The First North American Migration–Not a Strait Route?

Smithsonian Resident Associate Program, November 21, 2011

The first people to inhabit North America came across the Bering Strait from Siberia to Alaska about 12,000 years ago, right? Maybe not. A provocative new theory proposed by archaeologists Dennis Stanford and Bruce Bradley asserts that the first Americans crossed the Atlantic by boat and arrived earlier than previously thought.

Presenting the latest archaeological, oceanographic, paleoclimatic, and genetic research, Stanford and Bradley show what they believe to be links between the distinctive stone tools of the Clovis culture in North America and the culture of the Solutrean people who occupied France and Spain more than 20,000 years ago, during the last Ice Age.

Could the ancestors of the Clovis people be Paleolithic Iberians who crossed the North Atlantic and settled in North America during the last Ice Age? Evidence that Paleolithic hunters may have made ocean-going voyages thousands of years ago has now been found in archaeological sites in the Chesapeake Bay region. Stanford and Bradley apply rigorous scholarship and testing to challenge the old paradigm and offer this radical new theory of North American prehistory.

Stanford and Bradley apply rigorous scholarship and testing to challenge the old paradigm and offer this radical new theory of North American prehistory.

Stanford is curator of archaeology and director of the Paleoindian Program at the Natural History Museum. Bradley is senior lecturer in archaeology at the University of Exeter and director of its Experimental Archaeology Programme. Their new book, Across Atlantic Ice (University of California Press), is available for signing at the program.

[Editor’s Note: Across Atlantic Ice is available for pre-order here.]

Topics:

Share This

We welcome comments that add information or perspective, and we encourage polite debate. If you log in with a social media account, your comment should appear immediately. If you prefer to remain anonymous, you may comment as a guest, using a name and an e-mail address of convenience. Your comment will be moderated.
  • olewhitelady

    I grew up in and now live in an area in which there are “Indian mounds”. I’ve always heard and read that they were built by people who predated those now known as Native Americans, and there’s been speculation for years that these folks may have been white. There are also places in New England that are thought to be related to Norsemen. Apparently, these cultures are so old that Native Americans have only vague oral histories of them, if anything.

  • Snowhitey

    I’m surprised they’re not trying to bamboozle us with such nonsense as the Africans arrived here first. The Africans, we are told, have done just about everything when it comes to Western civilization (i.e., built our great cities, fought all our wars, raised all our children, invented just about every modern convenience…). I’m surprised we’re not falling over each other trying to mate with them.

    Why is it that these studies always seem to contradict each other? Although I would prefer if Europeans arrived here first, all I really want is the truth! And until the “experts” know for sure, they shouldn’t publishing any info. This study will be superceded soon enough with new, “more compelling” evidence. It is only a matter of time.

    No matter what, we all know it really was the Africans…

  • Jupiter7

    The evidence keeps mounting. Comrades, you may want to look at my-O’Raiffeartaigh-debate with the leftists over at antiwar.com in Justin Ramaindo’s post about US policy towards China in the Pacific Rim over the weekend. The “Ameridans came here first go back to Europe Whitey” nonesense came up. See how I handled it. When debating leftists and liberals use a scorched earth policy.

    I realize that Jared Taylor is a Southern Gentlemen..but it is time for him to take off the gloves.

    Keep this in mind..the ‘poor Ameridians” guilt trip nonesense only applies to Native Born White Ameicans..it doesn’t apply to the hindus,sihks,pakistanis,koreans,chinese and muslims flooding into Native Born White America. It is understood within leftist-liberal theology that the aforementioned high fetility post-1965 groups are to be the primary beneficiares of the European conquest and colonization of North America. This of course just goes to show you that leftist-liberal tear shedding over the demise of the Ameridians in North America is purely of the crocodilian variety.

    Go look at my exchange with the Lefties-Liberals over at antiwar.com this past weekend.

    My comments are not meant as disrespect to David Yeagley and the thousands of Native Born White Americans whose chromatin has as an Ameridian aspect to it. Leftists and Liberals leave one no other option in a “debate”

  • Paul Frojka

    The subject matter of this article is contained in Kyle Bristow’s excellent thriller novel, White Apocalypse. Check out his website at http://www.KyleBristow.com.

