Thank a White Male

Jeff Lipkes, American Thinker, November 27, 2014

Do you like internal combustion engines?

Thank a few white men. (Jean Lenoir, Nikolaus Otto, Karl Benz, Rudolf Diesel, Gottlieb Daimler, Emil Jellinek, Henry Ford among others.)

Are you a fan of flush toilets and indoor plumbing?

Thank white males Alexander Cumming, Thomas Twyford, and Isaiah Rogers

Toilet paper?

Thank Joseph Gayetty, W.M.

How about washing machines and dryers?

Thank white males Alva Fisher and J. Ross Moore.

“When you’ve got your health, you’ve got just about everything” ran the tag-line in a famous Geritol commercial from the 1970s, and the guys we most have reason to be grateful for are undoubtedly those who’ve developed the medical practices and the drugs and devices that have transformed our lives over the past hundred fifty years.

Before the turkey gets carved, it’s worth taking a moment to remember a few of these brilliant, persistent, and lucky men, and recall their accomplishments. Even when they’ve won Nobel Prizes in Medicine, their names are virtually unknown. They’re not mentioned in the Core Curriculum or celebrated by Google on their birthdays.

Pain

If you ever had surgery, did you opt for anesthesia?

If so, thank a few more white males, beginning with William Clarke in New York and Crawford Long in Georgia who both used chloroform in minor surgeries in 1842. A paper published four years later by William Morton, after his own work in Boston, spread the word. Ether replaced chloroform during the next decade. There are now scores of general and regional anesthetics and sedatives and muscle relaxants, administered in tandem. The first local anesthetic has also been superseded. It was cocaine, pioneered by a Viennese ophthalmologist, Carl Koller, in 1884.

Ever take an analgesic?

Next time you pop an aspirin, remember Felix Hoffmann of Bayer. In 1897, he converted salicylic acid to acetylsalicylic acid, much easier on the stomach. Aspirin remains the most popular and arguably the most effective drug on the market. In 1948 two New York biochemists, Bernard Brodie and Julius Axelrod, documented the effect that acetaminophen (Tylenol), synthesized by Harmon Morse in 1878, had on pain and fever. Gastroenterologist James Roth persuaded McNeil Labs to market the analgesic in 1953.

Infectious Diseases

Most Americans today die of heart disease or cancer, but before the twentieth century, it was infectious diseases that struck people down, and children were the primary victims. In pre-industrial England, still with the most developed economy in the world in the late 17th century, 50% of all children didn’t survive the age of 15. With the phenomenal growth of cities during the 19th century, cholera, typhoid fever, and tuberculosis became the leading killers.

In 1854, a London medical inspector, John Snow, proved that a cholera epidemic in Soho was caused by infected sewage seeping into the water supply. Until then it was thought the disease spread through the air. The sanitary disposal of sewage and the provision of clean water, possible thanks to mostly anonymous metallurgists and engineers–an exception is the famous Thomas Crapper, who pioneered the u-shaped trap and improved, though he didn’t invent, the flush toilet–has saved more lives than any drug or surgical innovation.

Dramatic improvements in food supply have also had an incalculable effect on health. Agricultural innovations, beginning with those introduced in England in the 18th century, were disseminated globally by the end of the 20th century–the “Green Revolution.” Famines struck Europe as recently as the late 1860s. (The man-made famines of the 20th century are another story.) A transportation revolution made possible the provision of more than sufficient protein, calories, and nutrients worldwide. Needless to say, it was white males who designed and built the roads, canals, railroads, and ports and airports, and the ships, trains, planes, and trucks that used them, and the mines, and then wells, pipelines, and tankers that supplied the fuel they ran on.

Whatever the merits of taking vitamins and supplements today, no one has to take vitamin C to prevent scurvy, or vitamin B to prevent pellagra, or vitamin D and calcium to prevent rickets. And, for the time being, we all live in a post-Malthusian world. The global population was about 800 million to 1 billion when the gloomy parson wrote his famous book in 1798. It’s now over 7 billion.

***

Dr. Snow had no idea what was actually causing cholera. It was Louis Pasteur who gave the world the germ theory of disease, as every schoolchild once knew. Studying the fermentation of wine, he concluded that this was caused by the metabolic activity of microorganisms, as was the souring of milk. The critters were responsible for disease, too, he recognized, and identified three killer bacteria: staphylococcus, streptococcus, and pneumococcus. Nasty microorganisms could be killed or rendered harmless by heat and oxygenation, Pasteur discovered, and would then prevent the disease in those who were inoculated. He went on to develop vaccines for chicken cholera, anthrax, and rabies. Edward Jenner had demonstrated in in the late 1790s that the dreaded smallpox could be prevented by injecting patients with material from the pustules of cowpox victims, a much milder disease. (The word vaccine comes from vaca, one of the Latin words for cow.) Pasteur, however, was the first to immunize patients by modifying bacteria rather than through cross-vaccination.

A parade of vaccines followed. People in their mid-60s and older can remember two of the most famous: the Salk and Sabin vaccines against poliomyelitis, a paralyzing disease that had panicked American parents in the late ‘40s and early ‘50s. Children preferred Albert Sabin’s 1962 version: the attenuated virus was administered on a sugar cube. Jonas Salk’s inactivated vaccine, available in 1955, was injected.

In 1847, more than a decade before Pasteur disclosed his germ theory, the Viennese obstetrician Ignaz Semmelweis documented the effectiveness of hand washing with chlorinated water before entering a maternity ward. He brought mortality rates from puerperal fever down from 8% to 1.3%. Two decades later, having read a paper by Pasteur, Joseph Lister demonstrated the effectiveness of carbolic acid to sterilize wounds and surgical instruments. Mortality rates fell from around 50% to about 15%. The efforts of both men, especially Semmelweis, were met with ridicule and disdain.

Pasteur’s German rivals Robert Koch and Paul Ehrlich made monumental contributions to biochemistry, bacteriology, and hematology, but left the world no “magic bullet” (Ehrlich’s term). Koch identified the organism causing tuberculosis, the leading killer of the 19th century, but his attempts at finding a vaccine failed. His purified protein derivative from the bacteria, tuberculin, could be used to diagnose the disease, however. It was two French researchers, Albert Calmette and Camille Guerin, who developed a successful vaccine, first administered in 1921, though it was not widely used until after World War II.

Ehrlich joined the search for antibacterial drugs that were not denatured bacteria or viruses. He synthesized neoarsphenamine (Neo-Salvarsan), effective against syphilis, a scourge since the late15th century, but which had toxic side effects. It was not until the 1930s that first generation of antibiotics appeared. These were the sulfa drugs, derived from dyes with sulfa-nitrogen chains. The first was a red dye synthesized by Joseph Klarer and Fritz Mietzsch. In 1935, Gerhard Domagk at I. G. Farben demonstrated its effectiveness in cases of blood poisoning.

The anti-bacterial properties of Penicillium had already been discovered at this point by Alexander Fleming. The Scottish bacteriologist had famously left a window open in his lab when he went on vacation in 1928, and returned to find that a mold had destroyed the staphylococcus colony in one of his petri dishes. But it’s one thing to make a fortuitous discovery and another thing to cultivate and purify a promising organic compound and conduct persuasive trials. This was not done until 1941. Thank Oxford biochemists Howard Florey and Ernst Chain. A Pfizer chemist, Joseph Kane, figured out how to mass-produce penicillin and by 1943 it was available to American troops. The wonder drug of the 20th century, penicillin killed the Gram-positive bacteria that caused meningitis, diphtheria, rheumatic fever, tonsillitis, syphilis, and gonorrhea. New generations of antibiotics followed, as bacteria rapidly developed resistance: among them, streptomycin in 1943 (thank Selman Waksman), tetracycline in 1955 (thank Lloyd Conover), and, the most widely prescribed today, amoxicillin.

Diagnostic technologies

Microscope: While the Delft draper Antonie van Leeuwenhoek didn’t invent the compound microscope, he improved it, beginning in the 1660s, increasing the curvature of the lenses, and so became the first person to see and describe blood corpuscles, bacteria, protozoa, and sperm.

Electron microscope: Physicist Ernst Ruska and electrical engineer Max Kroll constructed the prototype in Berlin in 1933, using a lens by Hans Busch. Eventually, electron microscopes would be designed with two-million power magnification. Leeuwenhoek’s had about two hundred.

