Reverse Brain Drain: Economic Shifts Lure Migrants Home

Sara Miller Llana et al., Christian Science Monitor, October 21, 2012

“Brain drain”—the flow of intellect and skilled labor from poor to rich countries—has been so constant in modern times that the Nigerian cabdriver who was educated as a doctor back home is just as much a fixture of New York City‘s landscape as a fledgling Broadway actress or Wall Street banker.


Indeed, over time about 75 percent of international migrants typically moved to a country with a higher level of human development than their country of origin, according to the United Nations Development Fund.

But now that tide is turning; immigrants no longer always see developed countries as a better place to be. This U-turn—a “brain gain” for developing countries—features people like Kenyan Sitati Kituyi, who opted to get off the high-powered consultancy ladder in London for a tech start-up in Africa. Or Han Jie, an entrepreneur, lured home to China from the United States with government incentives to set up a medical-equipment factory. {snip}

The financial crisis that began in 2008 has tested middle-class America’s sense of stability and the European right to social welfare. It has also caused many to question whether the developed world is still the only land of opportunity worth migrating to.

Emerging economies not only are faring better than most of the developed world in the current recession, they also continue to grow, drawing back their expatriates and, in some cases, even luring new high-skilled citizens of the US and Europe.


China has the world’s largest diaspora, but as it has emerged as a global power—along with the other so-called BRIC nations Brazil, Russia, and India—the government has made a new push to woo back the millions of citizens who had left the country over the past 30 years. The array of financial and other incentives to tempt them home is unmatched anywhere else in the world and is proving to be the icing on the cake of economic growth and opportunity that Chinese expatriates are rushing home to devour: The number of people coming home each year, rather than staying on to work in their host country, has risen more than 10-fold since the beginning of the century.

Brazil is also drawing its expatriates home, and coming with them are many Europeans, a major role reversal between Europe and its “old colonies” of Latin America, such as Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico.

The number of foreigners living legally in Brazil rose by more than 50 percent between 2010 and April 2012, many of them from Portugal, making it a nation of immigration, after years of sustained emigration.

“What we are seeing is what appears to be European skilled migration to developing countries, like BRIC countries,” says Ryszard Cholewinski, a specialist on migration policy at the International Labor Organization. “Given the economic crisis in Europe,” he says, especially for young people in southern Europe, “opportunity for them now exists in the developing world.”

Brain drain has been devastating for African nations, where waves of emigration started in the 1960s. Today, up to a quarter of foreign-trained health professionals working in western countries are from sub-Saharan Africa, according to the International Office on Migration. But some African diasporas are now beginning to return home, attracted by better opportunities, increasing political security, and a growing market buoyed by the spread of technology.

Manny Aniebonam, founder of the Nigerian Diaspora Alumni Network, estimates that twice as many people are returning to Nigeria today as are leaving. Angel Jones, founder of Homecoming Revolution in South Africa, a nonprofit established to lure expatriates home, says 6,000 South Africans have returned since 2004.


Becoming a recipient of brain gain implies new responsibilities that often cause growing pains, such as preventing human rights abuses of illegal workers or discouraging new xenophobic discourse. The Brazilian government estimates that fully half of the 4 million nationals living abroad in 2005 have returned home. Many of them are unskilled workers pushed home by harsher immigration rules and the stagnant job market in the US. And they’ve been joined by tens of thousands of low-skilled Bolivian and Paraguayan workers drawn by Brazil’s growth.


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  • WmarkW

    IMO, this should be an American foreign policy priority — nations need to provide opportunities  for their own people, so they’re not motivated to emigrate.

    Does Nigeria need a doctor more than New York needs a cabdriver?  Of course.

    Adherents to the AmRen philosophy should work more at packaging our beliefs in terms of “we want what’s best for Mexicans/Nigerians/Indians/Arabs,” and that’s for them to live in a culture of their own in which opportunities flourish for them.

    • The__Bobster

      All foreign students need to return home after they graduate, not be used to undercut the labor market. And their numbers need to be greatly reduced to open up spots for traditional Americans.

    • Tom_in_Miami

      Excellent point regarding the AmRen philosophy.

  • JustaWhiteMom

    Please, don’t let the door hit you in the a$$ on your way out.

    • Strider73

      Believe it nor not, Google can translate that into Swahili! Here it is (minus the dollar signs):

      Tafadhali, usiruhusu mlango hit wewe katika punda juu ya njia yako nje.Put it on a T-shirt, perhaps.

  • Tom_in_Miami

    “Today, up to a quarter of foreign-trained health professionals working in western countries are from sub-Saharan Africa, according to the International Office on Migration.”

    I’ve never heard of the “International Office on Migration,” but I have a hard time believing this claim, not that it’s so important.  I do want to believe that as many as possible from the African diasporas are now beginning to return home.

    • IstvanIN

       Mostly nurses and nurses aids but scary none the less.

  • What needs to be done is to encourage Americans to get advanced degrees in STEM fields and either have a loan forgiveness program or other tuition assistance programs to for these graduates. We can no longer depend on foreigners to fill these positions.

  • Any notion that this “reverse brain drain” will bring relief from the demographic calamity we are in is wishful thinking. Economies wax and wane, people’s migration habits change on a whim. Today’s emigres will be tomorrows repeat immigrants. The only way to save the West from demographic doom is by force.

  • KenelmDigby

    I wish they all would bloody well go home.

    Unfortunately, I’ve got the distinct feeling that this article is yet another worthless ‘puff-piece’ by some second-rate journalist that is the complete antithesis of the truth.