Gender and Race: How Overlapping Stereotypes Affect Our Personal and Professional Decisions

Medical Xpress, December 3, 2012

Racial and gender stereotypes have profound consequences in almost every sector of public life, from job interviews and housing to police stops and prison terms. However, only a few studies have examined whether these different categories overlap in their stereotypes. A new study on the connections between race and gender—a phenomenon called gendered race—reveals unexpected ways in which stereotypes affect our personal and professional decisions.

Within the United States, Asians as an ethnic group are perceived as more feminine in comparison to whites, while blacks are perceived as more masculine, according to new research by Adam Galinsky, the Vikram S. Pandit Professor of Business at Columbia Business School. Further research by Galinsky shows that the fact that race is gendered has profound consequences for interracial marriage, leadership selection, and athletic participation.

The first study conducted by Galinsky and his colleagues Erika Hall of Kellogg School of Management and Amy Cuddy of Harvard University directly tested whether race was gendered. Eighty-five participants of various backgrounds completed an online survey in which they evaluated either the femininity or masculinity of certain traits or attributed those traits to Asians, whites, and blacks. “The stereotype content for blacks was considered to be the most masculine, followed by whites, with Asians being the least masculine,” Galinsky wrote in the study, soon to appear in Psychological Science. “Thus, we found a substantial overlap between the contents of racial and gender stereotypes.” A separate study, in which participants were subliminally exposed to a word related to race before reacting to words perceived as masculine or feminine, showed that the association between racial and gender stereotypes exists even at an implicit level.

Their next set of studies demonstrated that these associations have important implications for romantic relationships. Within the heterosexual dating market, men tend to prefer women who personify the feminine ideal while women prefer men who embody masculinity. Galinsky showed that men are more attracted to Asian women relative to black women, while women are more attracted to black men relative to Asian men. Even more interesting, the more a man valued femininity the more likely he was attracted to Asian women and the less likely he was attracted to black women. The same effect occurred for women, with attraction to masculinity driving the differential attraction to black men and Asian men.

These interracial dating preferences have real-world results, Galinsky found. He analyzed the 2000 US Census data and found a similar pattern among interracial marriages: among black-white marriages, 73 percent had a black husband and a white wife, while among Asian-white marriages, 75 percent had a white husband and an Asian wife. An even more pronounced pattern emerged in Asian-black marriages, in which 86 percent had a black husband and an Asian wife.

The effects of gendered races extend to leadership selection and athletic participation, further research showed. In a study in which participants evaluated job candidates, Asians were more likely to be selected for a leadership position that required collaboration and relationship building, traits typically perceived as feminine. Black candidates were more likely to be chosen for positions that required a fiercely competitive approach, typically seen as masculine.

A final study analyzed archival data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association’s (NCAA) Student-Athlete Ethnicity Report, which breaks down the racial composition of 30 different collegiate sports (NCAA, 2010) from 2000-2010 for Divisions I, II, and III. Galinsky and his colleagues found that the more a sport was perceived to be masculine the greater the relative number of black to Asian athletes who played that sport at the collegiate level, with blacks more likely to participate in the most masculine sports.

“This research shows that the intersection of race and gender has important real-world consequences,” Galinsky concluded. “Considering the overlap between racial and gender stereotypes—our gendered race perspective—opens up new frontiers for understanding how stereotypes impact the important decisions that drive our most significant outcomes at work and at home.”

Topics: , ,

Share This

We welcome comments that add information or perspective, and we encourage polite debate. If you log in with a social media account, your comment should appear immediately. If you prefer to remain anonymous, you may comment as a guest, using a name and an e-mail address of convenience. Your comment will be moderated.
  • David Ashton

    Analysis fits the “anecdotal” in England too.

  • MekongDelta69

    This is what I read above:

    “Blah, blah, blah. Stereotypes. Blah, blah, blah. Differences. Blah, blah, blah. Perspective. Blah, blah, blah. Studies have shown. Blah, blah, blah.”

    You mean we’re not all the same?!?!

    Wow – who knew?

  • You Are Now Enriched

    Get ready for more anti stereotype training. The Diversity will force you to admit that you are such a racist, that you don’t want to attend another sensitivity workshop.

