J. Philippe Rushton Says Color May Be More than Skin Deep

J. Philippe Rushton, VDARE, July 17, 2012

(Adapted from Do pigmentation and the melanocortin system modulate aggression and sexuality in humans as they do in other animals?by J. Philippe Rushton and Donald I. Templer, Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 53, Issue 1, July 2012, Pages 4–8. [PDF].)

[VDARE.com note: We urge readers to study the citations in the original. Our hyperlinks sometimes differ—if, for example, Professors Rushton and Templer’s source is not available online.]

Pigmentation—coloring—varies greatly across species. In 2008, Anne-Lyse Ducrest, Laurent Keller and Alexandre Roulin, three ecologists at Switzerland’s University of Lucerne published a review article in Trends in Ecology and Evolution [Pleiotropy in the melanocortin system, coloration and behavioral syndromes,September 2008] on the relations between pigmentation, sexuality, and aggression in 45 vertebrate species. They found that darker-colored individuals had higher levels of aggression and sexuality than lighter colored individuals across three species of mammals (African lion, soay sheep, and white-tailed deer), four species of fish (mosquito fish, guppy, green swordtail, and Arctic char), four species of reptiles (asp viper, adder, fence lizard, and spiny lizard), one amphibian species (spadefoot toad), and 36 species of birds.

Ducrest and her co-authors’ explanation: increased levels of melanocortin hormones, which determine coloring, are linked with increased testosterone and other steroids that stimulate aggression and sexuality, among other things.

To test this, Ducrest & Co. experimentally varied melanocortin dosage levels. They found concomitant increases (or decreases) in aggression and sexuality.

They also carried out cross-fostering studies, placing darker and lighter offspring with adoptive parents of the opposite pigmentation. Cross-fostering did not alter the offspring’s coloring or behavior. Male lions with darker manes remained more aggressive and sexually active than those with lighter manes. Darker feathered barn owls continued to have a stronger immune response to stress (another linked phenomenon) than lighter feathered barn owls.

It was the biological, not the adopting, parent that determined both the offspring’s coloration and its behavior.

This link between coloring and behavior has been confirmed in many other species—even tortoises. In Russia, a 40-year-study bred for tameness in silver foxes and found that lightness coincidentally emerged. After 40 years, the selected foxes were as tame and eager to please as domestic dogs—and the dark coat colors originally evolved as camouflage in the wild had been replaced by piebald. (Piebald coats are often seen among domestic animals—in dogs, cats, sheep, donkeys, horses, pigs, goats, mice, and cattle).

Similarly, selecting for tameness over 30 generations of Norway ratscaused the proportion of piebald rats to increase rapidly until over 70% had white bellies and about 50% had white feet and ankles—“socks.”

Dogs, too, show a relationship between coat color and behavior—and dog lovers have figured it out. Shelters have a harder time getting black dogs adopted.

But what about humans? Despite all the evidence on color, aggression, and sexuality in animals, there has been little or no discussion of the relationship in people. Ducrest & Co. even warned that genetic mutations may make human populations not exhibit coloration effects as consistently as other species. But they provided no evidence.

My co-author, Donald I.Templer, formerly Professor of Psychology, Alliant International University [email him], and I were skeptical. After all, if it turned out that the melanocortin system did lead to heightened aggression and sexuality in people, we would have a substantially stronger and more powerful theory to explain aspects of human behavior than before. The hypothesis was worth examining seriously.

Our new paper in Personality and Individual Differences (free download here) reports clear evidence that darker pigmentation is indeed associated with higher levels of aggression and sexuality in humans—just as it is in animals.

We compared people of African descent with those of European and Asian descent. Worldwide— ever since record keeping began—blacks have averaged higher levels of aggression and sexuality than whites and Asians:

  • In 1996, a government commission in Canada found that blacks were five times more likely than whites to be in jail and ten times more likely than Asians.
  • In 1999, a Home Office report in Britain found that blacks made up 15% of the prison population although they made up only 2% of the general population.
  • In 1999, a large study in the U.S. analyzed the FBI Uniform Crime Statistics and National Crime Victimization Surveys from the U.S. Department of Justice and found that, since record keeping began at the turn of the century, African Americans engaged in proportionately more acts of violence than other groups.

Surveys of crime victims tell a similar story. So the racial differences in arrest statistics cannot be explained only by police prejudice.

Other evidence:

  • Richard Lynn found that blacks averaged the highest rates of childhood and adolescent psychopathy and conduct disorder. The measures included: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); being suspended or excluded from school; scoring low on tests of moral understanding; failing to live up to financial obligations such as paying off student loans; poor work commitment; recklessness (e.g., having traffic accidents); inability to maintain monogamous relationships, failing to be responsible parents, engaging in domestic violence, and needing hospitalization for injuries sustained through altercations.
  • Glayde Whitney and I analyzed the 1993-1996 INTERPOL Yearbooks and found that the rate of murder, rape, and serious assault was four times higher in African andCaribbean countries than elsewhere in the world. The rate of violent crimes for African countries was 149 per 100,000 people; for European, 42; and for Asian, 35.

Racial differences in sexual behavior parallel those found in crime.

  • One international survey asked married couples how often they had sex. Pacific Islanders and Native Americans said from 1 to 4 times a week, U.S. Whites 2 to 4 times a week; Africans said 3 to over 10 times a week.
  • A World Health Organization study of married couples in their twenties found average intercourse per week was: American Blacks, 5; American Whites, 4; Japanese and Chinese in Asia, 2.5.
  • National surveys from Britain and the United States show similar ethnic differences within countries.
  • The famed Kinsey Institute in Indiana carried out a survey in the 1950s which Anthony Bogaert and I analyzed further.We found blacks reported higher rates of intercourse, at earlier ages, with more partners, and with more orgasms per act of coitus. Blacks also reported spending more time thinking about sex, and had lower levels of guilt or concern about it. Black females also became pregnant more quickly than white women—as indicated by speed of pregnancy after male military demobilization.

In the Kinsey data, race predicted sexual behavior better than did socioeconomic status. Kinsey’s black sample was college-educated and came from a middle-class background. One of the white samples was non-college educated and had low socioeconomic status. But the middle-class blacks displayed higher levels of sexuality than the working-class whites.