  • Jane Warren

    Human prehistory in North America may extend farther back than anyone can imagine. When I was a graduate student in archaeology in the late 1960s and early 1970s there was considerable excitement over what was known as the “Lively Pebble Tool Complex of Alabama”. For many years sites in Alabama that were particularly ancient would often have what appeared to be a sterile bottom layer, BUT if the excavation extended further down, “pebble tools” similar to those found in Africa would be encountered. These tools were never directly associated with younger artifacts that could be attributed to Indians of the last 10,000 years.

    In about 1970 Louis Leakey was in Birmingham and a group of Alabama archaeologists (these were professionals) showed these tools to him. He pronounced them as identical to those in Africa that were hundreds of thousands or even millions of years old. He declared that the size of the stones, style of flaking and patina of age was the same.

    This occurred at the time his son Richard was doing everything in his power to discredit the old man. Of course because of political correctness all this has been swept under the rug so to speak.

    BUT the truth is still out there in the ground and hopefully someday it will be revealed.

  • John Engelman

    DNA evidence clearly links American Indians to people currently living in north east Siberia. If Europeans came to the New World thousands of years ago their numbers were probably small, and they must have been annihilated by the ancestors of the American Indians.

  • Anonymous

    The haplogroup X evidence is pretty compelling. And the story it tells is no less so. Essentially it looks like there was a paleolithic European population in North America when the Asians arrived across the Bering strait. So what did the the Asians do? Kill all the men and rape the women. Unless someone can suggest another way that a large number of European women (and only women) contributed their mitocondrial DNA to the Amerind population of N. america more than 9000 years ago. Kind of shines a different light on the poor oppressed Indians doesn’t it? Rather than the white man arriving in someone else’s land and stealing it, he was taking righteous vengeance in the name of his ancient racial cousins and taking the land back from the invaders.

  • CDE

    This theory (or fact) has actually been around for a long time. Most universities don’t teach it because it conflicts with the “natives here first, bad white man steals land” paradigm. I remember reading about it years ago in an old anthropology textbook. The thesis was the same, that the flint points from Clovis match those from Europe and not Siberia.

  • Anonymous

    Even if such things could be proven 100% without a doubt, don’t expect the MSM or even the scientific world to ever accept it. As we all know, they need their precious “Indians came first, and we stole their land” propaganda in order to socially engineer people to let in Mexicans by the thousands.

  • HH

    Oh dear, another sacred-cow of Political-Correctness possibly slain! What ever will the establishment gatekeepers do???

  • Seneca the Younger

    This theory may seem like a long shot, but the only thing that explains Clovis technology and a few other things. I for one believe it.

    Combine this article with the whites found in caves in Arizona and the Kennewick Man (spelling?)and you have some really nice things to counter a debate with. The only problem I ever ran into was that the other person (a liberal of course) never heard of what I was talking about and thought I made it up on the spot. It is still a good read and I hear good things about the novel “White Apocalypse” that apparently talks about this subject.

  • Hugh Murray

    And this might best explain the skeleton found in the state of Washington that was originally thought to be that of a white man. The cowardly, white-hating Clinton Administration, eventually gave the oldest human skeleton found in North America to Amerindians, who probably buried it so it will be forever lost. The Clinton Administration also sought to destroy the site where the bones were found.

    The Democrats hate science when it threatens their ideology and the excuse for providing special privileges to Amerindians and others at the expense of white people.

  • Hapalong Cassidy

    This may be true, but I don’t know if you could definitively say “Europeans” as we know them (pale skin, light-colored hair), were those people, or for that matter whether they existed in their current form in that point in pre-history.

    I’ve also heard the theory that another group of people pre-dated the land-bridge Asian migrants. These were Australoid peoples (relatives of the Australian Aborigines) who migrated along the Pacific Coast of Asian and the Americas. Some evidence for that theory is an ancient skull found in Washington State which was most definitely non-Mongoloid in appearance, and the unusual appearance of the Monte Verde people of Southern Chile.

  • Southron

    When I debate liberals on immigration, and they pull the “Indians were here first” line, I counter that the Indians stole the land from my Kennewick and Solutrian ancestors. It never fails to confuse and frustrate them.