    Hasn’t it ever struck you that we are constantly submerged under hideously ugly and dangerous Diversity just to make us confront our White privilege and inner racism that makes us hate Diversity?

    That’s how they attack us with what we should never be asked to tolerate; then they use our disgust as proof that they were justified in attacking us in the first place.

    The result is that we are tyrannized into admiting that since we haven’t done enough to atone for segregation, we deserve more Diversity Treatment to make us even more disgusted and miserable.

    The only state of Whiteness you are now allowed is utter misery.

    • i am

      Have you read “Which way western man”? He talks about that around page 500? It is part of the communists plan.

      You can download it here:

      • You Are Now Enriched

        It’s a classic, along with White Man, Think Again! by Anthony Jacob and Defiance by Savitri Devi.

        Add Jean Raspial’s Camp of the Saints, which Heidi Beirich called “lurid,” which means it was spot on.

      • David Ashton

        The pages on miscegenation are quite useful. The well-used statistics on Jewish Bolshevism need some qualification (see my other posts on this). The abolition of nations is a communist objective. Why should Jews as a whole seek to destroy western civilization when the Arabs and Chinese present a greater danger to them?

  • WmarkW

    We knew this over a decade ago.

    How about discussing the fact that blacks are the only race in which women are measurably smarter than men. So a BF cuts her chance of divorce in half by marrying a WM. But a WF doubles her chance by marring a BM.

    • The__Bobster

      I haven’t seen a race where the females are smarter.

    • pcmustgo

      I suppose it’s all that high testosterone that gets in the way of the black men learning.

  • negrolocaust

    blacks and woman can vote each other into power and thats nice but i can still quickly name off of the top of my head over 48 scientists whereas i cannot name even one black or woman scientist let alone a black woman so whatever. every person alive today owes their life and health to white males due to vaccines etc medical discoveries that in retrospect they should have withheld given the demonization they get via revised history. i would have like to have seen edward jenner withhold his smallpox vaccine and give it exclusively to white males and select white females as one example. not to mention the best at EVERY field are always white male including even historically female areas like cooking etc. blacks and woman will never match the inventiveness and creativity of white males no matter how many of their kind they muscle into power politically. thats why they are so hateful . BECAUSE OF ENVY AND FAILURE TO REALIZE THEIR LIMITATIONS. even the computer they are reading this on and the net all by white males. truth hurts

    • kjh64

      I don’t want to get into the tired blather of men vs women but actually there are and have been quite a few female tops in different fields. Female scientists, let’s see Rosalind Franklin, Marie Curie, Anne Cannon, Dorothy Hodgkin and many others, cooks-Julia Child, Alice Waters, Elizabeth Falkner etc. etc. so no the best in every field are not men. You do have more men in most fields because women are doing the important task of bringing new life into the world and raising it. None of these White men and their inventions would be here if it weren’t for White women. I have news for you, women aren’t envious and don’t see themselves as “limited”.. Trust me.

      • The__Bobster

        Nice list of names. And I recognize only two of them. Did the rest come from your women’s studies class?

        • ed91

          exactly what I was thinking……….. quite a stretch

      • W. G.

        “Etc., etc.” I.e., “I can’t think of anyone else, so I’ll just put in a couple of etceteras to conceal the fact.”

        • Sean

          Women are fantastic and can excel. There is no doubt about that but genetically they are hardwired to be in a childbearing role, that’s just genetics.

          Modern feminism is awful but women are not and I think it is important to recognize and not downplay that fact. Woman hate gets us nowhere socially, morally, or genetically.

          • Fredrik_H

            I concur. Unfortunately any movement that criticizes feminism tend to attract misogynistic characters. Far too often you see comments that women shouldn’t be allowed to vote or that they are materialistic, race-mixing whores.

          • AngryWhiteMan

            To be fair, feminism has done a good job of making people think that anti feminism = anti woman. So its somewhat understandable to see so many misogynists among anti feminists, although not excuseable.

          • Kim Kardashian…

          • Fredrik_H

            Kim Kardashian is hardly every woman. Look at the women around you rather than the personas the diversity-loving, anti-white media love to push.