Differences in sexual behavior lead to real-life consequences. For example:

  • Blacks are over-represented relative to Asians and Europeans in sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) like syphilis, gonorrhea, herpes, chlamydia, and HIV/AIDS. In 2007, of the more than 1 million people living in the U.S. with HIV/AIDS, almost half (46%) were black.
  • The black-White difference in HIV/AIDS is found worldwide, with especially high rates in sub-Saharan Africa (The CIA World Fact Book, 2010). Thus the rate for Botswana was 24.8%, South Africa was 17.8%, Zambia was 14.6%, and Zimbabwe was 14.3%.
  • A very high rate of HIV/AIDS is also found in the black Caribbean. Recent contact with Africa has been minimal, but the HIV/AIDS rates are as high in the Caribbean today as they were in sub-Saharan Africa 20 years ago: 3.1% in the Bahamas, 2.9% in Haiti, 1.7% in Jamaica.

The conventional explanations for these black-white differences focus on cultural deprivation, poverty, slavery, white racism etc. But the analyses presented here (and here, and here, and here) show that genetic factors are also likely involved.

Behavioral genetic analyses, using twin, family, and adoption designs, show that most differences in behavior traits between people are about 50% heritable and are genetically linked. For example, in one study among adolescents, 36 to 49% of the sexual intimacy engaged in by one sibling was predicted by the amount of delinquency engaged in by the other.

Another study found that sexuality and delinquency correlated positively with measures of impulsivity, deceitfulness, and rebelliousness, and negatively with those of parental affection and encouragement of achievement. Moreover, mixed-race (Black-White) adolescents were intermediate in the number of sexual partners they had by comparison to the two parental populations.

There’s other evidence of correlation between color and behavior. A2006 study by Donald I. Templer and Hiroko Arikawa found a remarkably high correlation of 0.92 between skin color and national IQ across 129 countries and within each of the three continents: -0.86 for Africa; -0.55 for Asia; and -0.63 for Europe. The correlations are negative because darker skin color predicted lower IQ score.

In 2008, Donald I. Templer found that, across 129 countries, skin color correlated with IQ (-0.91), birth rate (0.85), infant mortality (0.71), longevity (-0.84), rate of HIV/AIDS (0.53), and GDP (0.60).

Subsequently, in a 2009 study , Donald Templer and I found skin color also correlated with crime in 113 countries (homicide, 0.34; rape, 0.24: and serious assault, 0.25) as well as with IQ (-0.91), GDP (-0.57), HIV/AIDS (0.56), birth rate (0.87), longevity (-0.85), and infant mortality (0.76). Rates of murder, rape, and serious assault correlated with those of HIV/AIDS (0.48, 0.57, and 0.42, respectively).

Finally, in 2011, Donald Templer and I confirmed the international findings using data from within the 50 U.S. states. Skin color was measured by the percentage of blacks in the state. It correlated with infant mortality (0.41), longevity (-0.66), HIV/AIDS (0.74), birth rate (0.12), murder (0.84), robbery (0.77), assault (0.54), as well as IQ (-0.48) and income (-0.28).

Pigment differences in temperament are also found within human races. A 20 year study by development psychologist Jerome Kagan found that, in kindergarten, blue-eyed children were more likely than brown-eyed children to be shy, wary, and inhibited.

In The Long Shadow of Temperament , Kagan and Snidman reported the shy infants grew to have a dourer temperament in adolescence, whereas the bolder infants were more outgoing in adolescence.

The authors acknowledged that temperament can be modified by experience. But their work showed how far the link between infant temperament and pigmentation could extend over the lifetime.

The correlations between human coloration, aggression, sexuality and IQ may also play a role in the phenomenon of “pigmentocracies”—societies stratified by skin color, with lighter skindenoting higher status. Again, pigmentocracies are conventionally explained by cultural factors such as the legacy of slavery. But our work suggests that the relationship between skin color and behavior may be at work.

Our paper provides only a first approximation of melanin and its correlates. There are complex issues that need to be studied further. Nonetheless, we believe our work points in a direction that could greatly advance knowledge.

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  • Frank

    Too bad this won’t make the MSM.  You can imagine the comments that would follow from Jackson, Sharpton, etc.

  • This is why you never see a white man with a black woman. Men are attracted to the feminine. Women are attracted to the masculine. As soon as our friends in the media and Hollywood are sent packing, then things can get back to normal. I, for one, am sick and tired of the gang in hollywood telling me every day about how sexy J.Lo is, and how manly the rappers are. If Hollywood disappeared into a black hole tomorrow, I’d read the article about it with one hand, and continue eating my sandwich with the other.

    • Francis Galton

       Not to be confrontational or picky, but your first statement is wrong in my experience.

      Spend a few weeks in Norfolk, Va (about 45% White, 45% black, 10% everything else)–a sort of bizarre social swamp of ghetto welfare blacks, blue-collar Whites, Navy types, and Disingenuous White Liberals–and you are bound to see at least a few WM-BF couplings sooner or later.  

      Not two days ago I saw what appeared to be a meek, passive-looking White guy (non-Wigger) with a black girl shopping at Wal-mart.  I’ve seen this scenario at least five other times in the past year. 

      Also, I know of at least three regular, older couples at my store (different Wal-mart) that consist of a White man with a black woman (and yes, I’ve seen the bizarre-looking children from one of these unions as well, much to my chagrin).

      My hypothesis is that there are only three kinds of White males who go with black women:

      1) Wiggers

      2) Overly passive males who may be desperate for action and will go so far as to take a black woman over nothing at all

      3) Guys who like exotic, sexually deviant-type experiences, AKA jungle fever

      • mikejones91

        I know exactly what you mean when you say “passive” looking white guy. I always see “dorky” white guys with somewhat attractive black women. Though I rarely see attractive white women with black men. They usually fit a similar look. the best looking white women have white boyfriends. 

      • WmarkW

        Let’s give credit where it’s due — there are a lot more smart black women than black men.  After several losers of their own kind, they might figure it’s lot better to give some lonely frustrated geek some action, and raise 100% of their children with their own father in the house (and want him there).

        • David Ashton

            I remember the late Professor Gayre saying that African women were marginally more intelligent than African men.  This coincides with my limited experience of teaching Afro-Caribbean teenagers in Britain. 
            You need to consult black newspapers and websites for “internal” consumption, rather than political statements issued to white people, to have a good idea of what black men and women really think and feel about these matters.