Stethoscope: Thank the French physician René Laennec, who introduced what he called a microphone in 1816. British nephrologist Golding Bird substituted a flexible tube for Laennec’s wooden cylinder in 1840, and the Irish physician Arthur Leared added a second earpiece in 1851. Notable improvements were made by Americans Howard Sprague, a cardiologist, and electrical engineer Maurice Rappaport in the 1960s (a double-sided head), and Harvard cardiologist David Littmann in the same decade (enhancing the acoustics). The device undoubtedly transformed medicine, and with good reason became the symbol of the health care professional.

Sphygmograph: The first machine to measure blood pressure was created by a German physiologist, Karl von Vierordt in 1854.

X-rays: Discovered by Karl Wilhelm Röntgen, at Wurzberg in 1895, this was probably the single most important diagnostic breakthrough in medical history. Before Röntgen noticed that cathode rays, electrons emitted from a cathode tube, traveled through objects and created images on a fluorescent screen, physicians could only listen, palpitate, examine stools, and drink urine.

PET scans: James Robertson designed the first machine in 1961, based on the work of number of American men at Penn, Wash U., and Mass General, designed the first machine. The scanner provides an image from the positron emissions coming from a radioactive isotope injected into the patient, and is particularly useful for mapping activity in the brain.

CAT scans: The first model was developed by electrical engineer Godfrey Hounsfield, in London, 1972, drawing on the work of South African physicist Alan Cormack in the mid-1960s. It generates three-dimensional and cross-sectional images using computers and gamma rays.

MRI: Raymond Damadian, a SUNY professor of medicine with a degree in math, performed the first full-body scan 1977. His design was anticipated by theoretical work by Felix Bloch and Edward Purcell in the 1930s, and, later, Paul Lauterbur. MRIs map the radio waves given off by hydrogen atoms exposed to energy from magnets, and are particularly useful in imaging tissue–and without exposing the patient to ionizing radiation.

Ultrasound: Ian Donald, a Glasgow obstetrician, in the mid-1950s adopted a device already used in industry that generated inaudible, high frequency sound waves. The machine quickly and cheaply displays images of soft tissue, and now provides most American parents with the first photo of their baby.

Endoscopes: Georg Wolf produced the first flexible gastroscope in Berlin in 1911, and this was improved by Karl Storz in the late ‘40s. The first fiber optic endoscope was introduced in 1957 by Basil Hirschowitz, a South African gastroenterologist, drawing on the work of British physicist Harold Hopkins. The scope is indispensible in diagnosing GI abnormalities.

Angiogram: Werner Forssmann performed the first cardiac catherisation–on himself–in Eberswald in 1929. He inserted a catheter into his lower left arm, walked downstairs to a fluoroscope, threaded the catheter to his right atrium and injected a radioptic dye. The technique was further developed by Dickson Richards and André Courmand at Columbia in the ‘40s, and then extended to coronary arteries, initially accidentally, by Frank Sones at the Cleveland Clinic in 1958.

X-rays and scopes were quickly used in treatment as well diagnosis. Roentgen himself used his machines to burn off warts. Similarly, in 1964, Charles Dotter and Marvin Judkins used a catheter to open a blocked artery, improving the technique in 1967. Andreas Gruentzig then introduced balloon angioplasty in 1975, an inflated balloon opening the narrowed or blocked artery. In 1986, Jacques Puel implanted the first coronary stent at U. of Toulouse, and soon afterwards a Swiss cardiologist, Ulrich Sigwart, developed the first drug-eluding stent.

***

The men who developed five of the most dramatically effective and widely used drugs in internal medicine deserve mention.

In the late ‘30s, two Mayo Clinic biochemists hoping to cure rheumatoid arthritis, Philip Hench and Edward Kendall, isolated four steroids extracted from the cortex of the adrenal gland atop the kidneys. The fourth, “E,” was very difficult to synthesize, but Merck chemist Lewis Sarrett succeeded, and in 1948, the hormone was injected into fourteen patients crippled by arthritis. Cortisone relieved the symptoms. Mass produced, with much difficulty, by Upjohn chemists in 1952, it was refined by their rivals at Schering three years later into a compound five times as strong, prednisone. In addition to arthritis, corticosteroids are used in the treatment of other inflammatory diseases, like colitis and Crohn’s, and in dermatitis, asthma, hepatitis, and lupus.

Anyone over fifty can remember peptic ulcers, extremely painful lesions on the stomach wall or duodenum. They were thought to be brought on by stress. “You’re giving me an ulcer!” was a common expression. Women were especially affected, and a bland diet was the only treatment, other than surgery. The lesions were caused by gastric acid, and two British pharmacologists and a biochemist, George Paget, James Black, and William Duncan, investigated compounds that would block the stomach’s histamine receptors, reducing the secretion of acid. There were endless difficulties. Over 200 compounds were synthesized, and the most promising, metiamide, proved toxic. Tweaking the molecule, replacing a sulfur atom with two nitrogen atoms, yielded cimetidine in 1976. As Tagamet, it revolutionized gastroenterology. It was also the first drug to generate over $1 billion in annual sales. Its successors, the proton pump inhibitors Prilosec and its near-twin Nexium, more than doubling the acid reduction, have also been blockbuster drugs.

Cimetidine was the culmination of one line of research that began in 1910, when a London physiologist, Henry Dale, isolated a uterine stimulant he called “histamine.” Unfortunately, when it was given to patients, it caused something like anaphylactic shock. The search began for an “antagonist” that would block its production, even before it was recognized as the culprit in hay fever (allergic rhinitis). The most successful antagonist was one was developed in 1943 by a young chemist in Cincinnati, Geroge Rieveschl, diphenhydramine, marketed as Benadryl. Ten to thirty percent of the world’s population suffers from seasonal allergies, so this was hailed as miracle drug. In the early ‘80s a second generation of antihistamines appeared that didn’t cross the brain-blood barrier and thus didn’t sedate the user. Loratadine (Claritin), the first, was generating over $2 billion in annual sales before it went generic.

Diabetes, resulting in high blood glucose levels (heperglycemia), has been known for two millennia. It was a deadly disease, type 1 rapidly fatal, type 2, adult onset, debilitating and eventually lethal. By the end of the 19th century, the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas had been identified as the source of a substance that prevented it, insulin, but this turned out to be a fragile peptide hormone, broken down by an enzyme in the pancreas during attempts to extract it. In 1921, Canadian surgeon Frederick Banting and medical student Charles Best determined a way to disable the production of the enzyme, trypsin. Injected in a teenager with type 1 diabetes, insulin was immediately effective. There is still no cure for diabetes, but today the 380 million sufferers globally can live normal lives thanks to Banting and Best.

Finally, millions of men and their wives and girlfriends owe a big debt to British chemists Peter Dunn and Albert Wood, and Americans Andrew Bell, David Brown, and Nicholas Terrett. They developed sildenafil, intended to treat angina. It works by suppressing an enzyme that degrades a molecule that relaxes smooth muscle tissue, increasing blood flow. Ian Osterloh, running the clinical trials for Pfizer, observed that the drug induced erections, and it was marketed for ED. Viagra made the cover of Time Magazine after it was approved in March 1998. The blue pill still generates about $2 billion annually in sales, despite competition, and is prescribed for 11 million men.

***

Two incredible machines build in the mid-20th century revolutionized the practice of medicine. Both remove blood from the body.

During World War II, the Dutch physician Willem Kolff constructed a machine to cleanse the blood of patients suffering from renal failure by filtering out urea and creatine. Over 400,000 Americans are on dialysis today.

In 1953, after 18 years of work, John Gibbon, a cardiologist at the University of Pennsylvania, produced a machine that oxygenated blood and pumped it around the body, permitting operations on the heart, like those performed a decade later by Michael DeBakey in Houston and René Favaloro in Cleveland. The two surgeons pioneered coronary bypass grafts, using a blood vessel in the leg or chest to re-route blood around a blocked artery. About 200,000 operations are performed each year, down from about 400,000 at the turn of the century, thanks to stents. Gibbon’s machine enabled the most widely covered operation in history, the heart transplant, first performed by South African surgeon Christian Barnard in 1967, based on research by Norman Shumway and others. Over 2,000 Americans receive heart transplants each year.