          • T_Losan

            Look, I understand some of you are trying to keep a united front and not alienate people needlessly, but an honest examination of how the white man’s decline has come about needs to also examine what role white women have played. I can honestly say that I know more black women who would share my views on racial differences than white women.

          • Fredrik_H

            Women are more peer oriented and more likely to conform than men. I figure it’s likely genetic. The “angry, young man” might be a stereotype but certainly holds some truth when it comes to race realism/nationalism activism.

            I agree that we need to look things honestly but slinging demeaning words and painting all of womanhood with one nasty brush will do us no good.

          • pcmustgo

            Women are more ditzy, true. More blacks embrace race realism in general , or certain aspects of it, than whites, who are off in white liberal “colorblind” land and just clueless about racial realities period.

            White women, if anything, can be blamed for metrosexualizing their male babies, their children.

          • pcmustgo

            Women are more materialistic. From a woman.

          • pcmustgo

            I don’t think that many women are really philosophically “into” Feminism.

      • Women at BEST can occasionally,if they are very masculine,and driven–work with a white males(s) to contribute to science;But if left to their own devices(and by “own devices” I do not mean the battery-operated kind) the idea of women creating science & technology is laughable beyond belief! You might as well talk about the Bantu and how he spent years and years perfecting the engineering techniques used to build the Pyramids!!!!

      • pcmustgo

        I don’t feel limited. I’m a woman. But yeah, women do tend to be more ditzy, less interested in “hard data”, etc. That being said, we are what we are and are meant to be. We shouldn’t try to be men. I find it extremely hard to find other women who are on my intellectual level.

    • pcmustgo

      And yet all I hear from them is “Blacks Invented Everything in Ancient Egypt”

  • E_Pluribus_Pluribus

    According to TABOO: Why Black Athletes Dominate Sports and Why We’re Afraid to Talk About it by Jon Entine, testosterone levels of black males, on average, exceed white males by about 3 to 19 percent. I do not know the specific percentages, but white males, in turn, on average have higher testosterone levels than Asian males.

    Testosterone is a major driver of the masculine-feminine differences described above in this Medical Xpress report. That’s probably true for females as well.

    High testosterone levels ratchets up the potential for violence. Low testosterone levels can predispose toward passivity.

    Whites’ mid-range levels of testosterone may confer at least one happy advantage. In his 2000 American Renaissance Conference lecture, J. Philippe Rushton was asked the following question:

    QUESTION: Do you think that slightly higher testosterone levels . . . [for] whites as compared to Asians could lead to . . . more aggression , which not only could be more aggression [in terms of] crime levels, but also more aggressive in terms of scientific inquiry, conquest, scientific interest, the Faustian spirit that represents European mankind?

    RUSHTON: Yes, I certainly do . . . There is a lot of evidence to suggest that creative genius requires a certain amount of what is sometimes called psychopathy — a little bit of extra boldness in thinking just to go several steps further, and if it’s channeled into a high IQ socially productive channel, then you get genius. And if it’s true that Orientals have less testosterone, then they are going to produce fewer of those geniuses. So I think that’s an eminently sensible hypothesis.

    • Sean

      That is not what I have read:

      The very idea that blacks are somehow more masculine on a genetic level seems to just be that their propaganda is working on us. The “alpha” black and “beta” white and asian stereotype that seems to be all too prevalent in our media has begun to affect the race realist thinking in negative ways. Young white men are demoralized simply because of this particular stereotype and it needs to be countered whenever possible.

      How many great black quarterbacks are there? Very few in comparison with white. How many great white runners are there? Very few in comparison with black.

      We ARE built differently and evolution doesn’t stop at the neck but the implication that whites are somehow sexually inferior is only a product of the media aggrandizing the bantu subset of humanity.

      I suggest the article on the movie “Prometheus” for further insight on the widespread exaltation of blacks over whites.

      • E_Pluribus_Pluribus

        Your source looks persuasive. The biggest factor in black-white dynamics demoralizing young white males being processed through the schools is probably the differential rates of maturity — with blacks reaching sexual maturity about one year earlier than whites, which confers a pronounced athletic advantage in the early years.

