collaboration with Thomas Stafford, president of the Colorado-based Stafford Research Laboratories. In one series of experiments using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), a dating technique that is more precise than earlier radiocarbon measurements, they reanalyzed a mastodon rib from a skeleton previously recovered in Manis, Washington, and found to have a projectile point lodged in it. The original radiocarbon tests had surrounded the discovery in controversy because they showed it to be 13,800 years old—centuries older than Clovis. The new AMS tests confirmed that age estimate date, and DNA analysis showed that the projectile point was mastodon bone.

Deploying AMS technology, Waters and Stafford also retested many known Clovis samples from around the country, some collected decades earlier. The results, Waters said, “blew me away.” Instead of a culture spanning about 700 years, the analysis shrunk the Clovis window to 13,100 to 12,800 years ago. This new time frame required the Siberian hunters to negotiate the ice-free corridor, settle two continents and put the megafauna on the road to extinction within 300 years, an incredible feat. “Not possible,” Waters said. “You’ve got people in South America at the same time as Clovis, and the only way they could have gotten down there that fast is if they transported like ‘Star Trek.’ “

But Haynes, of the University of Nevada-Reno, disagrees. “Think of a small number of very mobile people covering a lot of ground,” he suggests. “They could have been walking thousands of kilometers per year.”

{snip}

The discovery of numerous artifacts that pre-date Clovis has, over the years, required scholars to come up with different ideas about not only when people arrived in the Americas but how they got here. For instance, if they were already established 14,800 years ago, they must not have used the famed ice-free corridor through North America: Researchers say that it would not appear for another 1,000 years.

Maybe the first Americans didn’t walk here but came in small boats and followed the coastline, some researchers say. {snip}

{snip}

Jon Erlandson, a University of Oregon archaeologist, and Torben Rick, an anthropologist at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, propose a pre-Clovis “kelp highway” for coast-hugging seamen skirting the southern edge of the Bering land bridge on their way from northeast Asia to the New World. “People came between 15,000 and 16,000 years ago” by sea, and “could eat the same seaweed and seafood as they moved along the coastline in boats,” Erlandson said. “It seems logical.” The notion that ancient people could travel great distances by boat isn’t far-fetched; many anthropologists believe that humans voyaged from the Asian mainland to Australia 45,000 years ago.

{snip}

The link between the Channel Islands artifacts and the western stemmed tradition recently acquired greater significance: Inside the Paisley Caves in Oregon, scientists excavated similar points that were associated with organic material yielding radiocarbon dates 13,000 years old—contemporary with Clovis.

The University of Oregon’s Dennis L. Jenkins, who led the Paisley excavation, re-examined a site first explored in the 1930s. The earlier documentation (photographs and some film) was insufficient to show a definite association between the bones and artifacts. But soon, he said, “we had artifacts and we had the bones” from the site. To determine if the human artifacts were the same age as the animal remains, the researchers conducted radiocarbon dating tests on human coprolites—petrified feces—extracting carbon residue from the organic material digested long ago. They also analyzed human mitochondrial DNA in the sample, probably shed from the intestinal wall, and determined that it came from a modern human with an apparently Asian genome. The toolmakers had lived 13,000 years ago.

“And there is nothing connecting this to any Clovis site,” Jenkins said. “You have two technologies existing at the same time in North America, and there is no direct immediate relationship.”

To answer critics, Jenkins and his team tested the DNA of project participants, to make sure they had not contaminated the coprolites, and tested the sediments surrounding the coprolites for modern rodent urine and other telltale signs the area had been tainted. They found no evidence of contemporary animal or human DNA.

Jenkins and his colleagues published the final results this year and closed the site: “We’ve gotten to the bottom,” he said. “We’ve convinced the people who are willing to be convinced that the caves are as old as Clovis, if not older.”