      • Chimp

        And White men who date Asian and Latino women get a Free Pass do they? Miscegenation doesnt just occur between blacks and whites. Self-Righteous hypocrites on this forum need to condemn and denounce White men who sleep with Asian and Latino women just as they do black men and white women or white men and black women.

        • JohnEngelman

          Growing up in Virginia as a child I was only aware of whites and black. I am not sure how I became aware of Orientals, but it was probably a television program about Japan or Taiwan. Perhaps it was about school children. 
          I remember thinking, “With white girls some are pretty and some are not. With Oriental girls all are pretty.”

          • When I was 12, I thought a Japanese women I saw on screen was something most beautiful that existed.
            Then I grew up & almost forgot about those stylized faces and boyish bodies. Let their men have them.

            East  Asians, even in most accomplished forms, in my mind evoke only some deep seated sadistic sex perversion drives- which remain safely suppressed.

          • JohnEngelman

            East  Asians, even in most accomplished forms, in my mind evoke only some deep seated sadistic sex perversion drives- which remain safely suppressed.                                                                    
            – Bardon Kaldian                  
            No man who has been involved with an Oriental woman would think that way, unless she was extremely atypical. 
            Oriental women are as feminine as they look.  They have a special quality about them and are delightful. 

          •  I don’t deny they’re feminine. Just- not my, White European type of the feminine. They don’t have this depth of emotions & intellect inscribed into their faces.

          • Okay, do I have to remind everyone on this forum that the Japanese were part of the freaking Axis? The Japanese know how to create a civilization. They appreciate beauty, science and nature. They are a perfectly wonderful people. Blacks and latinos are savage ape-creatures. We’re talking about a matter of degree-blacks more so than latinos. Would I marry a Japanese girl? I doubt it, I really do, but let’s just say that were the earth solely populated by Japanese and white Europeans, this would be a very nice planet. We would have condos on Neptune by now. Japanese are not violent people, they do not wallow in their own filth. They value honor. Don’t get me wrong, and I will put this delicately so that I don’t get censored: I am a big fan of the History Channel (wink-wink), but even I have a soft spot in my heart for the Japanese. Give me a Haiku over rap and salsa any day. Do you have to be perverted to be attracted to Japanese culture? Certainly not. The freaking Axis, Bardon.  🙂   FG

          • mikejones91

            Oriental girls are pretty because they look so similar. An oriental woman can only look so good. For a white woman, there is not limit to how beautiful she can be. Though I will say the ugliest women I’ve seen have been white. But the most gorgeous/breathtaking/out of this world women have ALL been white.

        • Latinos are considered white and white men/Asian women were considered an acceptable form of interracial relationships in the 1950’s and 1960’s. Films like Sayonara, The World of Suzie Wong and Walk Like a Dragon show the endorsement of society of white man/Asian woman pairings. This was also when US servicemen were coming home with Japanese brides.

          • Xanthippe2

            Oh come now.  There are plenty of wealthy, even middle class, Chinese and Japanese who do not want their daughters to marry Whites to this day.  (Of course, I am not blaming them.)

            And plenty of Whites do not want their children to marry outside their race, no matter how pretty or smart the possible spouse may be.

          • That may be the case but many Asians realize that their daughters may marry a white man because it is realistic since many others have done the same thing.

        • ed91

           you’ll never convince me that having children with blacks is the same as sharing children with asians…………
          it isn’t similar……
          the first large difference is that having children with an asian, you aren’t automatically lowering the family iq by 50 points……….
          there are degrees…………….  and several months ago we (this site) went through a discussion about lack of firm borders around the three races, caucasian, negroid and asian———   for example, is a turkish person as white as a norwegian?  if latino isn’t a race, are they whites?  etc etc

          this totally black and white scenario isn’t the real world……..   so maybe there isn’t as much miscegenation as you think.

          • You bring up a fine point that bears repeating: For a white man or woman to breed with a black or a latino, that is similar to downgrading from a Windows 7 computer to a rock. At least to go from white to Japanese, at least there is some common ground, at least you’re talking about 2 humans mating. I of course, of course, would prefer for whites to breed with whites, but if I see a white man with a Japanese girl (you never see the opposite because white women see asian men as feminine and girly), I’m not as angry as when I see a white girl with a black man. That is just beyond me- why throw away thousands of years of good breeding to mate with a savage? Why throw away your offsprings’ gifts? Why, right out of the starting gate, give your kids  a handicap? It’s sick.

        • alastairabbacle

          I believe that the Sino-Japanese contribution to the American White gene pool will be a positive one.  

          The loss of toughness and ethnic pride has clearly manifested itself as a disadvantage of the White race.  The infusion of 3% Sino-Japanese blood into the White majority can help to revive the American culture. 

          Now, miscegenation is not a “good” thing.  It must be approached with trepidation towards the difficulty of the two differing clans getting along. There is a loss of racial specialization, in favor of the creation of a new racial type, suited to evolve in the coming centuries.
          However, if it works, it can go a long way towards bridging alliances.  In the coming civilisational transfer between America/Europe to East Asia/India, a creation of a Eurasian population in America can be of strong advantage.

          Overall, the small Sino-Japanese contribution to the American White gene pool will be absorbed into “White”.

          And yes, we do need to focus on NAMS.  Without the counterbalancing force of East Asians and dot Indians, America’s NAMS would have brought it down much lower and faster.
          Also, it is actually a good thing that Asians are keeping many qualified Whites from entering colleges, seeing as this enables smart White Americans to escape the brainwashing and time wasting which occurs in these institutions.

          Of course, those East Asians admitted to the White gene pool should be of a certain quality.  Most East Asians who come to America do tend to be more risk-taking, and more creative than the average of their counterparts in Asia.  Thus, Whites should favor absorbing the East Asians most like Whites in character traits of creativity.  This is the only catch, and the most important quality to maintain in the White race.

        • LaSantaHermandad

          Denouncing Whites with classy Asians and/or Latinos many of whom are White is wasting resources and time that could be spent on saving the White race from Blacks.  I know several people to whom we could refer as Eurasians and the majority of them are girls who are dating and marrying White men. Their children will be more White than Asian. Same with many Latinos. Most of those with whom I worked identified themselves as White Hispanics or White Latinos.
          I just saw a recent picture of Heidi Klums children. They look so much more African than they did a year ago. They will grow up identifying themselves as Black.
          Check out Seal and his new mystery girlfriend. 
          No los hacen más feo que él.

