Genetic Evidence Shows Recent Population Mixture in India

Medical Xpress, August 8, 2013

Scientists from Harvard Medical School and the CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology in Hyderabad, India, provide evidence that modern-day India is the result of recent population mixture among divergent demographic groups.

The findings, published August 8 in theAmerican Journal of Human Genetics, describe how India transformed from a country where mixture between different populations was rampant to one where endogamy—that is, marrying within the local community and a key attribute of the caste system—became the norm.

“Only a few thousand years ago, the Indian  was vastly different from today,” said co–senior author David Reich, professor of genetics at Harvard Medical School. “The caste system has been around for a long time, but not forever.”

In 2009, Reich and colleagues published a paper based on an analysis of 25 different Indian . The paper described how all populations in India show evidence of a genetic mixture of two ancestral groups: Ancestral North Indians (ANI), who are related to Central Asians, Middle Easterners, Caucasians, and Europeans; and Ancestral South Indians (ASI), who are primarily from the subcontinent.

However, the researchers wanted to glean clearer data as to when in history such admixture occurred. For this, the international research team broadened their study pool from 25 to 73 Indian groups.

The researchers took advantage of the fact that the genomes of Indian people are a mosaic of chromosomal segments of ANI and ASI descent. Originally when the ANI and ASI populations mixed, these segments would have been extremely long, extending the entire lengths of chromosomes. However, after mixture these segments would have broken up at one or two places per chromosome, per generation, recombining the maternal and paternal  that occurs during the production of egg and sperm.

By measuring the lengths of the segments of ANI and ASI ancestry in Indian genomes, the authors were thus able to obtain precise estimates of the age of population mixture, which they infer varied about 1,900 to 4,200 years, depending on the population analyzed.


“This genetic data tells us a three-part cultural and historical story,” said Reich, who is also an associate member of the Broad Institute. “Prior to about 4,000 years ago there was no mixture. After that, widespread mixture affected almost every group in India, even the most isolated tribal groups. And finally, endogamy set in and froze everything in place.”

“The fact that every population in India evolved from randomly mixed populations suggests that social classifications like the caste system are not likely to have existed in the same way before the mixture,” said co–senior author Lalji Singh, currently of Banaras Hindu University, in Varanasi, India, and formerly of the CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology. “Thus, the present-day structure of the caste system came into being only relatively recently in Indian history.”

But once established, the caste system became genetically effective, the researchers observed. Mixture across groups became very rare.


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  • Oil Can Harry

    Why is Harvard studying racial groups when they claim to believe they don’t exist?

    After all, race is just a social consruct invented by dead white males to justify colonialism, racism and anti-vegetarianism.

    • BonusGift

      Silly, race and genetics only exist when the “research” can be twisted enough to show that you should not fight your genocide, otherwise it’s all Skittles and Oreos for the Kool Aid drinkers.

  • Spartacus

    “But once established, the caste system became genetically effective, the
    researchers observed. Mixture across groups became very rare.”


    Too late, the damage has already been done.

    • BonusGift

      Make sure you hit the more tab and see that it is just another gentle and peaceful morning in the garden of third world hell that is India. Gee, one look at that and I can see why our overlords think we need more India in YT lands.

  • HJ11

    The ancient Laws of Manu were mostly about avoiding race mixing, and the Sanskrit word Varna means both caste and color giving an even stronger indication of the link between the caste system and race.

    In many U.S. schools, when the caste system in India is mentioned, the emphasis is on the different occupations of the different castes and the more important facts about the racial basis of the system is either minimized into footnotes or not taught at all.

    The highest caste is described as White. The lowest caste and the outcastes are Black.

    • Sick of it

      Those tribal peoples encountered by the “Ancestral North Indians” were referred to as demons in their various texts. It’s amazing that the racial history of India has been denied by so many when there is historical, archaeological, and biological evidence of it.

      • me

        It doesn’t fit the globalist agenda.

  • kjh64

    When categorizing race, people from India and the Middle East
    are labeled caucasians or White, however these people are of mixed race.

    • Sick of it

      Originally, the cultures we know from those regions were comprised entirely of white people.

      • China_Rising

        The cultures from circa 2,500 BC-500 AD were. By 500 AD the descendants of the Iranians and Indo-Aryans were only culturally related, not genetic.

    • China_Rising

      They aren’t a mixed-race of Europeans and some other group. Mixed implies that some of their ancestral genome is traceable to Europe, which is mostly not the case.

      Only the North Indians (and other populations in the Northern portion of the Indian subcontinent) can trace ancestry back to the Proto-Indo-European nomads from Pontic-Caspian Steppes in Europe.

      North Africans are indeed mixed, with native Caucasoid blood, and Negroid blood coming in far more recently, though neither is European in origin.

      • I would agree, aside from your last sentence. The Vandals were a Germanic group that swept through France and Spain and then stayed in the North African Maghreb. Algerians thus have provable European ancestry. There’s also the question of the Kybeles. I’d call them whites and the original inhabitants, while Arabs are only invaders.

        • China_Rising

          The Vandals and other groups did not leave significant genetic evidence of their existence.

          The North African Maghreb, when placed on a PCA plot, does not cluster with Europeans; only fellow North Africans like Libyans and Egyptians.