{snip}

Perhaps the most radical scholarly work suggests the Americas were colonized first by immigrants from Europe several thousand years before Clovis. The theory is the brainchild of Dennis Stanford, a curator of North American archaeology at the National Museum of Natural History, and Bruce Bradley, an archaeologist at Britain’s University of Exeter. In their 2012 book Across Atlantic Ice, they suggest that these Europeans reached the New World more than 20,000 years ago, settled in the eastern United States, developed the Clovis technology over several thousand years, then spread across the continent.

This theory is based partly on similarities between Clovis points and finely crafted “laurel leaf” points from Europe’s Solutrean culture, which flourished in southwestern France and northern Spain between 24,000 and 17,000 years ago. Stanford and Bradley argue that artifacts found at Page-Ladson, as well as other pre-Clovis sites, including the Meadowcroft Rock Shelter in western Pennsylvania and the sand dunes of Cactus Hill in southeastern Virginia, have similarities to Solutrean technologies.

The Solutreans, whose territory on the European continent was apparently rather compact, may have been forced by encroaching glaciers and extreme cold to cluster on the Atlantic coast. At some point, Stanford and Bradley say, the stresses of overpopulation may have forced some Solutreans to escape by sea. They headed north and west beneath the Atlantic ice sheet to nudge into North America at the Grand Banks of Newfoundland.

Stanford and Bradley say evidence for the Solutreans’ presence in America includes stone artifacts gathered by archaeologists at several sites on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay, all producing dates more than 20,000 years old. Most of the dates were derived from organic material found with the artifacts. The exception was a mastodon tusk with attached bone and teeth netted by a fisherman in 1974, along with a laurel leaf-shaped stone knife. Stanford found the tusk to be 22,760 years old. Among other things, the Solutrean hypothesis provides context not only for the Clovis people, but also for North America’s pre-Clovis sites. And it does not rule out Bering Sea migrations—those could have happened, too.

“Solutrean evolved into Clovis over close to 13,000 years,” Stanford said, and the Clovis hunters began migrating westward when the cold snap brought dry, windy, inhospitable weather to the East Coast.

But the archaeological evidence found so far in support of a European migration more than 20,000 years ago has raised skepticism. {snip}

{snip}

None of the doubts expressed by critics have stopped Stanford and Bradley, veterans of the Clovis wars, from pushing forward. “Solutrean people became more and more efficient in exploiting the rich sea margin resources,” they write in Across Atlantic Ice. “Eventually their range expansion led them to a whole new world in the west.”

{snip}

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  • Garrett Brown

    Nuh uh! It was Asians who went across the ice bridge! We stole their land!

    I wonder what argument the left will have now. This was and always will be OUR land.

    • Doppleganger

      Try convincing people who aren’t WN that. Good luck. You’re going to need it.

    • Oil Can Harry

      According to the new evidence white cavemen arrived in the Americas first.

      Shortly after, Asian cavemen traveled here to steal our technology.

      • Doppleganger

        Asians had real civilizations when white cavemen were still figuring out which side of their cave to take a dump on. Marco Polo was sent later to see what all the hype was about.

        • Andy

          What are you talking about? Civilization in Europe and Asia arose at roughly the same time. Certainly neither were living as cavemen when the other developed civilization (specialization, cities, writing).

        • Juxtaposedhearts0

          Not true

        • josh

          stupid fool! Idiot! It was white men that first BROUGHT knowledge to the Asians! They found the sorpses of red-haired

          • ChrisTakahashi

            Brought what knowledge? The East Asians had empires, complex stratification, art, music, written language, literature (poetry and philosophy), martial arts, military, police systems, etc. Northern whites (who the vast majority of pilgrim and puritan-descended White Americans trace their genealogy to) had no written languages and were living in huts, with horrible sanitation practices when the Moors arrived, who thought you were mentally deficient. Every empire and/or dynasty has had their rise and fall. Ghana, Mali, Songhay, Timbuktu, Great Zimbabwe, Zulu all great African civilizations that rose and eventually fell.