      • Statistically, agreed. But, how do you explain all these WM-BW couples ? No. 3) ?: http://mychoicetolove.com/interracial_celeb_couples.php

        • LaSantaHermandad

          I don’t see much of that but rather more and more BM/WF couples. Just concentrate on the TV commercials that are increasingly suggesting the above mentioned combination. It’s very subtle. Theirs also the not so subliminal message protraying the White male as a nerdy, effeminate dork always needing help from the blacks,

          • The amount of current TV-knowledge on this message board is surprising sometimes.    I am an English major and love media, stories, shows, etc. of all kinds.  But even if there are programs that have some merit (fewer and fewer), the messages in the programs (and accompanying ads) that run counter to my values are too much to stomach.  How can you stand it?  How can you support it with your eyeballs?

          • LaSantaHermandad

             You’re right. My wife says the same thing. But I subscribe to “What you DON’T know can hurt you.
            Contrary to what some of our AMRENERS say the emphasis is on pairing White women with Black men and of course, degrading White males.

          • mikejones91

            That’s all wishful fiction. They show these classy/preppy/pretty white women with equally “classy” black men. Simply put (just a guestimation influenced by what I see every day/people I know/people in my neighborhood) 9 times out of 10—the white women with black men are complete trash. They just look/seem “trashy”. Their mannerisms/clothing style/just the “look” that they have. Example—A block over from my house there is 2 white women/black man couples. The first is a kid I grew up with. Hes college educated. Just a nice black guy. He has a white girlfriend. She doesn’t really fit the typical white girl with black guy mold. The next couple (who by coincidence  lives next door) The guy is a drug dealer. Who do I know? He’s been arrested several times. I’ve also bought drugs from him in the past (a dark time in my life). The woman (white)l is a crack addicted 55 year human skeleton. As with SO MANY WF/BM couples, the woman is a submissive/weak minded/dependent individual. Another example—I was in a store the other day and your typical WF/BM couples walks. Shes got the hoop earrings/tight straight jeans/air force bball shoes. They get behind me in line and the BM’s tone was just degrading to her. He was rude/snappy/everything. That’s how it is with SO MAN WF/BM couples. Which then gives the rest of the idiotic black community the idea/perception that ALL white woman are weak like that. But WE know that’s not true. Its like these BM’s get some sort of sexual thrill/ideas of past enslavement/sticking it back to US. It doesn’t bother me that they think like that. It bothers me that their resentment only grows for OUR women.

          • Let’s put it this way, many of these black men do not respect their own mothers so do you think they are going to respect their white girlfriends. Besides, no white man would want them after a black man is through with them.

      • frank pucillo

        Actually my wife has black women coworkers who say they would like to date a white man. So I would say the dorky looking white man was targeted by a black women.

        • mikejones91

          Black women want “cool” white guys. Trust me–I used to work a mall (2nd biggest in America) so needless to say, there was a lot of black women. I was approached many times by young black women. Most of them being somewhat attractive. They are very “to the point” as well. I was out smoking one day and this young black girl (probably like 19) came out and sat down next to me. I could tell from her body language/ect that she wanted to/was going to start a convo with me. She asks me what my name/where I work/blah blah. She then asks how tall I am. I reply and shes says ” oh I love tall guys”. She was one those “preppy” black girls. The way they talk (they sound like white women) dress/mannerisms. You can just tell they go for white guys. Kind of a new trend I suppose.  I see it a lot now.

    • cecilhenry

       Absolutely, you are not alone.  I find the promotion of multiracialism and miscegenation in Hollywood profoundly offensive and constitutes promotion of genocide when its done like this.

      Truly subversive. 

      Its comical to hear the suggestion that many non-whites actors are ‘really beautiful’ or stunning.  Its just not true and those differences matter profoundly.

      But the envious want to destroy that difference, and hence Hollywood……

      • The__Bobster

        The ugly desire to destroy beauty.

        Check out the actresses on the retro TV shows and compare them to today’s actresses. There is a marked difference. Delicate features are out. Coarse features are in.

      • I said it earlier.

        Most comments here stressed what we already knew- Blacks  &
        Asians & the rest simply don’t fit in our standards of physical attractiveness. OK, this is settled- at least, I think so. My
        other angle would be: other races’ facial features are, more or less,
        stylized compared to ours. Asians & Blacks simply do not have
        that kind of facial expressiveness (even if they’re “good
        looking”) Whites are capable of.

        I noticed a long ago in the Renaissance & Baroque portraits
        (Titian, Rembrandt,Holbein jr., Duerer, Leonardo, Velazquez, ..)-
        White women & men have potentially highly expressive & noble
        faces, and this does not diminish with time- on the contrary. With
        the advent of photography & camera it became even more
        obvious.Both East Asians & Blacks are somehow facially schematic-
        their faces are not nearly comparable to ours in expressing grief,
        joy, sadness, aristocratic hauteur, nobility, dignity, triumphant
        ecstasy, elation, thoughtfulness, determination- even confusion &
        drooling idiocy.

        They got- my rough estimate- less than 50% of our facial
        expressiveness and individuality. Not only East Asians, but Blacks,

        • alastairabbacle

          The is spot on regarding facial expressiveness.  I believe that long after Whites are 5% of the global population (temporarily until the rebound in 2050-2150), they will continue to be the movie stars of the world.

          Most non-white actors will simply be White in facial structure, while still being identified as some other race.    (Halle Berry, Alisha Keys etc)    

          This irony of the White extreme minority and the White domination of movies will be intense.  Eventually, this alone may cause the tide to turn, and Whites to be revived if only to supply the silver screen.  

        • Bardon, I like you, I really do. But here we go again with the facial expressiveness. I could see you with a clip board and some calipers. I’m talking about a eurasian girl, with a LOT of white blood in her, and a little asian. I happen to be a guy of marrying age, and even though I am attracted primarily to white girls, and date them exclusively, would I hit this?—




          • LaSantaHermandad

            Beautiful Asian women are beautiful in their own way. I don’t think that there is any basis for comparison with White women. They’re different. Both races have the majority of beautiful women.  As an example Gong Li is exquisite and she’s 47 now.

          • mikejones91

            Never seen her before but she is gorgeous. 

          •  Hmmm….no, they cannot compete.

          • Captian Obvious

             Yes from a strictly hormonal standpoint, as a man, she is attractive.  Dude, you are a HUMAN  that has a brain.  So USE it.