        This is why great white athletes tend to come from all-white or nearly all-white environments where they do not have to compete with blacks in their early years. Steve Sailer of has written several articles on this. Among these:

        June 12, 2011
        Dallas Mavericks’ Dirk Nowitzki And U.S. Basketball’s De Facto Discrimination Against Whites
        By Steve Sailer

        13 June 2011
        Disparate Impact Data–Where White College Basketball Players Come From
        [Steve Sailer]

        Links don’t work because site is temporarily blocked for fund-raising,

        • pcmustgo

          I agree. Tall white males are most likely to come from Minnesota and up by the Canadian border. They tend to play ice hockey, not basketball. Not a part of the culture there.

      • pcmustgo

        When did anyone say white men are sexually inferior? Or white women are?

        Blacks apparently are more muscular…

        As far as feminine/masculine, it depends on what your idea of feminine is… Asian women are indeed more “dainty”. Light. Tiny. They have “perfect” faces in a sort of manufactured, factory , china-doll like (well, the pretty asians do, not the ugly ones). Many have mentioned they have less body hair, but Blacks have much less body hair than whites too and are not considered feminine. Black women are more curvy, so if your definition of femininty is large breasts and behinds, you’d find them to be the most feminine.

        Maybe it’s good for us whites to be aware of this all, the science of it, so we can adjust our expectations and be content with our own. Realize what’s going on and reject it.

        We do live in a culture that metrosexualizes white men and encourages white women to dress all butchy.

        • Sean

          I agree on much of what you are saying but blacks being more muscular is not necessarily true. Whites have better and more developed upper body musculature than blacks, the difference that occurs to me is that once again the media never pairs a strong able white man alongside a black. Whites are always fools and cowards next to blacks when portrayed in a cinematic medium.

          Besides, youths are more likely to work out and build muscle than their young white counterparts due to sociological factors so anecdotal evidence that mirrors genetic reality is hard to come by outside of professional bodybuilding/weightlifting competitions.

    • pcmustgo

      Psychopathy is not just extra boldness… it’s lacking empathy, and therefore being able to kill/do whatever to another person without having any guilt….

      I could see genius’es needing to be a little more selfish/narcissistic and therefore focused than others.

  • TheCogitator

    These interracial dating preferences have real-world results, Galinsky found. He analyzed the 2000 US Census data and found a similar pattern among interracial marriages: among black-white marriages, 73 percent had a black husband and a white wife, while among Asian-white marriages, 75 percent had a white husband and an Asian wife. An even more pronounced pattern emerged in Asian-black marriages, in which 86 percent had a black husband and an Asian wife.

    One thing the races do seem to agree on — black women are the least desirable. White men and Oriental men don’t want them, and if a black man has the chance, he doesn’t want one either. When you look at them and hear them, it is not hard to see why. —

    • pcmustgo

      Oriental men seem to be even less desirable.

  • jay11

    So does this mean that asian women and black men should all marry each other to make a medium level race like whites?

    • Joseph U

      Well, you might end up with some mixed offspring that are intelligent and violence prone -or stupid and passive.

      If only it were that simple to determine-

  • i am

    When the tax money runs out, the people that write this stuff are going to be in a world of hurt. The people that buy this crap don’t have money of their own, and those that do have money aren’t going to buy this crap.

  • FourFooted_Messiah

    Wait what? I don’t even get this crap.

    Ok, you can attribute my faults (and I know I have many) to whatever you like. The only really important thing is whether I care or not.

    I am with a WASP (and I am a WASP) because we find each other convenient. And we also will defend each other to our last breath; I will, because of what he has done for me, he says because of things I have done for him (which I consider minor trivialities encumbent on any civilized person; he owes me nothing as far as I am concerned. but he won’t accept that ‘tude. But he goes out to work every day – all I do is a bit of cleaning and cooking. Big … Fucking .. Deal. I have my own income.)

    Also, they forget that one can have positive as well as negative stereotypes – but in the Leftist world, positive stereotypes are OK (Oh, East Indians and their wonderfully smelly curry restaurants) but negative ones are always untrue. Bah.