            A little “Guns, Germs, and Steel” by Jared Diamond and “Civilization or Barbarism” by Cheik Anta Diop might do you all some good.

          • Oil Can Harry

            Say What? Northern Europeans “had no written languages” when the Moors invaded the Iberian Peninsula around 711 AD?

            You must have gotten that one from fantasy writer Cheik Anta Diop, the same comedian who claimed Cleopatra and the pharoahs of Egypt were all black. Funny stuff.

          • ChrisTakahashi

            I was speaking to the fact that most did not have writing systems of their own.

            Referring to Dr. Diop as a “comedian” makes you look like the butt of one of his jokes. He was a polymath: a prominent historian and anthropologist, and even dabbled in physics. He was the founder and director of the radiocarbon laboratory, IFAN, in Senegal. There, he invented the melanin dosage technique, which forensic anthropologists use to this very day. He overturned much of the Eurocentric lies of a pale and pasty ancient Egypt. A lot of his work is cited by many WHITE scholars today.

            Also, as best as I can recall, he’s never said that Cleopatra and the final dynasties of Egypt were “Black” or Black-ruled. We all know that the European invasion lead to its decline. He has referred to the population as being an “indigenous Nile valley people” or a “Saharo-tropical African variant”, similar to modern-day Somalians, Ethiopians, etc, which later took on admixture from the Near East.

          • Joseph

            Unfortunately for all of the Sub-Saharan Afrocentric theories, the Egyptians left behind physical evidence in the form of mummies which have been directly analyzed and significantly genotyped -and they aren’t negroid. For gosh sake, the British Museum has a known Cauc. mummy from 3300 BC on public display with RED HAIR named “Ginger” -about as white as he can get. Then too, we can SEE the paintings in the ancient structures of lighter people (Egyptians) who are being served by very obviously black workers. Now clearly MOST of the Egyptians were not “white”, they were much as we see them today but they were assuredly not “black”. Look at the images for yourself -from the burial vaults and tell us that the Egyptians were/are black.

            Geez, will this legend ever die?!

          • Oil Can Harry

            Good summary, Joseph. As to when this legend will die, that might happen when people stop believing writers like Diop when he claims: “The [ancient] Egyptians were Negroes. thick-lipped, kinky-haired and thin legged.”

            And of course Socrates was black. He committed suicide by drinking a 40 ounce bottle of malt liquor mixed with hemlock.

          • Joseph

            I should know better than to feed the trolls. Like insatiable welfare recipients, they just keep coming back.

          • ChrisTakahashi

            There are so many problems with this, I don’t know where to begin. For one, it is an outright falsehood to claim that the genotyping of ancient Egyptian mummies is “significant”; it is scarce to say the least. The vast majority of blood group and DNA analysis that has been done, has been on the modern population, which show consistency with the very few ancient samples that they do have. There’s also the problem of contamination from handling and from microorganisms. The data show that the ancients were indigenous to the Nile Valley, and that they had body plans of those adapted to tropical regions. Also, speaking of the “ancient Egyptians” as just some ethnically static population is completely contrary to the available data, history, and is attacking a strawman. I conceded that whites (Romans) did conquer Egypt. The ancients experienced significant admixture over time. Including that of Nubia (Black Africa), from Piye, Taharqa, etc. These were clearly Negro. In addition, genetic analysis of Ramesses III has shown his Y chromosomal DNA to be of Sub-saharan African origin. Ramses probably had a Black daddy or granddaddy.

            Regarding EA 32751, or “Ginger”; that specimen was dated to the Pre-dynastic Badari culture, whose crania have been shown to be similar to those of Ethiopians and other East Africans. Red hair is not a monopoly of Northern Europe. North Africans and Middle Easterners have displayed it at high frequencies, as well. Hell, blonde hair is found everywhere from Mongolia to Papua New Guinea.