            I find my Mexican tenant’s daughter to be quite appealing.  She’s 18, cute as a doll.  That doesn’t mean I’m willing to throw away my genes for all time.

            Think man, THINK!  What it really comes down to is this…
            Do you want to preserve your race or not?

          • Unlike most people here, I have a rather relaxed criteria on race. IMO, the girl in pic looks great & is, IMO, white. I call these types “exotic whites”. If she’s a compatible character- grab her.

        • mikejones91

          Silver Tongue Kaldian

        • What about mixed race Asians and Blacks who are the offspring of white male/Asian female couples and Black man white woman couples? They would certainly  have the same facial expressions as whites do.

    • This could explain why there are few white men attracted to the Kardashian sisters. Kim Kardarshian is well liked by black men because she is built like a black woman but does not have the attitude issues that turn black men away from black women. She is currently dating rapper Kanye West. Her sister Khloe is married to basketball player Lamar Odom.

      • I think it’s because they’re N- whores & all normal Whites and other “light skinners” are viscerally disgusted.

      • Aren’t they half Armenian or something? 

        • LaSantaHermandad

          Yes. The are half Armenian. Their Robert Kardashian was OJ’s buddy. The girls were terminally indoctrinated just as many White girls are. Most Armenians are very clannish when it comes to dating and mating. 
          Armenia was the first country adopt Christianity. 
          Kim is a beautiful woman and another sad example of beauty being wasted on the brain dead. 

      • mikejones91

        I think Kim is built like a white woman. The wider shoulders/hips without being obese. 

  • Chimp

    This is a tad simplistic to blame Blacks for all violent crime and exhonerate the non-blacks. I lose count of the number of cases men have thrown acid in womens faces in a vast swathe of Asia from Turkey to Cambodia. I also lose track of the “honor killings” that afflict South and South-west Asia from Turkey to Bangladesh whereby women are slaughtered by fathers, brothers etc.

    • This is not a problem with East Asians, but only those from Muslim countries seem to act out in this way. This is an issue with control over their women so that they do not cause the family to lose their honor. Anything such as refusing to marry a man chosen by the family, refusal to dress in Muslim clothing, or even working outside the home, could cause a family to kill a daughter for damaging their honor.

    • ed91

       ok, blacks and muslims both suck. 

      feel better?

  • WmarkW

    ” Dogs, too, show a relationship between coat color and behavior…”

    OK.  But I love Chocolate Labs; they’re one of my favorite breeds.

    • Ni123

       “But I love Chocolate Labs; they’re one of my favorite breeds.”

       Dogs went through more than 15000 years of selection since the gray wolf was domesticated. They were bred to live with people.

  • This whole thing is true- partially. It is, IMO, relevant to the low level, primitive, impulsive aggression. But, human beings’ behavior defy such simplistic explanations on a larger scale. For instance:

    * it was blue eyed, blond Vikings from Scandinavia who were terror of the Europe in 7th and 8th centuries A.D. Later, when Christianized & “Frenchified”, they conquered England, expelled Arabs from Sicily and waged wars from France to Islamic countries & Russia.

    * Russians & Ukrainians are even more blond than Scandinavians. However, they wreaked havoc on Tartars, various Muslims, Turks..and other “darker” peoples.

    * English are, on average, “light” people. Yet, they defeated & subjugated numerous “dark peoples” (India, Africa,..).

    It seems that “controlled aggression” is the keyword. It implies planning, intelligence, will & ambition.

    Black aggressiveness & sexuality may be dominant on low levels of in-group & in contact with other groups who don’t react appropriately. If history has shown anything, it’s that in past 2000 yrs “light” peoples almost invariably routed, enslaved or decimated “dark” peoples.
    Aggressiveness & sexuality are, it seems, restricted to most basic, impulsive levels of behavior.

    • mikejones91

      I think all of this applies on a very primitive level.

      •  Of course, but this exactly IS the point. Which percentage of Blacks are either sophisticated intellectuals or conservative hard working farmers or lumberjacks ?

        • Ni123

          “conservative hard working farmers”

          who won  a $1.25 billion discrimination settlement.

    • The__Bobster

      Contrary to what your hear from today’s media and revisionist history books, most vikings were peaceful farmers.


      Viking Farming
      Most Vikings were farmers. Even those who were involved in the raids all over Western Europe, or those who sailed East or West to trade were at heart farmers. These Viking raiders and traders would generally still come home with their profits or with their stolen goods to operate their farms.

    • Periapsis

      Let’s not forget the darkies haven wreaked terrible death and destruction on the Ukrainians and Russians, who avenged it with interest. Darkies invaded their homelands, the Ukrainians and Russians made them fight and die for every inch, and that is why they have good reason to despise, mistrust and be suspicious of them. Even the Vikings invaded their homelands, but they intermarried and merged with the Slavs to become the present day peoples of Ukraine and Russia. The same cannot be said for the Ottoman Turks, Mongols, and Tartars.

    • cecilhenry

       Yes, perhaps there is a distinction to be made between extraversion and aggressiveness.

      Aggressiveness does not mean only showing off and giving off ‘threat gestures’ like are so common in  a lot of gang type activity. 

      It is also patience and determination towards a goal, planning and willingness to suffer in pursuit of goals, etc.

      This is more than muscularity or physicality (although that plays a part) and explains among other things why a small or ‘weak’ man is still often much more aggressive and successful in pursuit of goals than, say,  women typically are.

      Classic recent sports example that highlights this so well:

      the NBA and the Lebron James Miami Heat puffery and strutting when he came to Miami.  The buffoonery and cocky but substanceless gestures gave the impression they had won the championship at the start of the season.

      I could see from the start where this empty puffery would lead to–behavior that is laughable to a lot of whites –individually and culturally.

      Contrast that to the Dallas leader– Dirk Nowitzki. 

      This is common with blacks around the world.

    • Ni123

       “they wreaked havoc on Tartars”

      There are a lot of blue eye blond/red hair people among those “darkies”. And I’m not sure if you know this but Joseph Stalin was Georgian.

    • MAJ

       I often find an analogy in computer software.

      Whites have the highest intellectual, creative, and civilized abilities. In addition, We can control impulses, think ahead, and develop logical thoughts.

      As we evolved UP to this level we at some point moved past the primitive, aggressive nature found in blacks. But buried inside us are those abilities if we choose to use them, and add them to our higher abilities.

      In a sense we are backward compatible. If necessary we can be more aggressive and violent than anyone on the planet. However, blacks are not upward compatible.