          And the Vandals reached North Africa circa the 5th century, indeed before the Arabs, but not before the other Natives, the Berbers, which had inhabited the area since Humans had inhabited North Africa circa 100,000 years ago.

      • David Ashton

        The north Indian population is the decisive genetic and cultural point. The mainly Nordid invaders were charioteers and they attacked an existing established which was probably Mediterranid. The dispute over complex Indian prehistory has been confused by the upturning of an earlier “racist” Aryanism by a new “racist” Tamilism. In the end, only an imapartial study of genetic, linguistic and archaeological evidence can sort out the confusions.

  • David Ashton

    How does this tie in with the archaeology of ancient migrations, including the “out of India” theory of some nationalists?

    “The most magnificent example of breeding a particular kind is provided by Indian moralty, sanctioned as a religion in the Law of Manu” (Nietzsche).

    “A Brahmin who takes a Sudra wife to bed will after death sink into hell” (Law of Manu).

  • Does it help any if we all consider them Dalits in Colorado?

  • IKantunderstand

    Once again, a discussion after the White race race has been saved. Jolly good discussion over a cigar and some fine cognac, other than that? I don’t care.

  • Anonymous White

    The aborigines of the Indian subcontinent are Australoid.

    • Sick of it

      Look at pure blooded tribal peoples from southern India. Australoid race debunked in less than 5 minutes.

      • Anonymous White

        What are they then?

        • Sick of it

          Negroid. Look at photos for yourself.

          • Anonymous White


          • They aren’t.

          • Sick of it

            “The Australoid, or Oceanic, race constitutes the Eastern branch of the Negroid great race. Some of the Australoids, for example, those of the Solomon Islands, are so similar to the African Negroes
            that even anthropologists experience difficulty in distinguishing
            them.” (‘The Races of Mankind’ Mikhail Fedorovich Nesturkh. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1966, p.22)

            Some of us grew up around mixed race people. Brazilians would likely chuckle at the way people bend over backwards to create alternative explanations for obvious things.

          • Africans and Aborigines are very unrelated. They’re completely different people.

          • Sick of it

            Check out Cape York – The Savage Frontier by Rodney Liddell.

            www (DOT) flagsociety (DOT) org (DOT) au/The_Savage_Frontier (DOT) htm

  • NeanderthalDNA

    Didn’t we already know this? I guess the genetics proves it, sure, great, but it is well known that light skinned Aryans invaded and conquered India right around the time indicated by the genetics test.
    Cool and all, but…just confirms what we already know.

  • KenelmDigby

    So, apparently a religious taboo or sanction appears to be the only possible way to prevent miscegenation of radically different racial groups – and even this is only partially successful.
    But saying that it is remarkable that some degree of isolation and separation between divergent stocks has been achieved – over hundreds of generations – by sub-groups who actually inhabit the same soil, irrespective of marked phenotypical differences.
    The message here relevant to us is after the politicians have given away our nations to aliens, and expect us to have to fight for the right to live against these aliens in the battle of existence, the only thing that could possibly preserve untold millenia of continuity and evolutionary struggle is a taboo against miscgenation that has the force of religion – and the threat of damnation and casting out of that religion, ostracism and even hell-fire behind it.
    Whether in the modern age of disbelief and scepticism, and the general revolt against natural male leadership and deference this is possible, I strongly doubt.
    Basically we have nothing to compare to against the ancient wisdom of the Brahmins.

  • David Ashton

    A specific modern refutation would be appreciated of the following four statements by Professor Hans Guenther:

    “[1] In the old Indian sagas, gods and heroes are always ‘the blond’….[2] Hindu Vedas, like Persian Avesta, even show traces of a winter solstice festival, which can only be explained by a Northern European origin….
    [3] In the oldest Hindu accounts we meet with intrusive tribes of Indo-European speech as ‘tall’, ‘white’, ‘blond’, ‘fair-nosed’; the aboriginal people they found are called ‘the dark skin’, and described as ‘small’, ‘black’, and ‘without a high nose’, or ‘noseless’…. [4] The Hindus of the highest class saw their supreme God in their own likeness, the fair, red-bearded Thunder god Indra…a true Nordic figure of a giant.”

  • BaronBaal

    But every liberal I’ve ever met told me race is a social construct. What’s going on here?

  • FourFooted_Messiah

    duh. BUT I rember learning that the black – brown people of India were infused by teutons, who also introduced cattle, and cattle-worship. The caste system was meant to divide light-skinned teutons from darker-skinned natives.

    No fuss to me, I`d rather East Indians just stayed in India, no matter what kind of creature they are.

    • DivaEl

      Amen to that, FourFooted. I’m currently being plagued by an East Indian she-devil executive who’s nit picks everything, is impossible to please, and thinks she can do my job better than I can even though she has no training for it. Give me a jackrabbit for a boss instead of her any day. The critter would probably have much better judgment. And there’d certainly be less yelling and wasted time and energy. Why they couldn’t find an American-born white person to do her job is beyond me.

  • HJ11

    Brahmins are described as White.

    Your logic in your last sentence is flawed. First, miscegenation has taken place and this has darkened the family lines of those who practiced this great evil. Second, “darker Gods,” means nothing. There is also an elephant God and a Monkey God, et. al.

  • David Ashton

    Pakistan is a “pure” Muslim state. The historic religious clash between Islam and Hinduism is a major factor.