  • Duran Dahl

    This theory has been floating around for some time now, based on skeletal evidence and of course the otherwise inexplicable Clovis points. Naturally, this theory obviates the red-mans “Native American” status and strips away much of their victimhood, given that that Indians conquered and killed our European forebearers. With the ubiquity of European mitochondrial DNA in the Indian genome, they obviously seized our women-folk as theirs. The general acceptance of this European primacy theory could also stop the red-man from grabbing European skeletal remains and calling them theirs, ala Kennewick Man. Of course, given the broader implications, this theory will remain “controversial” if not banned as “racist” by the Cultural Marxist academic establishment. But the issue is even bigger than that. This means that we Europeans have been overrun by non-whites before…and drove them back (to say the least). There is a precedent. Be prepared. We are the cowboys.

  • Anonymous

    Consider the Adena, Hopewell moundbuilders, whose skulls show no mongol characteristics, who smelted iron, obviously did a lot of work. Consider that you can sail from Europe to America and never truly lose sight of land. Add to that the inborn, natural curiosity of the white race, that evtl. took them to the South Pole and the moon, Now look at us. History repeating itself.

  • Bon, From the Land of Babble

    Anon #7:

    The haplogroup X evidence is pretty compelling.

    Excellent point!

    How did haplogroup X get to North America? Genetic anthropologists suggest that the presence of X in North America points to an early migration westward from Europe. By looking at the various mutations within haplogroup X, scientists are able to use that ‘genetic clock’ to estimate when those early Europeans would have arrived. Depending on how large a group they assume headed west, they come up with two time ranges – either between 36,000 and 23,000 years ago or between 17,000 and 12,000 years ago.

    –Scientific American Frontiers Coming to America

    The left is trying to bury ANY and ALL evidence that Whites first settled the New World AND parts of China:

    Solutreans are also believed to have discovered America prior to the Indians, an historic conclusion so politically incorrect that the Discovery Channel was recently pressured into taking the DVD version of its film Ice Age Columbus: Who Were The First Americans? off the direct sales market.

    AFAIK, Ice Age Columbus is available on YouTube in nine parts.

    Remember this story from Last February? Ancient, 4,0000 year old White mummies pulled from a traveling Chinese exhibit, ‘Secrets of the Silk Road’:

    Despite nearing the ripe old age of 4,000, long eyelashes still frame her half-open eyes and hair tumbles down to her remarkably well-preserved shoulders. But the opportunity for new audiences in the United States to view the Lady of Tarim – a near perfectly preserved mummy from an inhospitable part of western China – has been dealt a blow after it was pulled from an exhibition following a sudden call from the Chinese authorities on the eve of opening… her Caucasian features raised the prospect that the region’s inhabitants were European settlers.

    These aren’t the first Caucasian mummies found in China. There were five thousand year old mummies with finely woven clothes, who were found. This raises the question of how much technology was transferred to China thousands of years ago by White travelers.

    The Chinese mummies in question were found wearing Celtic ornamentation and what appears to be an early form of tartan cloth.

    http://goo.gl/dIAkT

    As for helping “bury” any evidence of White settlement in North American, you can thank John McCain:

    John McCain’s aim was to change the definition of ‘Native American’ in the NAGPRA. …it would make it easier for tribes to reclaim ancient remains…. In the end, the 109th Congress did not enact the bill, arguing that it had too many imperfections

    Not yet, anyway. But the NA American population is still fighting to have any/all ancient remains turned over to them immediately for “re-burial.”

    Or, as Anon #7 so succinctly and scathingly put it (and is worth repeating):

    Kind of shines a different light on the poor oppressed Indians doesn’t it? Rather than the White man arriving in someone else’s land and stealing it, he was taking righteous vengeance in the name of his ancient racial cousins and taking the land back from the invaders.

    Yes, indeed.

    Bon

  • highduke

    Indians are an ancient Caucasoid-Mongoloid hybrid which is obvious enough by looking at many pure-blooded tribes and as such were worth assimilating before their braves were killed off, leaving a bottleneck of cowards to devolve into the rabble they are today. Most Finnic, Siberian & Turkic Mongoloids have R1a in greater frequency than most W. European populations and many assimilated into the Russian nation. Every now and then I read a WN claiming some Indian ancestry, which is fine by me.