      That’s why they fail.

      Now, what will it take for Whites to draw upon their evolutionary skills?

      • East Asians have higher IQ scores, test scores and g,p.a.’s than whites do. They tend to excel at math and science . The Chinese also invented gunpowder, papermaking, the compass and woodblock and moveable type printing.

  • cecilhenry

    This is a fascinating area of study and great to see this paper.


  • mikejones91

    They aren’t talking about eye color. Skin color. I’m white and I too do NOT have blue or brown eyes.

    • haroldcrews

      The article mentioned eye color in connection to introversion/extroversion.

      • mikejones91

        What does it say exactly? Its not loading on my screen. If you don’t mind.

  • MekongDelta69

    Nonetheless, we believe our work points in a direction that could greatly advance knowledge.

    Unfortunately, this will never happen.

    Everybody already knows how mentally insane leftists feel, but even so called ‘conservatives’ practically stutter, gag and choke even when the mere mention of the word “race” is uttered.

  • cecilhenry

    A few questions come to mind:

    1.  How do they differentiate between skin color and IQ as a market for sexuality and aggressiveness as they both (IQ vs skin color) are correlated. 

    How is it pigmentation exactly, and not something in the brain neurology that correlates IQ with sexuality?

    2.  It seems that hypersexuality and aggressiveness must NOT be correlated with reproductive success (or does it depend on environment?) as otherwise lighter colors would be selected out.

    • Sloppo

      I believe environment is a critical factor.  In places where stupidity and failure in life decreases your family’s chances for survival, intelligence and work ethics are vital.  In places where a social welfare system feeds everyone who can’t feed themselves, the most sexually reproductive groups ultimately dominate all others.

  • Vil

    I have greenblue eyes with brownish central heterochromia… What the hell am I!?

  • sgmpalm

    I saw this pattern years ago. I used to reside in CT and noticed that the large Italian community living in my town behaved differently from the surrounding White communities that had little or no Italians. The Italians were much louder and more active. This also coincided with other races to a more or lesser degree (Blacks, Indians, Arabs, Hispanics) compaired to Whites with ancestors from northern Europe. In general, descendants from races that reside closer to the equator are more active, hostile, and less intelligent in general.

    Another anology is nature. The animals and insects in the tropics are much more aggressive and deadly than the animals and insects in colder climates. In CT, there’s a few poisonous spiders and the copperhead snake. In the deep south there’s lots of poisonous spiders, snakes, scorpions, ants, etc.

    I call this phenomenon the “sun factor”, because it’s the exposure from the sun over many years, decades, centuries, millenium, etc., that is the root cause for these major differences of the earth’s inhabitants.

    • Louder- yes. Less intelligent ? Are you #$%&@7 ? Have you heard the names of Anselm of Canterbury (Italian), Guido d’Arezzo, Dante, Petrarch, Leonardo, Michelangelo, Titian, Palestrina, Monteverdi, Galileo, Vico, Fibonacci, Volta, Avogadro, Malpighi, Fermi, Rubbio, ..

      Get some education.

      • Sloppo

        Compare the intelligence of Italians with the people coming off the boats from Africa.  

      • Ni123

         “Less intelligent”
        Southern provinces – Piglia, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Molise, and the islands Sicily and Sardinia – yes. Sicily and Sardinia look especially pitiful.


      • KingKenton

        Just curious… but were most of the people you named from N. Italy? N. Italians and S. Italians are very different people. And I always got the distinct impression that the N. Italians are not very fond of the S. Italians ( I don’t know if the feeling is mutual or not).

        • No. During Renaissance Northern Italy (Florence, Turin, Milan,..) was more advanced, but the South caught up with them quickly. Don’t forget that Rome is, properly speaking, in the South, as well as Naples, Sicily etc. For instance, the best Italian 20th century writers were Southerners from Sicily (Verga, Pirandello, Lampedusa), as well as theoretical physicists (Ettore Majorana, Sicily; Enrico Fermi- Rome).

          IQ is not- IMO- a measure of creativity, but “orderliness”. Northern cities are similar to central European, and the South is a mess. But this does not mean that Southerners are dumb. They’re messy, so to speak.

      • Bon, From the Land of Babble


        Here are two interesting article for you from about IQ/achievement differences between Northern and Southern Italy.

        From the AR archives, May, 2010:   Richard Lynn Answers the Questione Meridionale:

        Prof. Lynn advanced four propositions. First, he presented IQs for twelve regions of Italy and showed that these declined from 103 in the far north to about 91 south of Rome, to 90 in Sardinia, and 89 in Sicily. Second, he showed that per capita incomes followed the same north-south gradient, and he attributed the income differences to the IQ differences. Third, he showed that nearly all the great Italian geniuses (Galileo, Leonardo, etc) came from the north, as would be expected from the higher IQ of the population. Fourth, he proposed that the explanation of the low IQ in the south is that immigrants from the Middle East and North Africa introduced their genes for low IQ into the population.

        Professor Lynn’s article from Intelligence:, “In Italy, north-south differences in IQ predict differences in income, education, infant morality, stature and literacy”:



  • frank pucillo

    Many black people may believe this study.They discriminate against each other based upon skin tone.

    • Xanthippe2

      But do they see being agressive and  sexual as being bad things?

      • Sheila Dinehart

        Aggression without reason, on impulse is a bad thing or an irresponsibile thing just as this sex acts of irresponsibility that lead to AIDs or other deseases…combined with lower IQ levels that is a real bomb to any society.

  • I’m blue eyed , but I don’t see any correlation. Although, I always detested criminal behavior on average scale (not on grand scale- Alexander, Caesar, Genghis Khan,..).

  • I read an article about an orphanage in Japan that took care of mixed race children. The staff noticed that the half black kids tend to develop faster than the half white kids and are sexually active at an earlier age than the half white children.

  • APaige

    Pigment of skin, fur, scales, etc, are just Zoological constructs that have no biological meaning. It is just the white animals keeping the black ones down. Jokes aside-black dogs ‘look’ more dangerous to me(even if the breed is not)…could it be pre-wired in my brain to be careful around black animals?

    • LaSantaHermandad

      LOL!! DId they include Polar Bears in the study?  I’ve seen nature documentaries that claim that Polar Bears sometimes kill just for the sake of it.

      • Sheila Dinehart

        Ha, that would be one animal Mark Twain forgot about.