The cardiac device Americans are most likely to encounter is the defibrillator, now in airports, stadiums, supermarkets, and other public places. Thank two Swiss professors, Louis Prévost and Frédéric Batelli, who, in 1899, induced ventricle fibrillation, abnormal heartbeat, in dogs with a small electrical shock, and restored normal rhythm with a larger one. It was not until the 1940s that a defibrillator was used in heart surgery, by Claude Beck in Cleveland. A Russian researcher during World War II, Naum Gurvich, discovered that biphasic waves, a large positive jolt followed by a small negative pulse, was more effective, and a machine was constructed on this basis by an American cardiologist, Bernard Lown. Improvements by electrical engineers William Kouwenhoven and Guy Knickerbocker, and cardiologist James Jude at Hopkins in 1957, and subsequently by Karl and Mark Kroll, and Byron Gilman in the ‘90s made the device much smaller and portable.

Over three million people worldwide don’t have to worry about defibrillators or face open-heart surgery. These are the recipients of pacemakers, and can thank a Canadian electrical engineer, John Hopps. Predecessors were deterred by negative publicity about their experiments, which were believed to be machines to revive the dead. Gurvich had faced this as well. Hopps’ 1950 device used a vacuum tube. With the invention of the transistor, a wearable pacemaker became possible, and Earl Bakken designed one in 1958. Not long afterward, two Swedish engineers, Rune Elmquist and Åke Senning created an implantable pacemaker. The first recipient eventually received 26 and lived to age 86. Lithium batteries, introduced in 1976, enabled the creation of devices with a much longer life.

Cardiac Drugs

Cardiac stimulants have been around since the late 18th century. Thank William Withering, who published his experiments with the folk-remedy digitalis (from foxglove) in 1785.

Anti-anginal drugs were introduced a century later, also in Britain: amyl nitrite in the mid-1860s and nitroglycerin a decade later. Both compounds had been synthesized by French chemists. Thank Thomas Bruton and William Murrell.

The first diuretics, to reduce edema (swelling) and lower blood pressure, were alkaloids derived from coffee and tea. These were not very effective, but better than leeches. Mercury compounds were pioneered by the Viennese physician Arthur Vogel in 1919. These worked, but were tough on the kidneys and liver. The first modern diuretics, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, were developed in the 1940s, with the American Karl Beyer playing a leading role.

The first anti-coagulants date from the ‘20s. A Johns Hopkins physiologist, William Howell, extracted a phospholipid from dog livers that he called heparin and that appeared to prevent blood clots. The first modern anti-coagulant, and still the most widely prescribed, was warfarin (Coumadin), developed as a rat-poison by Karl Link in Wisconsin in 1948. Its effectiveness, and lack of toxicity, was revealed when an army recruit took it in a suicide attempt.

Anti-arrhythmic drugs, to stabilize the heartbeat, were introduced in the opening decade of the 20th century. The first was derived from quinine. The big breakthrough occurred in 1962. Thank, once again, the Scotsman James Black, who synthesized propranolol in that year, the first beta-blocker. What they block are the receptors of epinephrine and norepinephrine. These two chemicals (catecholamines) increase the heart rate, blood pressure, and blood glucose levels, useful for many purposes, but not a good thing in patients with cardiac arrhythmia, irregular heartbeats. Beta-blockers are also prescribed to lower blood pressure.

ACE inhibitors lower the levels of an enzyme secreted by the kidneys and lungs that constricts blood vessels. The unpromising source for the first inhibitor was the venom of the Brazilian pit-viper. It was extracted, purified, and tested by three Squibb scientists in 1975, David Cushman, Miguel Ondetti, and Bernard Rubin. It’s still widely prescribed, though many other ACE inhibitors have since been designed. They are used for patients with congestive heart failure or who have had a heart attack, as well as those with hypertension.

Finally, mention must be made of the statins, which, though over-hyped and over-prescribed, lower serum cholesterol and reduce the risks of a second heart attack. A Japanese microbiologist, Akira Endo, derived, from a species of Penicillium, a substance that inhibited the synthesis of cholesterol, but it was too toxic to use on humans. In 1978, a team at Merck under Alfred Alberts had better luck with another fungus, and called the compound lovastatin. Statins work by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called HMGR.

Cancer Drugs

In the forty-three years since Richard Nixon’s “war on cancer” was launched, the disease has received the lion’s share of government, foundation, and pharmaceutical industry funding, though heart disease kills more people–596,577 Americans last year to 576,691 for cancer, according to the most recent data. This makes it particularly difficult, and invidious, to single out individual researchers.

There is still, of course, nothing close to a magic bullet, though cancer deaths have dropped about 20% since their peak in 1991. Around 27% of cancer deaths this year will be from lung cancer, so the rate will continue to fall as more people stop smoking.

The originators of a few therapies with good five-year survival rates ought to be singled out and thanked.

Seattle oncologist Donnall Thomas performed the first successful bone marrow transplant in 1956. The donor was an identical twin of the leukemia patient. With the development of drugs to suppress the immune system’s response to foreign marrow, Thomas was able to perform a successful transplant from a non-twin relative in 1969. About 18,000 are now performed each year.

One of the more notable successes of chemotherapy has been in the treatment of the childhood cancer acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Sidney Farber in the late ‘40s carried out clinical trials with the antifolate aminopterin, synthesized at Lederle by the Indian biochemist Yellapragada Subbarow. This proved the first effective compound in treating the disease. It was superseded by methotrexate, and now, as in all chemo treatments, a combination of agents is used. The five-year survival rate for ALL has jumped from near zero to 85%.

Early detection is the key to successful treatment in all cancers, and survivors of breast cancer can thank at least four men who pioneered and popularized mammography over a fifty-year period beginning in 1913: Albert Salman, Stafford Warren, Raul Leborgne, and Jacob Gershon-Cohen.

A second key to the comparatively high survival rates for women with breast cancer is tamoxifen. First produced in the late ‘50s by British endocrinologist Arthur Walpole, it was intended as a “morning-after” birth control pill because it blocked the effects of estrogen. However, it failed to terminate pregnancy. Researchers had meanwhile discovered that some, though not all, women with breast cancer recovered when their ovaries were removed. Walpole thought tamoxifen might block breast cancer estrogen receptor cells, inhibiting their reproduction, and persuaded a professor of pharmacology, Craig Jordan, to conduct experiments. These demonstrated the drug’s efficacy, and after clinical trials it was approved and marketed in 1973. Think of Arthur W. the next time you see one of those ubiquitous pink ribbons.

Most chemo agents are cytotoxic metal-based compounds that do not distinguish between abnormal cells and healthy cells that also divide rapidly. The nasty side effects range from hair-loss and nausea to decreased production of red blood cells, nerve and organ damage, osteoporosis and bone fusion, and loss of memory and cognition. More selective drugs, monoclonal antibodies, have been used for some time. These were first produced by Georges Köhler and César Millstein in 1975 and “humanized” by Greg Winter in 1988, that is, made more effective by using recombinant DNA from mammals. Over 30 “mab” drugs have been approved, about half for cancer.

Research has also been underway for years into delivery systems using “nano-particles” that will target tumors exclusively. Another approach, pioneered by Jonah Folkman, has been to find drugs that will attack the blood supply of tumors, angiogenesis inhibitors. This turned out not to be the magic bullet Folkman hoped for, but more than fifty of these drugs are in clinical trials, and a number are effective owing to other mechanisms, and are currently used.

Psychiatric medicine

Drugs have revolutionized the practice of psychiatry since the 1950s, and brought relief to millions suffering from depression, anxiety, and psychoses. For obvious reasons, these are some of the most highly addictive and widely abused drugs.

A few men to thank:

Adolph von Baeyer, Emil Fischer, Joseph von Mering: barbiturates, synthesized in 1865, but not marketed until 1903. The most commonly prescribed today are phenobarbital sodium (Nembutal) and mephobarbital (Membaral).

Bernard Ludwig and Frank Berger: meprobamate, the tranquilizer Miltown. By the end of the ‘50s, a third of all prescriptions in America were for this drug

Leo Steinberg: the anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) benzodiazepines, first synthesized in 1955. The most successful initially was diazepam, Valium, marketed in 1963. The most widely prescribed benzodiazepine today is alprazolam, Xanax. It’s also the most widely prescribed psychiatric drug, with nearly 50 million prescriptions. It increases concentrations of dopamine and suppresses stress-inducing activity of the hypothalamus.