  • Luke

    “15 — Duran Dahl wrote at 10:40 AM on November 22: But the issue is even bigger than that. This means that we Europeans have been overrun by non-whites before…and drove them back (to say the least). There is a precedent. Be prepared. We are the cowboys. ”

    Finally, I see the kind of mental toughness and determination that the White man was once famous for, back when our hard-as-nails, ruthless-as-need-be White male ancestors tamed the frontier of this continent and made it safe for their women and children.

    Great observation, Brother Duran. Let’s just hope a few more million White men can remember to soak their gonads in a bucket of miracle gro before the final battle for dominance of this continent arrives at our doorstep. The timidity and pants-soiling deracination, racial cowardice I see coming from these white Tea Party pansies is not all that inspiring.

  • michelle ZOObamma

    af americans looting in maryland on saturday

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I4JZAJ7mK5I

  • Freyr

    I’d say the opposite: we are the new Indians and our Continent is being stolen.

    As far as Kennewick – more research was necessary. The reconstruction looked vaguely Caucasian without necessarily being European. Maybe he was a proto-Caucasian like the Ainu or Lapps. We’re talking a long period of time here: time for many things to have happened. The mummies found in Spirit Cave were obviously White European though.

  • Can4Amren

    Jupiter, could you provide a link to your Antiwar.com posts? I’m having some trouble finding them.

    Thanks.

  • Netzach

    #7 Anon,

    “Kind of shines a different light on the poor oppressed Indians doesn’t it? Rather than the white man arriving in someone else’s land and stealing it, he was taking righteous vengeance in the name of his ancient racial cousins and taking the land back from the invaders.”

    Except that the white man didn’t have a clue that he may have had racial ancestors there, he hated other whites almost as much as Indians, the reds had lived there for millenia, and in any case one wrong doesn’t make another right.

    When whites begun arriving in large numbers to Americas (again), it was a migration of a people, simple as that. Those are for the most part much more trouble than they are worth (a fact that West is slowly waking up to). Those also frequently turn into tribal wars, which are extremely ugly. Trying to sugarcoat things like that is dishonest and ultimately pointless. Righteous vengeance? Tell that to a burning village full of butchered women and children of whatever colour, the 41st step on a circle of revenge (and don’t think that whites didn’t play hardball too back then).

    Why are wars between seriously alien tribes often especially nasty? When white fought white or red fought red, things could and frequently did become very nasty, but both sides tended to have some basic level of respect to each other as human beings, and some kind of common understanding of what was acceptable and what was atrocity, as well as common ideas of how wars are fought and for what purpose. White against red? The basic level of respect was a little bit above zero, and the ideas about warfare were seriously at cross-purposes – in a way which generally worked against reds, too bad for them.

  • Anonymous

    A longer perspective on these sorts of items might be in order,.

    It seems that the science of human evolution has been beset by

    a lack of due humility and a need to “discover” rather than to

    acknowledge abiding questions and possible long-shot alternatives. Too, lines of evidence need not omit myths and other folklore aspects of the population in focus. I am not aware of a clear expositon of this problem of prideful, overly

    ambitious “discovery” –only to be called in reasonable question downstream.

  • Brutus

    It sounds as though, while these people may have originated in what is now Europe, they left before the Indo-European migrations, and so are at best tenuously related to modern European man.

  • dravidian_pride

    Anonymous wrote:

    Rather than the white man arriving in someone else’s land and stealing it, he was taking righteous vengeance in the name of his ancient racial cousins and taking the land back from the invaders.

    “Ancient racial cousins”? The whites who settled in America were Anglo-Saxons, who belong to the Indo-European language family.

    The Europeans who created the Clovis culture must have belonged to a pre-Indo-European population of Europe.

    The pre-Indo-European people were probably wiped out by the Indo-Europeans when they migrated to their current locations around 1500 BCE.

  • Anonymous

    #14: When you “debate” a Liberal, which means that you will be talking, while the Libtard is screaming, make sure that you tell him or her, or it, to watch the Scientific Documentary called, “Ice Age Columbus” on You Tube.

    This video really gets their goat, especially when the Scientific proof concludes that the spear heads found in caves date back 17,000 years ago, and resemble those found is caves in France.

    We can be sure that there was a genocide committed on this Continent, and it points to the Native Indians who committed it.