            Now, of course you’ll see paintings of whites ruling and oppressing darker peoples in Egypt, hell, you see it everywhere else. However, you’ll also see paintings of whites being enslaved, attacked, and slain in Egypt.

            Finally, your use of the term “Black”, as simply being Bantu West African, is problematic for the very notion of “white” that somehow link the blonde or red-haired, broad-nosed “barbaric” (that’s what they were called) illiterates from Bronze Age people of the British Isles and Germanic regions to those of the dark-haired, olive-toned advanced geniuses of the Mediterranean. You consider them two extremes of the same biologically related groups, and the same applies for West (Bantus) and East (Nubians) Africans.

            I’ll never understand this desperate need for a predominately white ancient Egypt or to remove Black presence or accomplishments.

          • Le Fox

            “Ramses had a black daddy” – HAHAHAHAA OH WOW.

            “There are so many problems with this” – Deny evidence, turn around and cite Afrocentrist theories, and keep going.

            Yup, keep calling whites barbarians and blacks geniuses. And they couldn’t invent the wheel. Must be nice to steal history, eh?

            “The modern population doesn’t agree with it” – You’re completely forgetting genetic changes and the Islamic invasion.

            “I don’t understand the need for this…to remove black presence of accomplishments” – There are no black accomplishments, and you can stop citing pseudo-science any time now.

            “Also, speaking of the “ancient Egyptians” as just some ethnically static population is completely contrary to the available data, history, and is attacking a strawman.” – Contrary to what data? And what strawman is there? You are the one denying the evidence. You’re simply repeating Afrocentrist history, which isn’t history at all.

            “(Ginger’s) crania is similar to other Africans…” – No, it isn’t. It is exclusively Caucasoid. Does it have a protruding jaw? The ape-like structure? Yes? No?

            “For one, it is an outright falsehood to claim that the genotyping of ancient Egyptian mummies is “significant” – Populations change over time. Mummies represent the original genetic group. It is an outright falsehood to suggest that there have been any successful Negro societies when there are none. You make erroneous claims on “barbaric” Anglo-Saxons and other white tribes for being primitive, yet there is plenty of evidence that suggest the opposite. You also have circular logic in the effect that you claim that Black societies fell because of whites, yet also say that this couldn’t be possible because they were too stupid.

            Typical, coming from an African who has no history. Better come back later, mmmkay?

          • Michael_C_Scott

            Since your ethnicity is Japanese, and I don’t normally do this, please forgive me.

            Monkey Island.

          • Le Fox

            “He overturned the lies of a Eurocentric Egypt” – Those aren’t lies, and we have the mummies to prove it. Modern genetic evidence suggest that there is a complete ABSENCE of Sub-Saharan genes in Egyptians.

            “The European invasion led to its decline” – Oh, right: The Blacl ‘gyphsuns were all doing OK until evil whitey came along. Really. Explain why in their own HIEROGLYPHICS that Africans are portrayed as slaves. For an “Imperial people” they sure didn’t fight back.

            Diop is an Afrocentrist and a liar. Right, Blacks ruled Egypt…that’s why every single civilization invaded by blacks has fallen. Cleopatra was a Macedonian, and YES, the Ancient Egyptians were white. They were North African Caucasoids. Genetics prove this.

            “We all know that WHITES are barbarians!” – Yeah, that explains the computer you’re typing on. While your people were too busy defecating in your own water supply, we were creating stuff.

            Typical Afrocentrist scum.

          • Joseph

            I read recently that Socrates was black also so none of this should be surprising. The Greeks got much of their culture from Africa. Please make a note for future reference.

          • Fr. John+

            One look at your last name and I realized you were an (LOL) ‘asian supremacist’. face it, all people with cultures of long standing think theirs is the ‘best’. It behooves us to truly study and see which culture GOD thinks is the ‘best.’ And act accordingly… if we can stomach it.

            http://thewhitechrist.wordpress.com/2013/02/08/to-the-judean-first-then-the-greek-or-to-the-same-volk/

          • Le Fox

            The Zulus had no empire.