Leandro Panizzon: methylphenidate (Ritalin). The Swiss chemist developed it in 1944 as a stimulant, and named it after his wife, whose tennis game it helped improve. Until the early ‘60s amphetamines were used, counter-intuitively, to treat hyperactive children. Thirty years after its patent expired, the controversial dopamine reuptake inhibitor is still the most widely prescribed medication for the 11% of children who’ve been diagnosed with ADHD.

Klaus Schmiegel and Bryan Malloy: the anti-depressant fluoxetine, the first SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, increasing serotonin levels. Marketed as Prozac in 1988, it made the cover of Newsweek and is still prescribed for over 25 million patients.

Paul Janssen: risperdone (Risperdal), the mostly widely prescribed antipsychotic drug worldwide. The Belgian researcher developed many other drugs as well, including loperamide HCL (Imodium). When commenters on web articles advise trolls to take their meds, they might want to specify risperdone.

Seiji Sato, Yasuo Oshiro, and Nobuyuki Kurahashi: aripiprazole (Abilify) which blocks dopamine receptors, and was the top selling drug at the end of 2013, grossing $1.6 billion in Q4.

***

A few observations.

Japanese and Indian researchers will make important contributions to future drugs, as the trio responsible for Abilify reminds us.

And, naturally, some women have played roles in the advances that have been summarized. Mary Gibbon, a technician, assisted her husband on the heart-lung machine. Lina Stern did important research on the blood-brain barrier, and it was in her lab that Guravich improved the defibrillator. Jane Wright conducted early trials of methotrexate that helped demonstrate its efficacy. Lucy Wills did pioneering work on anemia in India. Roslyn Yalow helped develop radioimmunoassay, which measures concentrations of antigens in the blood. Anne-Marie Staub did interesting work on antihistamines, though her compounds proved toxic.

They are exceptions. Our benefactors have not only been overwhelmingly European males, but are mostly from England and Scotland, Germany, France, Switzerland, and the Netherlands, as well as Americans and Canadians whose families emigrated from those countries. And, of course, Jews, who’ve won 28% of the Nobel Prizes in Medicine.

Some of the beneficiaries in particular might want to think about this.

Muslims boast that their faith has over 2 billion followers throughout the world. If this number is accurate it has far less to do with the appeal of Islam or with Arab or Turkish conquests, and everything to do with the work of some Northern Europeans and Jews, along with the “imperialists” who built roads, canals, and ports and the vehicles that use them, as well as schools and hospitals–like the traveling eye clinics in Egypt funded by the Jewish banker Ernest Cassel, which nearly eliminated blinding trachoma, then endemic.

The fact that we in the U.S. idolize our entertainers as no society has before is not going to cut off the supply of outstanding medical researchers. Very bright and inquisitive people usually don’t pay much attention to popular culture. But it diminishes us.

It’s the ingratitude, though, not the indifference, that’s more troubling.

Biting the hand that feeds is a core principle of Leftists. For 150 years, they’ve sought to concentrate power in their own hands by exploiting the resentment of ignorant people against a system that has finally enabled mankind to spring the Malthusian trap.

Multiculturalism, with its simple-minded relativism, has broadened the scope of the party line. Not only shadowy “capitalists” are vilified, but whites and males. Ignorant people can now think well of themselves by opposing “racism” and “the patriarchy”–and by voting for an unqualified and deceptive poseur because, though a male, he is not white.

The first step parents can take to help spare America from being “fundamentally transformed” is to insist that history be properly taught. This means, among other things, recognizing the accomplishments of a few men who’ve found cures for or relieved the symptoms of diseases that have killed and tortured humans for millennia.

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  • propagandaoftruth

    Ha ha ha! Almost everything poor good blacks and browns boo hoo about not having fair access too…

    Was invented and built by EVIL WHITE MEN!

    Idiots hate smart folk. Especially those who fed them. Don’t feed the idiots!

    • Cecil Broomsted

      If a total reliance was made upon the accomplishments of the black male for our survival we would be sitting around in a loin cloth swatting flies.

      • Trevor Pilsbury

        It will be seen that when we classify mankind by colour the only one of the primary races, given by this classification, which has not made a creative contribution to any one of our twenty-one civilizations is the Black race.

        ~ Dr. Arnold Toynbee, The Study of History

      • IstvanIN

        They may occassionaly swat the flies off themselves but not their children.

        • bilderbuster

          That’s the Black way of teaching their children self reliance.

    • Sick of it

      Democracy precludes such common sense.

      • propagandaoftruth

        Don’t feed the idiots?

        Yes, I guess so. You know – I have only two real problems with “fascism”.

        1. I hate the puffy chested foreign military entanglements garbage. More of a build good fences and use robots type.

        2. I don’t detest representative gubbamint. I kind of like it and think it’s good fit for a free and bright folk. What we have is a corruption, a mob rule inquisitorial abomination of the ideals of responsible representative governance.

        Have I become a potential Republican?

        • Beowald

          Maybe a republican, as opposed to a Republican. As between tyranny and anarchy there’s not much to choose. Unfortunately, the balance between them–liberty–is a condition that appears to be unstable. It is a dynamic balance, not a static one. Put the government in the hands of one man and everyone else gets stomped. Give the people everything they want and your country goes broke (plus then it falls into chaos, which in turn invites a tyrant). So the trick is to keep things orbiting around the balance point between too much democracy and too little.

          One big challenge to that balance, I’ve come to believe, is racial integration. Since diversity breeds discord, it encourages increased government control as a response to unrest. Diversity also requires constant government intervention in favor of equal outcomes. Ultimately, government is ceded more power by a people who are desperate for both domestic tranquility and equality. These same problems exist in any representative system of government, I suppose, but diversity just seems to make them worse.

          Hans-Hermann Hoppe did not approve this message.

          • propagandaoftruth

            Merit must be respected, recognized, and extoled no matter what. If through accurate measurement and assessment we pick who we hire, promote, matriculate, endow, contract with…
            Crème to top, dregs to bottom regardless of race and let the chips fall where they may.
            Integration? Sure, integration of the capable. But not forced social integration.

          • I’m thinking about joining the Republican party. What? Can they black ball me?

            No, they’ll just wait around for you to experience one disappointment and let down after another.

            You just signed up for House Speaker John Boehner, Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell and 2016 Presidential nominee Jeb Bush or Mitt Romney.

            The liquor store is that way. I recommend that instead of suicide.

          • propagandaoftruth

            Well, as Dredd said, “It’s all a deep end”.

            I certainly cannot be a Democrat now. Or even pretend to be a Democrat. I could pretend to be a Republican for the sake of my folk and myself, however, and if enough joined me…

            Who knows? But certainly, it’s all a deep end…

        • Sick of it

          I agree with #1 personally, although fascism doesn’t really capture the lot of it. Jingoism, internationalism, imperialism? I don’t know, but there’s no need to try to conquer, kill, or convert the entire world. Americans used to be isolationists who traded with everyone.

          As for #2, Democracy always leads to the lowest common denominator. If Greek Democracy did not work, neither will a Democracy in which most participants have a minimal IQ.

          You might favor a Republic, when you really think about it. But, we once had a Republic in this country and it has devolved into a Democracy/Banana Republic. We have data which was not available to the Founders.

          • propagandaoftruth

            Over the long course of Greek history, from the semi-barbaric heroic era through the cosmopolitan Hellenistic period and Roman absorption, some thousand years, cities rose and fell, suffered revolutions and counter-revolutions over and over and then again.
            It was an historical and sociological Petrie dish of politics, where remarkably modern arguments regarding distribution of wealth and power, level of popular participation, and such were regularly debated and fought over.

          • Beowald

            Yes, the balance point is an unstable position, like the apex of an inverted bowl. We were always bound to slide down one side or the other.

            Our oligarchs are destroying the nation through population replacement, in the continuing search for cheap labor. At the same time, the demagogues are spending us into bankruptcy through their continuing bribery of the electorate. How nice if they could swap issues.