  • No surprises here, actually. But if the mainstream media got hold of this, the screams of “Racism!” and “Bigotry!” would resound from here to Jericho.

    Of course, the MSM wouldn’t touch this story with a 10-foot pole. There’s too much inconvenient truth in it. Poverty, White racism, deprivation — all out the window. It’s genetic, Mr. and Mrs. Liberal News Media types. You’re out of excuses for the behavior of your precious “people of color” — the dark ones, anyway. So we can count on you to keep these findings a secret — can’t we?

  • Ni123

    What can I tell you? You base your judgement on individuals, the picture shows the average. I know quite a few of S.Italians myself, lovely people. But it does not change the Jayman’s map.

    BTW, the word “mafia” came from Sicily.

  • Ni123


    Something else needs to be taken into account – genealogy. Parents, paternal/maternal sides of the family, their origins.  “Sicily ancestry” is a very broad definition.

  • Xanthippe2

    Calicos have white skin under their white fur and black skin under their black fur, they even have black noses if the surrounding area has black fur.  But of course cats of any color are far superior to dogs.

    • throttler

       Speak for yourself. I could just as easily say that only wimps like cats.

    • mikejones91

      How are they “superior”? I have both a cat and puppy. I love them both equally lol. But they are great in two DIFFERENT ways. Preference doesn’t equate to supremacy.

      • Xanthippe2

        I guess one always DOES always have to use those silly looking smiley face things…

  • Wodan_upon_Sleipnir

    On a collective level Whites have the upper hand in regards to violence. History has more than proven this point. With that stated, imagine if dark colored peoples were able to organize themselves; the violence resulting would have been catastrophic. But I believe it is exactly this level of violence which kept them from organizing. White man’s organizing was only able to be accomplished due to his code of honor ethics which likely came about as a result of biological development in relation to his light skin, much like the article says about animals. Dark skinned people were too worried about the other dark skinned people across the river raping his women and slaughtering his village to organize. This is why in Africa it was rare for there to be any serious form of societal organization, leaving a continent of small tribes living in remote villages.

  • Church_of_Jed

    New welfare restrictions target booze, tattoos


    While the crackdown has strong populist appeal in Democratic and GOP states alike in this era of tight budgets and tea party demands for fiscal discipline, advocates for the poor argue that the restrictions are based on stereotypes about people on welfare, and they say the notion of any widespread abuse is a myth. Most people on public assistance, they contend, are single mothers struggling just to get by.

    New career restrictions target White privilege, opportunity

    While the crackdown has strong populist appeal in Democratic and GOP states alike in this era of tight budgets and Diversity demands for more preferences, advocates for White Humanity argue that the restrictions are based on stereotypes about White people, and they say the notion of any widespread White privilege is a myth. Most White people with jobs, they contend, are hard working and struggling just to get by.

  • LaSantaHermandad

    I think that it’s a function of  mastery of English on the part of the immigrants. The 2nd + generation of Asians are more demonstrative of their emotions.

  • JohnEngelman

    When I was growing up my family owned an Irish Setter. He loved being around people. He loved puppies. He was gallant and chivalrous with female dogs. He tolerated male dogs who were smaller than he was.    
    He was also highly skilled in self defense, and quick to avenge real or imagined slights from male dogs his size or bigger. 

  • Typical Rushton stuff. We all know there is something in these examples- but not enough for a coherent theory. This is actually not a theory, but a speculation- something prior to theory, a fermentation of ideas and data.
    IMO, segments may be true on biological level, but Rushton is a biological reductionists- never mind his official position- and human behavior is not reducible animal kingdom. I guess true breakthrough will come with broader and deeper genetic & brain investigations.

    And- Blacks don’t have testosterone levels higher than Whites, get rid of this fallacy.

    • Prowyt32


      It is known that black males produce significantly more testosterone than white males (J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1986; 76: 45).

      It is also known that testosterone is higher in black women compared to white women (J. Clin.
      Endocrinol. Metab. 1996; 81: 1108).


      • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16912139

        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Nov;91(11):4326-34. Epub 2006 Aug 15.
        Serum androgen levels in black, Hispanic, and white men.
        With or without adjustment for covariates, there
        were no significant differences in testosterone, bioavailable
        testosterone, or SHBG levels by race/ethnicity. DHEAS levels differed by
        race/ethnicity before covariate adjustment; after adjustment this
        difference was attenuated. Before adjustment, DHT and DHT to
        testosterone ratios did not significantly differ by racial/ethnic group.
        After adjustment, there was evidence of racial/ethnic differences in
        DHT (P = 0.047) and DHT to testosterone (P = 0.038) levels. Black men
        had higher DHT levels and DHT to testosterone ratios than white and
        Hispanic men.

        Because there are no
        racial/ethnic differences in testosterone levels, normative ranges need
        not be adjusted by race/ethnicity for androgen deficiency diagnosis for
        men aged 30-79 yr. Further investigation is needed to determine whether
        differences in DHT levels and DHT to testosterone ratio can help explain
        racial/ethnic variations in prostate cancer incidence, body
        composition, and bone mass.


        Serum estrogen, but not testosterone, levels differ between black
        and white men in a nationally representative sample of Americans.

    • Prowyt32


      Circulating blood levels of estradiol, progesterone and testosterone are reported in 17 normally menstruating Nigerian women. The pattern of secretion and the range of levels of estradiol and progesterone are similar to those reported in other ethnic groups. Testosterone levels were, in general, higher than corresponding values in Caucasian or Asian women, but were of the same order of magnitude as previously reported in Zambian African women


  • mikejones91

    They have more symmetrical features? What are you talking about. Look at the nose of a black woman, than a white woman. The prominent/but still think longer nose. Compared to a wide/unshapely thing. Smooth skin? I guess it depends on the person. Your right that they have to worry about skin care less than us but a white woman/man who actively takes care of their skin can have softer/healthier/or just as/ as any non-white. Taking pride in your skin is very fulfilling . I’m a man (21) and I take measures like that of a woman to ensure good skin. Again–I’m 21 so I don’t really need to yet but I do as a sort of “preemptive strike” 

  • mikejones91

    good point. Really it depends on the person. I know exactly what you mean though. But that’s were WE “win” (so to speak) not only do we have the “diverse” array of facial expressions/ect. Again it depends of the person. But some people (regardless of race) are just more animated in their body language. I consider my self one those people. So not only do I have the “facial expressions” my body language/ect (as you noted) are animated and lively as my facial expressions are. 