            Au contraire, the “barbaric” whites you speak of had some of the complicated languages in the world, and built elaborate stone structures.

            “The East Asians had…” – Not as complex as you think. You didn’t really contribute much. Over 98% of all the things we have in this world, including computers, were done by whites.

            And those barbaric whites had them, too.

            Actually, it was the Moors that brought bloodshed. Check your Islamic history again.

            And, if I am not mistaken, whites wrote constantly that East Asians were not that creative and did not bother to change. We brought you out of Feudalism; better remember that.

            There were no Great African Civilizations actually done by Africans. None. There is no record of them even inventing the wheel. Au contraire, there is evidence of Indo-Aryans visiting and putting their culture there. Besides, a race with an average IQ of 60 isn’t capable of making any civilization whatsoever.

            I recommend “The Uniqueness of Western Civilization” and “War Before Civilization.” Cute to see anti-white liberals spew their nonsense.

        • Oil Can Harry

          Ease back, Doppelganger. I was making a joke. It was a reference to the numerous Chinese nationals arrested in the US trying to steal (white) technology.

          And BTW why do Asians have to copy our ideas? I thought you liberals said all the races were equal and therefore equally creative!

    • ChrisTakahashi

      Oh, boy. Sigh. More Eurocentric fairy tales in a concerted historical effort to rob the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and Afrika of its actual history, by superimposing pseudo-science and pseudo-history over established empirical theories. This new school of a European origin to North America is so thoroughly refuted by all of the mounds of genetic, anthropological, and archaeological evidence that demonstrate, conclusively, that the indigenous Americans are the “colonizing founders” of the Americas. Give it up. Please.

      This is about as ridiculous as the fringe theories arguing for an African Olmec civilization (which, coincidentally, have more evidence than this new compost). This isn’t “yours”. Deal with it.

      • Garrett Brown

        Your name isn’t takahashi Weeaboo. Stop acting like it.

      • Joseph

        “established empirical theories”

        What the heck is an “empirical theory”?

        You’ve really never passed a science course -have you.

        • ChrisTakahashi

          An empirical theory is simply another way of saying a scientific theory; an explanation or framework based on a body of facts. Facts= empirical. Explanation= theory. i.e “empirical theory”. Voila! Boy, you’re really grasping at straws here.

          Seems you’ve revealed exactly who hasn’t passed a science course. (Or an English grammar course, for that matter; since you incorrectly used a period instead of a question mark, after your final interrogative statement).

          • Joseph

            No; I was not actually asking you a question. Further, I’m not going to critique the numerous grammatical errors in your reply.

            I think we are unlikely to arrive at any agreement.

          • HaroldWesterling

            Wow…you really are part of the talented ten-fh! 😉

  • E_Pluribus_Pluribus

    More detail — with picture:

    Radical theory of first Americans places Stone Age Europeans in Delmarva 20,000 years ago

    By Brian Vastag, Published: February 29

    WASHINGTON POST

    http://tinyurl.com/7tn2za9

  • I was thinking about this the other day. Would Asians voluntarily cross the Bering strait land bridge 10,000+ years ago? I think asians rounded up the undesirables and the anti-socials and forced them out and they are the ones who made the trek. That would explain today’s mexicans, wouldn’t it?

    • The__Bobster

      I suspect that the three great migrations were fleeing the proto-Caucasians.

  • NeanderthalDNA

    Don’t know if it’s related but early historical European colonists considered certain eastern tribes to look very European.

    • E_Pluribus_Pluribus

      It’s related. See video below.