          • Private_Eyescream

            Once the White Man goes, so dies the world.
            The question is, whether the other races really in their core realize that simple fact. Chinese aren’t the brightest, but they already are in a Ew-Tyranny.

            Blacks are psychopaths, they literally live for the day in perpetual hedonism, perfectly adapted for a society of psychopaths.

      • The Verdict of History

        Europeans and European-Americans have been at the vanguard of human progress for millennia.

        The perverse hatred of and resentment toward Western civilization is absurd.

        When people express these feelings they should be told that they are essentially taking issue with (life-saving) medical science, space travel, high-tech electronic innovations, constitutionalism, consumer abundance and everything else which supports modern life.

        • anton drexler

          Non-Whites do not hate Whites despite their greatness, but because of it. White achievement is a constant reminder of Non-White failure and creative incapacity. All other races are dependent on the White Man’s genius for their well-being, that is why they hate the White Man. Nietzsche was right that resentment is one of the strongest human motivations. Even the clever Jews were artistically and intellectually sterile prior to their emancipation during the Enlightenment. Their intellectual achievements are dependent on and derived from the civilization that the White Man’s creativity originally laid down.

      • Realist

        Yes, and that is one reason Democracy doesn’t work.
        Democracy is that form of government where no one is considered too stupid to be able to vote.

    • Realist

      “Idiots hate smart folk. Especially those who feed them. Don’t feed the idiots!”
      You can’t fix stupid.

    • The All Seeing Bry

      We are “White Devils” because we create machines/mechanisms to do things for us. We destroy others cultures simply because they cannot resist using our tools and our advancement/innovative nature it easy to succumb to because it makes life easier (and you tend to live longer).

      I can see why some groups hate us. As a Native American once said, “We woke up, hunted, banged our wives, slept, then woke up and did it again the next day”. That was “paradise” for them. Ironically man white men try to live that lifestyle, but can only do it as leisure/sport.

      Us Whites destroy culture without even trying, that’s how powerful we are. Maybe it is something to despise…sucks for them.

      • The Worlds Scapegoat

        “We destroy others cultures simply because they cannot resist using our
        tools and our advancement/innovative nature it easy to succumb to
        because it makes life easier (and you tend to live longer).”

        White inventions are a drug like cocaine and heroin. It makes people feel better. Most non-whites can’t handle it, and become addicted to it. Like any drug, they need more and more with each passing day.

        .

  • John R

    A very good summary of some of the great medical discoveries White men have made. But, add to that, every single positive social and political movement has been started by White people: Ending slavery; ending child labor; supporting worker’s rights; supporting women’s rights; advocating for the poor; and even supporting the rights of non-White peoples! Without Whites, the world would be a far more brutal place. (An example of a non-White world? ISIS controlled areas of Syria or the area of Sudan known as Darfur.)

    • David Ashton

      Well, egalitarian theory was not a white achievement totally unexceptionable. I do wonder if western Caucasians are genetically more predisposed to guilt and altruism than other races; hence the progress of certain forms of religion and politics that are found only as instrumental conveniences by elites in many non-white lands. I defer to the research of – and correction by – others on this speculation.

      • Sick of it

        I would not say we are more disposed to altruism toward foreign groups. That’s a more recent development (see the archaeological record for how we once treated racial foreigners). One could also say that any heightened sense of guilt in white people would be due to an innate sense of morality not possessed by the other races. Said sense of morality allows us to create civilizations and not just maintain or even destroy them.

      • Private_Eyescream

        Nice people suck.

        Nice people give everything to the undeserving and expect nothing in return.
        Nice societies get infiltrated then literally devoured by the psychopathic genelines.

    • Beowald

      This point has been useful in planting a few seeds. Why should the first ethnic group in the world to end slavery be blamed for…slavery? Regarding Africa, I’ve seen graphs of population both before and after the colonial era that make clear the European powers presided over the beginning of the continuing boom. Hundreds of millions of Africans today are alive because of European science and medicine.

      • IstvanIN

        To our detriment I am afraid.

  • Truthseeker

    Beautiful article. Now let’s sit back and wait for some Leftist to tell us that Africans would’ve created all these things if only the wicked White man hadn’t “oppressed” them.

  • David Ashton

    But whitey can’t dance.

    • Speedy Steve

      Negros learned tap dancing from the Irish. The best modern dance is the tango from Argentina, and the polka comes in a close second. There is no more fun time than being in a roomful of drunken Ohioans dancing to that saxophone beat. Ballet is French with Russian innovation. YT can indeed dance.
      Blacks think they gave us rock and roll, but that was a lie told by a Jewish DJ from Cleveland. RnR was Scottish music from Appalachia which worked its way through Nashville to the Delta and back north. Given their propensity to lie we should believe nothing about them at all.

      • Ike Eichenberg

        Blacks invented jenken and that not quite perfected HIV cure.

      • Whitesneedtobebrave

        Also jazz came from ragtime, which is European music. When I took a class some years ago about the history of dancing, the gay white professor showed us liberal materials and videos stating that every musical and dance achievement was because of a black and whites only copied it. This made all the blacks act like they were inventers and they were making comments that white racism was keeping them down.

        • Speedy Steve

          And rap can trace its roots to Godley and Creme’s Snack Attack on the 1979 LP Ismism. Coming to think of it, most early rap was about food obsession. The apers couldn’t even change the subject until 1982.

          • LHathaway

            Wasn’t the song, ‘The Monster Mash’ a rap song?

          • Pathfinder75

            “most early rap was about food obsession.”

            One of the most repulsive examples of this is the 1985 rap song “All you can eat” by the hip-hop trio The Fat Boys:

            Youtube[DOT]com/watch?v=BDPk6OQkpeI

        • Canadian Friend

          Even if Blacks have invented blues and jazz ( which is debatable ), it was only possible for that to happen because white man had already invented the guitars, pianos, saxophones, the amplifiers, microphones, recording equipment and so on and so forth necessary to play such music.

          Without all these white man inventions blacks would have never come up with Blues, Jazz or even today’s rap and hip-hop music.

          they had no guitars or pianos or trumpets in Africa, thus no blues and no Jazz. They did not have a way to write music on paper, hell they did not have neither paper nor a written language!

          • Beowald

            I am told Haydn did not write out his cadenzas. Apparently, in eighteenth century Europe, musicians were expected to improvise them. If the soul of jazz is improvisation, then it seems someone was playing jazz long before Africans ever heard a piano, trumpet, or string bass.

      • David Ashton

        Or run.

    • Pathfinder75

      Try telling that to Fred Astaire.

      • David Ashton

        No seances in my locality.

      • IstvanIN

        Twerking is whats counts nowadays, base, vulgar sexuality, not artistic ability.

  • GeneticsareDestiny

    This is a wonderful summary of all the good things white men have done for the world. It’s nice to see them getting the recognition they deserve, especially when it’s unfashionable to notice how disproportionate white males’ positive contributions to the world are.

    • Cheri Rodriguez

      Also don’t forget that since The Civil War, 99.9% of Medal of Honor recipients have been White males (many of them awarded posthumously).

  • Lets mot forget white man did not start slavery he ended it, Was it not white men who bestowed equal rights,

  • guest

    Thank you to all White people of the past who have made all these wonderful conveniences and contributions to our society. The anti-racists, the White liberal race-traitors, and the corrupt academia and MSM may defame you in the name of equality and diversity, but we who post here know better. It’s because of your creativity and hard work that we have the advantages we have today.

  • Luca

    Oh Yeah! Well I noticed the article conveniently left out peanut butter. So that proves blacks (well, okay, mulattoes) are just as capable as Whites in inventing stuff.

    • Oil Can Harry

      I know you’re being facetious but some Amrenners may still believe the myth that peanut butter was invented by George Washington Carver.

      It was in fact created by whites in the 19th century using peanut paste as its main ingredient. To be fair peanut paste itself was created by the ancient Aztecs.

  • Pathfinder75

    Thank you,fellow White men.

  • Tom_in_Miami

    It’s a shame that this cannot be taught to all students in K-12. Actually, the college crowd might need it more.

  • Ike Eichenberg

    Think about those brilliant white (and Asian) kids, lacking the academic discipline to have a 4.0 and perfect SAT that get a lesser education to make room for a minority in the Ivy League.

