Why One Waist-Size Guide Doesn’t Fit All Ethnic Backgrounds

Jennifer Sygo, National Post, August 9, 2011

When it comes to your health, does it matter if you’re black or white? With mounting evidence suggesting waist circumference (WC) is more important than weight when it comes to assessing disease risk, more emphasis is being placed on determining what, exactly, is a healthy waist size. (And no, this doesn’t mean pants size; see the end of this column for instructions on measuring your own WC.) But for many Canadians of non-European descent, the current targets don’t measure up, and a new study suggests this could lead to serious health consequences.

SOUTH ASIAN RISK

According to the study, conducted by researchers at McMaster University, weight gain among individuals of South Asian descent was found to be more harmful than for other ethnic groups. When South Asians gained the same number of pounds as their non-South Asian counterparts, they gained a higher percentage of what is known as visceral fat, or the type of fat that accumulates around organs. A higher amount of visceral fat not only leads to a thicker waist, but it also increases risk of heart disease and Type 2 diabetes. Subcutaneous fat, by contrast, is the fat located under the skin, and is less associated with disease.

The findings confirm previous research suggesting South Asians are at a disproportionately high risk of heart disease, and that the risk seems to be linked to gains around the waist. But what about other non-Caucasian ethnic groups? According to the Health Canada website, “a WC at or above 102 cm (40 inches) for men, and 88 cm (35 inches) for women, is associated with an increased risk of developing health problems such as diabetes, heart disease and high blood pressure.” That would be true if all Canadians were white, but it does not reflect this country’s growing ethnic diversity.

DIVERSE RISK FACTORS

According to the 2006 Canadian clinical practice guidelines on the management and prevention of obesity in adults and children, optimal waist circumference for individuals of European descent is less than 94 cm (37 inches) for men and 80 cm (31.5 inches) for women. While these numbers are lower than the targets listed by Health Canada, you can think of them as the optimal target, whereas the Health Canada numbers reflect the high risk cutoff. But the 2006 guidelines go a step further by including specific recommendations for Japanese, South Asian and Chinese populations, as well as workarounds for South and Central Americans and Sub-Saharan African and Arab populations (see the table below for full recommendations).

Waist Lline.jpg

THE BOTTOM LINE

In a nutshell, this new research, coupled with a handful of existing guidelines, tells us that, when possible, we need to avoid generalizing when it comes to talking about weight gain among different ethnic groups. If you are of Japanese, Hispanic, Malaysian or Pakistani descent, your risk associated with weight gain may be higher than what the charts at your doctor’s office say.

For now, however, many, if not most of the published guidelines for the prevention and management of weight-related diseases (Type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and cancer being the big three) do not differentiate between ethnic groups, so educating yourself about your own risk factors is important. With that in mind, here are a few tips to help understand and manage your risk of weight-related disease:

• To take your own WC, find the lowest point on your ribs and the top of your hip bone. Place a tape measure around your waist at the midpoint between the two points (even if it isn’t where you wear your pants), and make sure the tape measure is flat. Take your measurement after a normal exhale.

• If your WC is outside of the optimal range (don’t worry, you’re not alone), you can use a rough guideline that every five pounds you lose or gain will affect your WC by about one inch.

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  • Robert Binion

    This is the first season that I have grown herbs for cooking on the back deck. In large pots, they require more frequent watering but are still easy to grow and make simple food wonderful! A potato seasoned and roasted with rosemary is a treat. Eat pasta or the healthy pizzas with fresh basil I baked for a gathering on Kentucky Derby day and you will never buy the pale, processed substitute again. Last week, a neighbor gave me squash from her garden and I made a cornbread dressing for it. I wish you could smell the aroma of sage cooking when harvested only minutes before. The use of these culinary herbs to create nutritious, tasty foods that better quell hunger for pennies is part of our heritage, too.

    (Is it normal for the first waking thought of a fifty-eight year old man to be, “I need a new chafing dish”?)

  • Jeddermann.

    THEY don’t digest or metabolize food in the same manner as WE do. THEY have a hard time digesting milk and anything containing milk. Processed foods having milk as an ingredient cause THEM problems. THEY should not be eating the same diet WE eat. As simple as that. All men are not created equal AND EVERYONE KNOWS IT.

  • Mike H.

    But I thought that race was a social construct and had no biological bearing whatsoever?! At least, that’s what the sociologists and liberals living up in ivory towers keep telling me.

  • SunnyvaleSal

    I can confirm that many overweight Indians (from India) have type 2 diabetes — even more so than Whites. But I am really mystified by why height isn’t mentioned for anyone. Surely it should be expected that someone who is 5 ft 10 in has a bigger waist than someone 5 ft 1 in.

  • Anonymous

    Medical statistics are often very misleading because they are not allowed–because of political correctness–to make racial distinctions.

    A case in point is the oft-quoted dismal statistics concerning child mortality rates in the USA and how we are among the highest in industrial societies. Considering we have the largest population–over 30% of our total–of Third World non-Whites, it should come as no surprise that child mortality rates are high.

    The adult diabetes statistics are also skewed. Blacks have a much higher rate than Whites, yet they pool all the data together and create the fear that we are all equally at risk.

    The list is endless as far as racial disease differences are concerned, yet since Whites have to be tricked into footing the medical bills for these Third Worlders, we are mislead by the media into thinking that we are all equal contributors to our national health crisis.

  • Anonymous

    That is their problem and sorry, not my concern.

    Thanks for the post on growing herbs and eating healthier. Seems to me there are loads of fat whites in this country that survive on junk, who can not cook without opening a can of this and package of that and a tub of cool whip. It shows in our fat population and the bad state of “health”. (Why do they call it healthcare, when it is dealing with sickness).

    How many of you on here are growing some of their food and striving to live healthy?

  • Anonymous

    #2

    All men are not created equal AND EVERYONE KNOWS IT.

    Oh?

    My quasi son in law does not. He thinks there is no such thing as races, the idea of races is a social construct, and except for color, we are all the same. Oh, and he does believe firmly in evolution.

    It is only skin deep.