  • wattylersrevolt

    In a debate with White Leftists and Liberals..the filthy degenerate White Liberals-Leftists..Noam Chomsky comes to mind(I write this as someone who agrees with probably 95 percent of what Chomsky has written on Foreign and Economic Policy)…will blather on about the genocide of the Ameridians. Well, here is what I say:1)I don’t care one bit…or a rats bottom for that matter…that Europeans commited genocide against the Ameridians anymore than Noam Chomsky cares…0 concern actually on the part of Noam Chomsky…that Ameridians were commiting genocide against each other for twenty thousand years. There isn’t an Ameridian Tribe in America,Canada and Latin American that did exterminate another Ameridian Tribe to make room for their people. Noam Chomsky focuses on the last 500 years…what about the previous twenty thousand years?
    Hippie-New age Wierdos have always viewed the Anasasi as the perfection of all that is gentle,and peacefull in humanity. They meet on Anasasi reservations every couple of years to vibe with the cosmic decency of the Anasasi. But this is all creepy nonesense. Just go read the book “Man Corn”. The Descendants of the Anasasi ate there way up through South and Central America…up into the American Southwest were they very peckish for the brains of the children in the surrounding Ameridan Tribes. And, when I write that the Anasasi ate their way through South and Central America into North America…they ate their way through various Ameridian Tribes along the way…actually they ate their “fellow” Ameridian Tribes for dinner along the way up into New Mexico.
    White Liberals are the most vile form of scum in the Universe.

    • wattylersrevolt

      Correction:it should read the ancestors of the Anasasi. I want to point out that the evidence for Anasasi canabalism has mounting for several years.

    • saxonsun

      You are right–I saw a show about this many years ago.

    • Michael_C_Scott

      Anasazi were and are Pueblo people.

  • I checked online to see some archaeology and anthropology departments at some of our colleges. It’s sick, I tell you. Too many white faces, and not enough diversity.

    U. of Denver http://mysite.du.edu/~lconyers/archaeology/graduate_program_archaeology.htm
    Durham U. http://www.dur.ac.uk/archaeology/postgraduate/success/

    And of course, Oregon itself: http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~ftrock/redmond_caves_photos2006.php

    • gemjunior

      “I’m having some trouble locating Departments of Archaeology & Anthropolgy in historically black colleges (HBU).
      Have you tried any of the Historically Amerindian Colleges? They might have something in their departments. Oh, I’m sorry – I just realized they only specialize in self-absorption like the black colleges and of course hispanic colleges (or departments or whatever).

  • brengunn

    All fairly serious science till the European stuff. C’mon people, this is pseudo science.

    If Europeans had made it to the Americas there would be evidence in Amerindian DNA. And if for some totally implausible reason Europeans died out in a land easily conquered by Indians, there would be much more evidence in the fossil records. Our most bold and brave struggled to get to the North Pole a century ago, how credible is it that our distant ancestors could travel many times that distance across a vast Atlantic ice sheet. It’s just not true.

    This is the kind of silly ethnocentrism that should be left to AA scholars, it’s not like we Europeans lack real achievements.

    • Kalashnikov

      The haplogroup X evidence shows exactly that. North American haplogroup X is present in 3-4% of “native americans”. It has been shown to have branched off from European Haplogroup X more than 13000 years ago. It also shows conclusively that a large number of European females contributed their DNA to the “native american” population in the distant past. Only females. The only way this could have happened is if the males were killed and the females kept for sexual purposes. The asians crossed the bering straight and committed genocide against the european population already present in the americas.

      • brengunn

        Absolute bollox.

        • Le Fox

          Nice response there, bud.

    • wattylersrevolt

      It is not technologically possible to test for the early European migrants DNA in Ameridian genomes. This was covered in some detail on one of the Discovery Channel shows on the first humans in North America. The crucial DNA evidence just can’t be detected according to the experts in the field. So your point just doesn’t hold up.
      What is at rock bottom absolutely certain is that it is an absoulutetly open question as to who arried first.
      Bu even if the Ameridians arrived first..so what? Hey, we are a nation of immigrants..what’s with those zenophobic Ameridians? Maybe someone here can post a link to that youtube cartoon about the Pilgrims and the Native Americans at Plymouth Rock…funniest thing I ever watched in my whole life.
      How come Noam Chomsky gives permission to the asians and muslims to enjoy the marvelous benefits of European genocide against the Ameridians? Answer:because Noam Chomsky is waging a particular kind of hyperethnic warfare against the Native Born White American Christian Majority. Noam Chomsky should be very carefull..for he may provoke a particular kind of nasty ethnic backlash that he will most definitely find to be very unpleasant.