    • meanqueen

      I know a kid who got a 4.0 from a leading high school, and a nearly perfect SAT score, fantastic essay and enthusiastic teacher recommendations, who still didn’t get into the Ivy League schools he applied to (when minorities did). I’m just saying that even those who don’t lack academic discipline still get shafted by Affirmative Action.

      • newscomments70

        What is even more disgusting is that many minorities will attend for free, while the dwindling white students will pay up to $50,000 per year for tuition. They and their parents will go into debt so that the children can experience communist indoctrination. Maybe that type of college isn’t the answer. Several years in college shouldn’t be necessary anhow, unless it is for medical studies.

  • Beowald

    I haven’t read American Thinker in a long time. My memory is its writers were fairly “mainstream conservative” and thus unable to see racial realities. Has there been a change there, or am I misremembering? Obviously, it would be wonderful if a certain amount of ethnic self respect were blooming among our people.

    • Jaggers

      Ya, I would say they definitely have the boilerplate conservative/ neoconservative perspective. But since it’s really not a mainstream site the editors let the writers kind of let loose, hence the article above.

      • The All Seeing Bry

        much more paleo-conservative than neo

        • Jaggers

          I’m going to have to disagree with you there. I like the website, but cheerleading for Israel and being gung-ho for our mideast wars= neoconservative, by definition.

      • DaveMed

        Excellent article, and one of which I had not been aware. Thanks.

      • Beowald

        Well, that was unexpected. If Mr. Taylor himself can be published on AT, then maybe I’ll have to give it another look. Thanks for the link.

    • The All Seeing Bry

      It’s gotten better. Colin Flahtery writes there frequently. The comment section at AT is unrivaled in my opinion. A lot of race realists. I found Amren from AT.

  • Tim_in_Indiana

    What a breath of fresh air this article is! More and more, I see a tendency of speakers (YouTube, TED Talks, etc) to bemoan the historical scientific community as a racist “white man’s club.”

    This is a particularly insidious argument, because, while not denying that whites made many of the scientific discoveries of the past, it implies that scientific and medical progress could have gone SO MUCH FASTER if only yellows, blacks and browns had been let into the party early on.

    But now that the scientific community is starting to be “dominated” by Asians and Indians, boy, just wait till you see the scientific and medical progress we’re going to make!

    This conveniently puts their argument in the future, something that can’t be easily refuted in the here and now, making it a particularly sneaky attack on whites.

    • Massif1

      TED likes to bring females and blacks that use their time to talk in circles. Welcome to the world of feminism and liberalism.

  • Whitesneedtobebrave

    Well said. If you want to read great poetry, read the ones written by British male poets from the 19th century like Tennyson, Byron, Wordsworth. Not rubbish by Maya Angelou and other modern poets especially if they are non whites.

  • Paleoconn

    Why do Jews win so many Nobel Prizes when all the names listed for all these groundbreaking discoveries and innovations are White men? Methinks the fix was in long before BHO got his peace trophy.

    • The All Seeing Bry

      Jews are smart.

      • meanqueen

        You stole my line! 🙂

  • A Freespeechzone

    Many negroes can’t handle the fact that they live in a society and comforts created by the White man; a simple ‘thank you’ from them would be appropriate.

    They should be reminded that they are lucky they don’t live in backwards Africa and do their best NOT to piss us off.

  • Jon Doe

    Marco Polo 1271
    Lets not get too overzealous, history has proven that most “inventions” was really a variation of what some else did. Think Steve Jobs/Xerox, Bell/Meucci, Edison/Tesla. Innovating on an idea that was already there doesnt actually mean you invented it. Like Linux for example, you have Ubuntu/Mint/Fedora/Mac/Chrome/Android etc. Still a Linux, just different variations.

    • IstvanIN

      Of course most developments build on previous developments but at some point someone had to come up with the original idea. Only then could others, with similar imagination and intelligence, advance a particular concept.

      On the other hand we have these fine folks:

      • Jon Doe

        Well.. thats exactly the point, to claim victory or in this case glory of self achievement knowing full well you were not the source, is the definition of selfish/greed. I cant possibly be anymore conservative and modest in the way I approach life, proud of my heritage, history and country but still I cant just sit idle while my own countrymen are brainwashed by this foolish notion that “we” created everything that has ever existed is just plain false, childish and foolish. I see now why we just allowed a bunch of radical outcasts to completely destroy our country and constitution. The stupid think they are smart, accusing others in lacking imagination yet unable to spew out anything original, I have been hearing this “we create they remember” for at least 15 years now. Completely unaware the very words they typed is because of some savage mindless unimaginative kid somewhere in silicone valley.
        A. We steal tech/science = Superior intelligence
        B. Anyone else does it = Copy, stolen, lack creativity
        A. We fly too close to another country = Why are you mad, what are you hiding?
        B. Anyone fly too close to us = National security threat
        A. American empirical military bases = Safety and Security for the “region”
        B. Anyone else = Tyranny, Dictator evil expansion (think Putin recently)

  • newsonsofliberty1776

    While I can appreciate Mr. Lipkes’ point in emphasizing the essential
    contributions that white men have made to the technical advancement of human civilization, he ought to be cautious in his intimation that white men from Northern Europe played the dominant role in that phenomenon. It smacks of Germanic fantasies of racial superiority. He would do well to remember that nearly all of the technological advances he cites did not occur in a vacuum but, rather, were part of a continuum of knowledge and discovery that began in the Mediterranean areas of Europe and, indeed, were dependent upon the didactic achievements of the Greeks, the socio-political achievements of the Romans and the scientific discoveries and artistic genius epitomized by the Italians during the Renaissance. Indeed, one need not remind Mr. Lipke, although I will, of the comparatively barbaric state of civilization in Northern Europe as compared to that of the Mediterranean regions of the age. The achievements of the “Nordic” peoples of Europe, while certainly significant, of astounding importance, and just more evidence of the keen intelligence inherent in the Caucasian race, were more a result of the attainment of an intellectual and political freedom that had been heretofore inhibited and suffocated by the overbearing weight of the repressive Catholicism prevalent in Mediterranean world. This emphasis on “free-thinking” was the real impetus behind the explosion of technology in Northern Europe and of the development of the political freedoms that unchained modern man’s true potential. It is this free-thinking enlightenment that Northern Europeans can rightfully claim as their unique achievement.

    • phillyguy

      Your right, it starts in the beginning from greece, oh one other thing if the Romans did not make Christianity the state religion God knows who we be praying to today

    • IstvanIN

      As a person of central European discent I have no problem giving either the ancient Mediterarians (before they allowed too much dioversity into the empire) their due credit but lets be real the Northern European/British peoples, certainly of recent centuries, are an incredibly bright and creative people, far more so than the much over-praised Arabs, Indians and Chinese.

      • newsonsofliberty1776

        There are some incredibly bright Indians, who now make up a significant percentage of the MDs in the USA, and not through affirmative action as far as I can tell. And one has to acknowledge that there were significant achievements in architecture and mathematics by the Arab people (think of the Arabic numerals we all use.) As for the Chinese: Asians consistently outperform all other races on test of innate intelligence. So why are these otherwise intelligent races just now emerging from third-world status in the third millennium? Obviously, intelligence is not the only factor at play here. While these races are roughly equal in intelligence with Caucasions, no other race has ever displayed the combination of intelligence, creativity, ethical enlightenment, political free-thinking and non-sectarian self-government. It is precisely this very rare and unique combination of attributes that is the sine qua non for the truly astounding acheivments of the white race. When the history of civilization on Earth is written, the accomplishments of the white race of men will be acknowledged as the essential evolutionary development that brought all mankind out from a world in which men’s homes were essentially modified huts or caves, work depended on the muscles of men and beasts, war depended upon projectiles and stabbing implements, and health was managed by shamans. The rest of the world has yet to give the Caucasions their due credit as the indespensible race.

        • IstvanIN

          There are bright people in every group but it is the percentages that matter. The Indians, including those US-based MDs, aren’t all that great. As for the Chinese, with over a billion people to chose from, it doesn’t surprise me that they test higher on IQ tests, select the best, ignore the rest.

          None of the other races are as creative as the White man, nor as curious, nor as adventurous, all of which led to our evolutionary advantage.