  • Jupiter7

    Can4Amren

    Go to:Antiwar.com, November 18,J ustin Raimando: Obama plays the China Card. Read Mr. O’Raiffeartaigh’s exchange with the Leftist-Liberals in the discussion section. Pay attention to Andy’s comments also. When debating leftists-liberals:use a scorched earth policy.

  • Fender

    Did the Indians have a deed to this country? If they didn’t they didn’t own it and in fact were sqatting.

    The Solutrean hypothesis is real shaky truth be told. It is one tribe I think who has this seemingly Aryan gene,the Ojibwas. The leading expert in this gene discounts it because the genetic evidence isn’t very solid.

    Furthermore the spearpoints and such don’t exactly resemble the other cultures.

    I think the Solutreans were dark at this time also. Having yet to evolve whiteness for the extara vitamin D. I wonder if the were tan or chocolate.

    The Aleutians, Eskimos resemble East Asians.The Central and South Americans however resemble south east Asians like the Vietnamese so a sea voyage probably occurred across the Pacific, not the Atlantic. There were indeed pre-Clovis settlements.

  • Anonymous

    Except even by the time the supposed latecomers came, the white phenotype did not exist. The “Solutreans” were not white.

    Kennewick man was Australoid.

    The Tocharians were never in any part of “China” as far as it was in 2,000 BC.

    And people think Afrocentrists have good imaginations.

  • Bon, From the Land of Babble

    Kennewick man was Australoid.

    The origins of Kennewick man are in dispute. White-hating Wikipedia reports:

    An extraction of DNA was analyzed, and according to the report of the scientists doing the DNA analysis: ‘available technology and protocols do not allow the analysis of ancient DNA from these remains.’…Skulls older than 8,000 years old have been found to possess greater physical diversity than do those of modern Native Americans.

    Results of NAGPRA, used by NAs and others to suppress ANY evidence of European migration to North America:

    ‘Buhl woman’, was found in a rock quarry in Buhl, Idaho, in 1989. She died in her teenage years, about 11,000 years ago. No study was done before she was reburied by the Shoshone Bannock tribes in 1991 based on the NAGPRA rules. Yet, based on photographic evidence, a single image of a fully visible human skull

    Dr. Douglas W. Owsley calculated the skull’s dimensions and concluded that she was not an American Indian.

    Then, there is that pesky case in Windover, Florida where the DNA evidence from 7,000 year old brains preserved in a bog kept showing European DNA:

    Dr. Joseph Lorenz from the Cornell Institute for Medical Research was also searching hard for the DNA markers typical of American Indians in the DNA samples taken from the bones of five individuals from Windover. He did not

    find what he looking for, but he didn’t stop there. After comparing the Windover DNA to present European peoples, he said: ‘I went back to the screen and I looked at the sequences again. The first person’s DNA, it looked European. When I looked at the second one it looked European. When I looked at the third, fourth and fifth it was slightly different from the first two, but they looked European.’

    Dr. Gregory from Cornell also stated that DNA samples taken from the brains of the bog people prove European origin.

    Secrets of the Bog People: Windover on YouTube: http://goo.gl/WYPGm

    The Solutrean hypothesis is real shaky truth be told. It is one tribe I think who has this seemingly Aryan gene,the Ojibwas.

    Among Native American tribes, the X haplogroup has been found in small numbers in the Yakima. Sioux, and Navaho tribes, It has been found to a larger degree in the Ojibway, Oneota, and Nuu-Chah-Nulth tribes, The X haplogroup has also been discovered in ancient remains in Illinois near Ohio and a few’ other areas near the Great Lakes…The X haplogroup appears to have entered America in limited numbers perhaps as long ago as 34.000 B.C. Around 12,000 B.C. to 10.000 B.C. it appeared in much greater numbers

    Superb article on Windover bog remains and efforts to suppress DNA and other evidence proving European origin: http://goo.gl/HuYEF

    Bon

  • Ryan

    Anyonmous:

    “Kennewick man was Australoid.

    And people think Afrocentrists have good imaginations.”

    All the evidence, and DNA, show that they were white. Afrocentrists outright lie and confuse certain things in the wrong timelines. I’ve argued with a few of those idiots, and their reasons are completely flawed. If the evidence showed that ancient whites didn’t inhabit North America, then I’d totally accept that, but I’m sorry to say that it supports it.