      • Not possilbe to test DNA or just not politically correct to release the results?
        We do have natural and man-made mummies in north and south America. I’m sure they have detectable DNA.

        • wattylersrevolt

          Yeah, maybe. For the moment I think there is a technological barrier. As far as you and I are concerned..what matters is that leftists fairy tale no longer has any credibility..the fairy tale of the noble,gentle, and ecological Ameridia. And this lie is being used by a hyperethnic Jew such as Noam Chomsky to justify the violent persecution of the Native Born White Americam Majority.

      • gemjunior

        “The crucial DNA evidence just can’t be detected according to the experts in the field.”
        Sometimes these so-called experts may tell a story and only half is used, edited, etc. It’s also quite possible to use “experts” receiving large grants from organizations wholly devoted to putting down these upstarts who advocate for more Solutrean research. There are so many anthropologists and archeologists whose entire lives works, large texts, research, – crossing over into their own identity even – are based on NOT changing the status quo beliefs. I have far more distrust of these “expert scientists”, mostly DWLs and libs than those with new ideas. Seriously now we all know that the ivy’s with the best reputations like Harvard and Columbia are so far left they are indoctrination centers, and students who want to discuss another viewpoint might as well be interrogated by the KGB or Grand Inquisitor. So at this point I’d be more inclined to pay attention to someone saying the Europeans floated over on air balloons or strapped themselves onto the backs of teradactyls. Well maybe not that extreme but you know what I mean. Can’t trust experts especially if they’re getting grants. This place is going more and more down the tubes with each decade.

    • Le Fox

      “It’s just not true” – “It’s not credible” – Yet people walking across an ice sheet is plausible.

      Sea-faring cultures. They exist, damn you.

  • NYB

    “They could have been walking thousands of kilometers per year.”
    The warmer climate of the equator beckoned them. Once they reached the warm lands, they spread out to all the points of the compass and began fighting running wars over unpopulated hunting grounds.
    Fighting for space is the normal state of mankind. The modern jet-setting and border-hopping migrants come because the pickings here are rich and nobody puts up a fight.

  • LHathaway

    “after the ice age warming, before the great cold snap. {snip}”

    I suspect Jared Taylor, who I presume to be the ‘snipper’, noticed the contradictions earlier in the article regarding the ‘warming period’ and ‘cooling period’, and couldn’t resist putting the ‘snip’ in in this particular place here, later, to highlight the inconsistency. I mean, did they migrate to America because the temperature got warmer, or did they migrate here because the temperature got colder?

    If it turns out whites did colonize America many centuries before the colonization we know of, the resulting tale will be that whites weren’t hardy enough to survive, so died out.

    I notice the article mentions Ice-age horses. Horses are indigenous to North America. It is believed Native American’s hunted them to extinction. Europeans brought horses to North America with them reintroducing them to the continent. So the wise, sensitive, in-tune with nature, Native American’s could play with them once again.

  • bigone4u

    Come on white folks, sing along with me. All together now:

    This land is your land, this land is my land
    From California, to the New York Island
    From the redwood forest, to the gulf stream waters
    This land was made for you and me

    Stop the music. No, Indians, you are not allowed to sing this particular song because you stole this land from our white ancestors. Please be quiet.

  • bubba gump

    Actually Native Americans divide themselves up into “northerns” and “southerns”. The northerns are pale, tall and this. The southerns are darker, shorter and rounder. I don’t think this would come as much as a surprise to them if thwy were allowwd to be politically unbiased. This was from a Hopi woman I dated.