  • De’Ontavious Jizzaiah Jones

    I visited computer history museum by Stanford Univ recently. I know liberal silicon valley types would have put some black accomplishments in this museum if they could have but none were to be found. I also noted that no blacks were visiting the museum in the several hours I was there.

    • phillyguy

      they all went to the malt liquor museum, they were giving out free samples

  • Visceral

    I want a T-shirt that says “Thank a White Male”……..

  • Cannot Tell

    This is why I’m sickened by egalitarians who insist on sending aid to black countries. Blacks have never done anything to contribute to civilization. Who cares if we die of starvation and disease?

    • See The Future

      The more food and medicine that is sent the more they breed. And the more that will starve to death. Sending aid is the most irresponsible response to their problems.

    • DaveMed

      The antibiotics we send should be laced with oral contraceptives.

    • phillyguy

      you are exactly right, the over population of the planet will doom everyone not just the white man , feeding these third world countries when they will be naturally killed off by disease is natural selection at its finest

  • EpiphanyStrachan

    I can’t think of anything better than a white man- except maybe his mother:) I also can’t wait for this incredible man to step up to the plate and turn this country (and other white countries) around…

    • See The Future

      White men in leadership are our worst enemy.

  • Massif1

    Thank blacks for: Drugs, crime, boycotts, abuse of government assistance programs, abuse of government employment……and peanut butter.

    Thank hispanics for: delicious strawberries.

    Thank asians for: taking every idea created by a white man, copying it, and making money from it.

    • See The Future

      and for rape, murder and torture

    • phillyguy

      could not have said it better myself.

  • EpiphanyStrachan

    This article is a little off however- muslims need to be given credit for inventing condoms in 1612 by using sheep intestines; the English perfected this invention in 1642 by actually removing the intestines from the sheep;) Sorry, bad, old joke!

    • Massif1

      According to Turkish president/dictator, Muslims found Cuba before Columbus. They couldn’t find any sheep to have sex with so they left the island.

  • I saw my first sub $2.50 gas price in a long time.

    Thank you North Dakota.

  • meanqueen

    Fantastic!

  • See The Future

    Saudi’s are dropping the price to put their completion out of business. Then prices will go up again. Saudi oil makes money at 35 bucks a barrel. They can stay low without pain. Fracking and other conventional methods costs twice as much. Guess where the oil price will go.

  • Raymond Kidwell

    For the handful of wealthy elites (mostly Jewish but some goyim in there)- racial superiority, white supremacism, inbred bloodlines, elitism, hard work, education, team work and cooperation.

    For the other 90% or so of humanity- Sex, drugs, rock (rap), hate white men, inbreeding is disgusting, elitism is a terrible thing (equality instead!), individualism (pull yourself up by your own bootsraps), hate those that are better than you and never try to be like them.

    I never could understand the all pervasiveness of radical liberalism. But I’m starting to realize it’s not all pervasive. It just looks that way to people like me because that’s all we are fed- a steady diet of hate whitey, smoke pot, watch TV, listen to the latest fads etc. while the puppet masters teach their own children the exact opposite. So the people who really tell us to hate white males are white males themselves. It’s just we aren’t good enough to be a part of their club so we must kill ourselves. As the population continues to dumb down its easier for them to get rid of us. So take up that foreign wife, smoke yourself stupid, stare blankely at the TV and don’t question authority! Soon enough you’ll be sterilized and herded up anyway- well at least the ones that aren’t needed to scrub the elite’s toilettes. But they have Mexicans for that now.

    It’s poor white people that threaten the handful of elite families (as well as the banking oligarchies) that are controlling everything. So the more they can get rid of us and dumb down their slaves, the easier it will be to control us and manage us. And of course why do poor white males threaten the elite? Because they’re civilized enough to work together and smart enough to understand what is going on and innovate new solutions.

    • phillyguy

      this is why we need a nationalist leader, we are doomed in the next 40 years, do you hear that! we will be rounded up and put in concentration camps! we need a leader to step forward.

    • meanqueen

      Well, I don’t know — it doesn’t really look to me like the elites are managing us regular folks very well, and we aren’t as productive for them as we used to be, so I’m skeptical of this theory.

      • Raymond Kidwell

        I thought like this for a long time. I look at the average worker who can’t do simple addition and subtraction and the general low quality of goods and services- how can this be beneficial to anyone? The elites don’t care about us. They are racist, mostly Jewish supremacists. This is true even though a lot of them aren’t Jewish (Rockefellers for instance, although they have intermarried with a lot of Jews, Gates family, not sure about the Fords although the Ford foundation supports a lot of anti-white initiatives, and of course rothschilds, British royal family (including the Bushs) etc.). If you aren’t in their elite club you pretty much can die for all they care. They want to dumb people down so they are easier to manage and get rid of. They don’t need a huge peasant class like in the middle ages because they have technology now.

        If you look at statistics worker productivity actually increases every year. Why? Because they can ship a job to China and pay someone $4 an hour to do it (or Mexico). They can also replace most workers with machines. They want to shrink the peasant population down. Look on youtube about Bill Gates eugenics programs. They are going on right now. You think eugenics? We are getting dumber every generation. Yeah of course we are, because we don’t count. Eugenics is just shrinking down the other 99% of humanity.

        Now the average European peasant might be smart enough to know what is going on. But they have crossed bred us with stone age peoples, put flouride in our water, given us female hormones etc. to keep us docile and stupid (along with liberal brainwashing in schools, media etc.). This makes it easier to covertly kill us, sterilize us, exploit us, take away our rights etc. It promotes the supremacy of the ruling class.

        They might absorb someone who scores really high on an SAT here and there and bring them into the elite, but they want to shrink down global non-elite population.

        The elites are maybe the top 5% of Aryans (if that even) and most Jews. They are Jewish supremacists because it is true that most people who score really high on I.Q. tests are Jews and most money and power are in the hands of Jewish communities and families. But overall they represent maybe 1% of the global population, if that. So when I say top 10% I mean maybe the top 10% of whites are in the elite, but when we count all races the elite are a fraction of a percent of the global population. Jews themselves are maybe 1% of global population. They want to change that. They want to shrink down the population of the rest of us while bringing up their own population. This is their idea of a utopia. There has been a lot of investigation into this. I would start with Bill Gates eugenics, vaccines etc. Youtube eugenics and there are more references to the players involved today and information on it.

        So what it is actually is they are designing a system to fail. They purposely start wars. They play both sides. It’s all in their interest if you think that they really don’t care about our well being. They don’t need us to be productive because they don’t have a huge need for labor.

        The idea is to have an elite, then a large technical class under them (mostly college educated), and a tiny number of regular people. They want to bring the global population down to conserve resources. As well they want a “Global” society, which race mixing helps to promote that, another reason for their policies. Normal people are to race mix while most of the elites keep their bloodlines pure. But in all honesty they are targeting non-whites the most for their policies. Mainly because non-whites breed more than whites and have larger populations. China’s one child program was part of a UN initiative manufactured by the American elite, not the Chinese themselves! They are currently giving vaccines that sterilize about 20% of the population in third world countries as well as spreading diseases like aids, ebola etc. then pretending to “cure” it. In my opinion they should step up their work on the third world considering their explosive population rates. But unlike the Nazis they work covertly. Semi-covertly I guess if you have intelligence enough and enough information you can figure it out.

  • DaveMed

    Terrific piece, Jeff Lipkes.

  • Three Stars

    “Biting the hand that feeds is a core principle of Leftists.” They got their name after biting the Right one clean off, sinister people that they are.

  • Beowald

    Sagan would have hated this web site and any suggestion that one race was more likely to go to the stars than any other. Still, I agree with you that the future seems intoxicating. It’s only a matter of getting there.

    • kikz2

      White culture’s contribution to space travel/exploration is quite beyond mere suggestion. Sagan was quite aware of the innate differences between cargo cults and those cultures which they venerate as coming from the skies like gods bearing gifts.

      • Beowald

        I’d be thrilled to learn that he was realistic about race. Maybe it’s just his tone, or my vague memory, but I think of him as a pretty down-the-line leftist, to include on racial issues. He did speak against New Age fantasies, so maybe he would have been able to follow where the science on HBD has led others. E.O. Wilson seems to be ready on that score. Sagan died in 1996. Not sure if he would have encountered Rushton’s work by then.