  • mikejones91

    Whites are the most emotional group (as a whole). Though I will agree with you on the body language aspect of it all. To me anyways, that is merely cultural and varies greatly WHITE-to-WHITE. I am white (obviously) and have very “animated” body language. You could be older though. I’m 21 so MY generation is more expressive of emotion than others. I think its just YOUR perception that has led you to think that.

    • I thought blacks were more emotional than whites since they appear to be so demonstrative.

  • Church_of_Jed

    Have you noticed these four disturbing trends in TV commercials for consumer products?

    1. Blacks show up first (Blacks First in Everything is the New America), Hispanics next, Whites last and much briefer, and rarely a White male and he’s never masculine, and then all mixed together having safe, relaxed, multicultural fun, just like during recess at majority White private schools these days- children are always in mixed groups- never allowed to be with just their own kind (look for non Diverse college fraternities to be outlawed as hate groups by Holder DOJ).

    2. Authoritative Black in foreground appearing taller than doofus White male.

    3. Short doofus White male in foreground with tall, strong, aggressive, masculine, authoritative black in background.

    4. Hispanic “families” -large, loving, and deserving of compassionate comprehensive immigration reform that brings us the whole village as long as one of them swims the Rio Grande and becomes the blessed “undocumented among us”.

    If you want to see the ideal White male as projected to us through the MSM, try watching an episode Big Bang Theory. The guys aren’t gay, but they sound and dress gay.

    The only acceptable White male now is a gay mascot.

    In other news, White Anglo Saxon Gentiles have so “evolved” beyond their capacity to hate, that they are calling this “a hopeful sign of progress and a step in the right direction”:


    • Vil

      Ahhh… big bang theory… Some pseudo-scientific show with 4th
      class, easily understandable jokes about science to make the viewer feel
      like he´s “smart”. It kind of reminds me of Frasier.

      Oh, and Sheldon from “BBT” actually is gay….

      I couldn´t agrre more with you. Those wimpy, pathetic, spineless excuses
      of adult men is what the MSN wants white males to be like. Heck, even
      some real nerds I know seem like Rambo compared to them.

      Another good example is “Scrubs”, where the white guy is a wimp and the black guy a macho.

      • Church_of_Jed

        Just saw TV commercial depicting large black coach sitting next to very pretty blonde White boy in baseball uniform.

        Translation: Whites should be comfortable with Diversity, because blacks are safe, authoritative, and more qualified to lead that our own fathers, because we have White privilege that must be UnDone through surrendering to Transformative Diversity Leadership.

        Just saw a stunningy beautiful White mother playing at the swing set with her beautiful, very blonde, very White (Praise Gawd Almighty!) children.

        I felt that tinge of embarrassment that says, “Maybe that was okay back during Reagan, but now it’s just plain offensive and possibly a hate crime. Somebody at the Ad Agency needs to undergo a racism audit and lifetime sensitivity training and Diversity Accountability.”

        Just saw a group of pretty, enthusiastic girls, and of course the center of the scene and the attention was a black girl with a huge friendly smile, and she was a step forward into the foreground in the Diversity Leadership position.

        Just saw the news desk for the British Open golf tournement, and the lead anchor was, OF COURSE, a black Diversity Opportunity Hire “who helps us reflect the true Diveristy of America and golf and provides us with wonderful and historic transformative leadership”.

  • Church_of_Jed

    Have you noticed these four disturbing trends in TV commercials for consumer products?

    1. Blacks show up first (Blacks First in Everything is the New America), Hispanics next, Whites last and much briefer, and rarely a White male and he’s never masculine, and then all mixed together having safe, relaxed, multicultural fun, just like during recess at majority White private schools these days- children are always in mixed groups- never allowed to be with just their own kind (look for non Diverse college fraternities to be outlawed as hate groups by Holder DOJ).

    2. Authoritative Black in foreground appearing taller than doofus White male.

    3. Short doofus White male in foreground with tall, strong, aggressive, masculine, authoritative black in background.

    4. Hispanic “families” -large, loving, and deserving of compassionate comprehensive immigration reform that brings us the whole village as long as one of them swims the Rio Grande and becomes the blessed “undocumented among us”.

    If you want to see the ideal White male as projected to us through the MSM, try watching an episode Big Bang Theory. The guys aren’t gay, but they sound and dress gay.

    The only acceptable White male now is a gay mascot.

    In other news, White Anglo Saxon Gentiles have so “evolved” beyond their capacity to hate, that they are calling this “a hopeful sign of progress and a step in the right direction”:


  • Sheila Dinehart

    Historically, the only people or groups that have attacked this kind of study and reporting are those who are committed to destroying the white race via politically correct ideology.

    It is good to know there are places to go to get access to this information, thanks AR. 

  • Sheila Dinehart

    I take it to indicate that people with too much testostorone, male or female, may find it more difficult to maintain control and refrain from impulsive anti-social behavior that leads to job loss, drugs, violence and jail. 

    Perhaps it is not so much  a sign of aggression that allows one to “…dare to challenge the liberal world view…” but just what you said “…the ancient Greeks would say, spirited, prideful. assertive, energetic…”.

     I like that. 

  • Not all Asians look alike. Many have eyelids that do not have folds. This has driven the demand for eyelid surgery among Asians to make their eyes appear more Western.

  • JohnEngelman

    This is the kind of thing that makes J. Philippe Rushton’s valid ideas vulnerable to those who want to reject everything he has to say. I doubt that grizzly bears are more aggressive than polar bears. I doubt that darker Indian tigers are more aggressive than the much lighter Siberian tigers.

  • Asians do not show emotions in public because they have to give the appearance of being in control but deal with their emotions privately.

  • slobotnavich

    There are plenty of very dark-skinned Indians and Pakis who have nothing whatever in common with black Africans.  They’re generally very civil and law-abiding.  I doubt that pigmentation is the controlling factor – it’s the Africans’ genetically controlled lack of self-discipline and lower average intelligence that defines their behavior and general lack of achievement.

    Of course, these are generalizations to which there are many individual exceptions. I’d say my favorite columnist and writer is Dr. Thomas Sowell, who can put an argument on paper with an almost unmatched dexterity.  Generalizations can be perfectly valid but they should never be used to define specific individuals, whose abilities and performance can vary greatly from the norm within their group.