    • Michael_C_Scott

      Curries are too easy to produce yourself to go into an Indian eatery. I blend my own spices for vindaloo, saag, tikka, and tandoori.

      The last saag curry I made was with rabbit, while I was making the local population of garden pests take its recent nosedive. I like curry wraps, but instead of bothering with nan flatbread, I just use flour tortillas.

  • JohnEngelman

    Within the United States, Asians as an ethnic group are perceived as more feminine in comparison to whites, while blacks are perceived as more masculine.

    – Medical Xpress, December 3, 2012


    Blacks have from 3 to 19% more of the sex hormone testosterone than Whites or East Asians…

    In one study of college students, testosterone levels were 10 to 20% higher in Blacks than in Whites. For an older sample of U.S. military veterans, Blacks had levels 3% higher than Whites (see the 1992 issue of Steroids). In a study of university students, Black. Americans had 10 to 15% higher levels than White Americans. The Japanese (in Japan) had even lower levels.

    – Professor J. Philippe Rushton, from “RACE, EVOLUTION, AND BEHAVIOR”


    Stereotypes are usually over generalizations of what is really true. Even people who hate Jews do not think they are stupid.

    In Mein Kampf Adolf Hitler wrote, “The Jew is though of as clever, and to an extent he always has been.”

    • David Ashton

      Is that WHY some people hate them? Why do YOU think people “hate Jews”? Are there any adverse generalizations that are “really true” about them in your own opinion as someone who “loves Jews, Judaism and Israel”? Did Marx have any “insights” on this subject? Did his benefactor and collaborator Engels?
      Just curious about YOUR personal opinion, which you are not usually backward in supplying.
      (My views are touched on in posts about Stalin, Bolshevism and the “Protocols” in another comment section.)

      • JohnEngelman

        Those who hate Jews and Orientals hate them because Jews and Orientals are superior, and because the haters are not.

        In Mein Kampf Adolf Hitler said that he was initially sympathetic to Jews. Indeed he wrote, “The fact that [Jews] had been persecuted [because of their religion] turned my aversion against unfavorable remarks about them almost into abhorrence.”

        Adolf Hitler makes it clear in Mein Kampf that he only began to hate Jews after he failed in his efforts to become an architect and an artist. Like many who fail decisively at what is essential to their self image Adolf Hitler was in the market for a hate target. Because he lived in Vienna he saw plenty of Jews who were successful architects and artists, and he resented them.

        A mayor of Vienna noted that “antisemitism is the socialism of the gutter.” The same can be said of hostility toward Orientals. The socialism of the gutter combines the leftist politics of envy with right wing racial bigotry.


  • IKantunderstand

    Wow! Are you f’ing kidding me? Of course Asian men are going to be considered as less masculine. Look at them! Do they look manley ? Are they tall? Are they muscular?For God’s
    sake, a twelve year old Black could kick their ass.What amazes me, is that they even thought to do a study on this. Obviously, the whole “race is a social contsruct theory” is being stretched to its limits once again. Liberals are truly, schizophrenic.

    • AngryWhiteMan

      You sound dumber than the average 12 year old black

      • Fredd Mertz

        Why? What did he say that was “dumb”?

    • pcmustgo

      Really? There’s several videos on youtube of Asian teens taking out black bullies with karate kicks.

    • Joseph U

      Do not underestimate the ferocity of Asians. Japanese and Okinawans in particular are renowned for their fighting ability with a very long history. I speculate that some of their sort of damped emotionalism and “hive” mentality, dedication to duty, and intelligence is what makes some of these people fearless fighters. They compensate for size and strength with cunning, skill, and devotion to the group.

  • white dude

    Galinsky showed that men are more attracted to Asian women relative to black women…

    Nope, Im strickly only atrracted to White women. typical libtard claptrap.

    • AngryWhiteMan


      Given your atrocious spelling and the cognitive deficiency it implies, I’m going to kindly ask you to mate with a black woman, should you choose to procreate. This will help improve the black gene pool and keep you from polluting the white gene pool.

      • white dude

        Im so sorry! I dont have spell check. God Help me

    • Strictly? I dont get this nonsense. I am SURELY attracted to Asian women.Whats the big deal? The question is are you concerned about the white race.