  • Mulder

    I am a Native American. My mother immigrated from Germany in the 50’s, my father is the son of a Canadian by birth. I was born here, on US soil to two legal citizens- I am a NATIVE AMERICAN.

  • Epiminondas

    It seems clear that Europeans came to North America in waves of colonies, perhaps thousands of years apart. In the interval, the colonists forgot their homeland, and the homeland forgot the colonists. The arrival of the Vikings on these shores and the exploits of Columbus can now be seen in perspective as the latest of the waves of colonists. And in another two thousand years will our descendants know anything about “Europe”?

    • Yes its true, toughest white men Europe ever produced the Vikings got their ass kicked by our Red bros 500 yrs before that thief and slaver Columbus showed up with his gunpowder and alcohol and very potent flu & smallpox germs lucky devils they were.

  • josh

    The BLACK MAN was here first! Kwazzii Utomo was a great chief,teacher and wise man of the Umoto,the Great people who built the Egyptian Pyramids! He came here and built a great city. They had electricity,automobiles and every convenienece. It was a city of great learning. Suddenly a ship bearing white men which had gone off course and was lost,landed. The whites were starving and dressed in rags. Some of Utomo’s advisesr told him to kill the white “devils” as they were quite beastly and savage. Utomo took pity on them and said,”let us raise up these poor creatures. Surely they are not and can never be equal to us,but it is our duty as Black men to help those less fortunate!” The Council of Black Men couldnt argue this point,as it was well known among them that helping the less fortunate is one of their prime commanments! So Utomo taught the white man the ways of civilization. He fed them and they grew stronger,tho always cowardly and cringing before their superiors. Among them were several young females. They begged Utomo to bear his child. Utomo’s Queen,Nabeyonsay,the most beautiful of all women,was outraged and demanded these savages be exiled,as did Utomo’s advisers. Utomo,tho a wise and great ruler,had a soft spot for one of the white females,so he secretly became her lover. One of the white savages,seeing Utomo being intimate witht hefemale,saw this as his chance to steal the wealth of his benefactors,and he snuck upon the sleeping Utomo…and killed him! The white beatsts STOle the knowledge of the Black man and decreed that since the Black Man was Superior in all, things,he must be kept down,and they invented a monstrous Lie called White Supremacy!! Due to Utomo’s foolish whim,the great City of Blackness was brought to ruin! And racism was born!!! (Its fun to make up this crap!!)

    • Making stuff up?

      What you just did was almost to a tee describe what is actually being taught in a typical all black New York City public elementary school, and in most Afrocentric private/charter schools.

  • Brady

    You know, over thousands of years of pre-history prior to the Ice Age, common sense should be enough to indicate that there would have been migrations over the Atlantic as well as the Pacific land bridges. The indigenous people of the Americas would therefore have European as well as Asian ancestry. The Sami people of Northern Scandinavia have teepees and drums that resemble those of the Amerindians.

  • mrcan

    scientists developed the Asian origins theory of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, and the scientists happened to be European. Now science is challenging the early Asian hypothesis. science must not bend a politically correct ideology for fear it may offend. if Europeans were here first then it must be scientifically proved, and it appears that the evidence is leaning that way.

  • Jim F.

    Alongside their interesting and persuasive notions, it would be helpful immediately for scientists to have their own “why I might be wrong” sidebar and maybe to gather out of the
    media and high school textbooks, etc, the numerous reports of “findings” that turned out to
    be over-rated.

  • Mike Rush

    Well, first of all the article is about humans.. Black africans are not human, they are sub humans… They have never built a functional society, they cannot even live in a functional society, they never had a written language until humans taught them, they’ve never invented a single thing, not one, not even the wheel which cave men had 10,000 years ago.. Wherever sub-saharan african blacks are found en masse, you will also find disease, poverty, despair, and death. That is their culture.. When discussing accomplishments of the human race, you cannot insert sub saharan black africans.. When you do that, your argument becomes absurd…