    • Tarczan

      It won’t be so cool if mankinds’ average IQ is 75.

      • Beowald

        Agreed. Richard Lynn argues we’re seeing dysgenic effects of birth control already (i.e., the people smart enough to use it, do). Sagan’s vision is kind of like Star Trek–a fantasy. Someday, we may become able to re-wire ourselves enough to make the fantasy real. But I don’t have confidence that even beneficial technology like that wouldn’t be subverted to malign purpose. The techno-rapture is just as likely to empower the bad guys as the good guys.

  • Shadrach

    It was the Whites who made this World what it is!

    • Ultimate187

      Not necessarily a compliment.

  • [Guest]

    That’s a good one. Excerpt:

    The people who grouse most about white males are people who can’t keep up with them, and who owe the most to them.

    —Fred Reed

  • Whitesneedtobebrave

    One stupid thing the white race is doing is by sending all the money to third world places like Africa, Latin America and Asia and making those people live and have babies by the boat load, whereas the ones that built the world, are not using their money to have babies and to save themselves. Christians are another class of idiots that want to prevent the abortion of black babies and also of non whites babies, but do not realize that the non whites do not are if white people abort their babies and also have less babies. No wonder the white race is heading to disaster with these sort of stupid people in power.

  • celeryetverus

    Only a matter of time before the prog spin doctors re-envision a false history for all these things. They will all either:
    A: Be achievements stolen from the Black man by evil White man juju, or
    B: All have been accomplished on the back of slavery.

    Those who cannot, whine.

  • kikz2

    so fed up w/disqus disappearing my posts….. grrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr.

  • meanqueen

    So horrible what is happening to the white South African farmers and their families. Talk about genocide and ethnic cleansing – there it is – but the evil libtard media won’t discuss it at all. Every American knows that Katy Perry attended some music awards show without her panties and that Miley Cyrus is pregnant, but almost no one knows about any important news.

  • Texan1st

    This will be dismissed at racist propaganda. Everybody knows blacks invented everything.

  • The Worlds Scapegoat

    “Toilet paper? Thank Joseph Gayetty, W.M.”

    Thank you. Thank you. Thank you.

    I could do without a lot of things, butt (pun intended) I cannot do without toilet paper.

    .

  • IstvanIN

    That is a wonderful comparrison between blacks and dogs. We must remember, however, that dogs are loyal and can be trained to be hardworking, unlike blacks.

  • Augustus3709

    Are we the best? And if so, what do we do with this information?

    There are some pretty important philosophical and social ramifications.

    It’s of little use to stand on a tree stump and beat your own boastful chest. Rather we should teach the stories of success and accomplishment to our community, and give them the freedom and space to explore new ideas to go even further.

    Regarding these White Men of superior intellect, none of them needed special left-wing encouragement, or affirmative action, or section 8 housing etc. All they needed was the time and space to let their minds and dreams flourish, without agitation and sabotage from their enemies.

    The best way for the progress of humanity is for anti-White zealots to just get out of our way and “let us do our thing”.

  • LHathaway

    Truth isn’t the first casualty of war. Truth is the first casualty of civilized society. An inversion of the truth seems to be required for a multiracial society.

  • mike smith

    How the heck could the author of this, attribute (wrongly) Daimler and Ford to internal combustion engines, and miss Felix Wankel completely? Maybe he’s out to trash Whites by showing his low IQ?

  • BlueSonicStreak

    It’s completely true, Gutenberg was NOT the first to invent moveable type. So why does he get the lion’s share of the credit? Well, part of it may be European ethnocentrism, but part of it may also be that Sheng’s version was not workable for mass production, and thus did not spread very far.

    That was sort of the key to the Gutenberg press, after all. Not just moveable type, but mass production. Without that, we would have a much less literate world. As someone not born to the upper echelon, I’m sure I would be unable to read or write this reply to you today without the Gutenberg press.

    Similarly, most sources I have checked indeed give much credit for early calculus to India. But did the Indians really develop it into a field of mathematical study before Newton?

    This is the problem with assigning credit. MOST inventions actually built on something prior (which, if we go back far enough, may be lost to historical record). Do we always give it to the true “first” we know of, even if their ideas did not go far enough in their time to advance us as a species much? Or do we only give credit to the version that changed the world, even if another peoples or culture invented the same damn thing, perhaps even hundreds of years earlier? Neither strikes me as entirely fair. …Partial credit to both? Many peoples have had similar ideas at the same time, or the same idea completely removed in time and space from each other, developed and used differently in different parts of the world…credit goes to whom?

    (I do think here that part of the issue isn’t just ethnocentrism, but white individualism that drives a desire to name AN inventor of…well, everything. I think historical record is frequently more complicated than that. Speaking of calculus…ever read, “The Calculus Wars”?)

    I am sure though, that Europeans centering their discourse around being European does mean downplaying of things that fall outside of that experience, including non-white innovation.

    Your point about the ethnic cheerleading going on here is well taken, though. It makes me uneasy when this occurs on AmRen as well. White supremacy has not served us well in the past, and I cannot envision it being a LESS costly mistake going forward, either. I do not like the occasional, “admit we’re the best!” outburst here. I do not think that is a way of thinking that will be constructive for us in any way.

    Thank you for your insights, though. I, for one, did not realize that anti-white attitudes were being pushed in the Asian world at such a high rate. That’s disheartening. I do think many Asian cultures are powerful and beautiful, and I don’t wish them any ill.

    Actually, I am a huge tea fanatic, and have spent years collecting gaiwans, yixing, etc. This may seem petty to others; but tea is very important to me, so the contributions the Asian world have made in the practical art of brewing tea and their nuanced understand of the leaf is also very important to me. I would not want to live in a world that the Chinese did not bring tea to! Their traditional brewing methods are vastly superior to clueless Western attempts to “industrialize” tea, not understanding tea’s nature is not given to that. Every time I drink a cup, it is a reminder to me of why I am NOT a white supremacist, and why I believe that every peoples have the right to exist and self-perpetuate without unwanted interference.

    Thank you for your support, and I hope those troublesome outbursts don’t sour you too much. We desperately need more people to understand that white people are not, in fact, the root of all evil.

    Cheers.

    • 李冠毅

      Thank you for your understanding. I believe the reason why anti-White propaganda is widespread here is not just to do with Asian bitterness on having being humiliated by Western colonizers; it also have to do with the media’s not giving a damn attitude. Just pay attention to any news network. Chances are, they will often report what will be most likely to get them ratings and increase their number of viewers than actually report the truth. Take for example, the recent Feugerson riots. Our media here tends to report on the American mainstream’s version of the story (the one blaming White racism). Recently, while I was having dinner with my family, I saw Obama on the news, giving some speech about police bias and how the American system is discriminating against non-Whites. Unsurprisingly, my family was later on talking about the alleged racism of the Western system. Despite my insistence that the mainstream news isn’t reliable, most people I know still continue to read the newspapers and watch the news; while claiming that I am being “ignorant” and should read the newspapers more often to “open up my mind”. Even though foreign news networks are readily available here, they tend to report the same thing. CNN, The New York Times, these also tend to claim “White racism”. Also, as I mentioned earlier, we are taught by our schools to read the newspapers to build our language skills and “expand our horizons”. I think the problem is that most people tend to trust the news too much, and the government doesn’t care enough about irresponsible news reporting. There are some Asian intellectuals who complain about this media negligence (one recently said that news corporations are responsible for providing info to the masses, so they should uphold the principle “when in doubt, leave it out”), but they seem to be the minority.

      Sure, the news gets sued sometimes, and are forced to apologize and pay up. However, more often than not, the fuss soon dies down, the lie is forgotten by the public, and the news goes back to doing what their doing. Correct me if I’m wrong, but this attitude seems to be widespread, whether among the Asian or Western media: 1) report the politically correct or what will likely be the more popular version of the story, or 2) copy what other news networks have reported, and report it without verifying the truth (that’s why we get bullsh!t stories like the iPad with holographic keypad). Besides, why report the truth when reporting a false story will net you more money? Until our governments step in and declare “enough is enough”, and level sufficiently severe punishments for false news reporting, I don’t think this problem is going away anytime soon.

      P.S. Gutenberg’s printing press had been invented by the Koreans 200 years before he invented his. Check the links in my earlier comment.