      • white dude

        Yes, can you read sherlock? yes Strickly meaning I don’t find girls of other races attractive, you hypercrite! yet your on a pro-White site yet you put down people that only find they’re own people attractive.

      • pcmustgo

        Actually there are white males whose tastes differs… this study words it as if ALL white women are attracted to black men and vice versa for white men/asian women… no, it should say “more likely to be”

      • pcmustgo

        Some white men actually prefer black women and some east indians and mestizos.

  • fsagas

    I don’t think that most white women think black men are attractive (a few granted…as exceptions exist everywhere).

    I do think the adversity applies to black women among any other group (again there are exceptions).

  • Sean

    Have we stopped to consider that the more civilized a race is thought of has an inverse effect on the desirability of the males of that race instead of immediately jumping to the conclusion that that race civilized itself because of a lack of masculinity?

    Japanese Samurai were men among men but because of the negative stereotype that Asians somehow lack a certain something that makes men masculine they are seen as lesser men than say a Frankish knight, (them being French aside, joking of course).

    Don’t get me wrong it seems obvious that mean IQ plays a massive role in the development of a civic society but looking at the stereotypical viking vs. an actual Norseman from the same era that is portrayed and the vikings were Hulk Hogans as opposed to an effete Norse villager.

  • whitney5158

    Studies prove studies work!

  • Matt

    As a white man, I’ve never been attracted to black women. The reason being that I find black women rather… manly, both in their appearance and behavior. Pretty unattractive, in other words. If a guy wants a woman, he’ll look for a woman. And if he’s gay, he’ll go the whole nine yards and find himself a man, not a manly woman.

    • AngryWhiteMan

      I’m attracted to some black females but relatively few compared to other races. The hottest black females are the ones with significant non black admixture

      • IstvanIN

        Most black women are not feminine looking, and even the ones that are, that hair is just too much. And let’s face it, a lot of them have “prognathism”, to put it delicately.

      • pcmustgo

        White women are probably far more attracted to half white/half asian guys… it normalizes their features out.

      • pcmustgo

        I agree Blacks are better looking with a ton of admixture… mixed race/latino guys can be pretty hot. That doesn’t mean I am only attracted to them.

    • Michael_C_Scott

      I’m married to a Japanese woman, and like white women well enough, but black women look and act too like orcs for me.

  • Manliness is not muscularity. Ask Shah of Khwarezm:

  • Germanacus

    Right. Warmed-over Steve Sailer.
    Message: Black man goooood for husband. Asian woman goooood for wife. Yes folks, destroying your race through miscegenation is not only justified and understandable but its a goooood thing. Viva la diversity! Live it up race traitors!

    • MerlinV

      Thats the whole idea Germ, to make race meaningless. I also think these White race-destroying miscreants keep confusing masculinity with primitiveness. The black man is by far the most primitive. I would like to conduct my own ecperiment:
      Get all these insane throw-your-genetic-history-down-the-toilet White women and their primitive black bucks out of the White man’s environment and isolate them with nothing on some deserted island. Then let these women rely on their bucks to take care of them and build their own civilization. Maybe their hybrid African children could figure out how to make an air-conditioner from scratch?

      • Vonhauer

        The Asian female at least moves her status upward by choosing a white mate. The white female moves her status down to the very bottom by choosing a black mate. Go figure.

  • Athling

    Miscegenation destroys the ethnicity bond in a society, the most crucial of the four bonds.

    Directed warfare focusing on the direct slaughter of a particular race of people is the fastest way to destroy a race. Miscegenation achieves the same result. Only much slower.

    • pcmustgo

      Miscegenation creates a new race, in many ways, like mesitzo/mulatto latinos… they are their own race now. They feel best among themselves… they too prefer their own- other mulattos, other mestizos.

  • pcmustgo

    As someone already mentioned, these dudes at Columbia must have been reading Steve Sailor and Vdare’s “Is Love Colorblind?”

  • Joseph U

    Wow, that IS shocking data. It only took 20 years to discover one of Rushton’s observations. I wonder how much longer until the “discover” the rest.