The Rationality of Firing John Derbyshire

Joseph Kay, American Renaissance, April 9, 2012

Excess truth-telling must be stamped out.

National Review’s decision to fire John Derbyshire for his “offensive” but clearly accurate take on race relations has, thankfully, generated immense discussion. Let me add yet one more take on this messenger-killing episode. In a nutshell, silencing the Derb, or at least depriving him of his NR soapbox, is rational in the grand scheme of things. Make no mistake, I would have doubled his salary and honored him with a lavish banquet, and I hope thousands of NR subscribers cancel their subscriptions, but that said, there is a modicum of rationality in what the magazine did.

Let’s begin with the obvious: Every effort, no matter how well-intentioned, carefully planned, and expensive, has failed to transform blacks into whites. Statistically, blacks are about where they were in the 1960s, and what progress has occurred can be attributed to government coercion, policies like affirmative action, and make-work jobs. Moreover, nothing on the horizon hints at progress and if anything, the blackening of cities like Detroit, Newark, and Philadelphia suggests that things will only get worse as blacks increasingly take control of their own destiny.

Second, most whites—and this includes the likes of the self-described “respectable” conservatives who run the National Review—know that the black-into-white enterprise is hopeless. Just ask them about their plans to reduce black crime, black illegitimacy, and the racial gap in educational attainment. There is not a single area in which they can offer a solution that has not already been attempted. When pressed, they respond, like liberals, with cliché nostrums like “more funds for pre-school intervention.”  And if pressed harder, the response is a lame “we have to do something!”

Third, going public with black pathologies, no matter how carefully documented and even admitted by blacks themselves, only inflames blacks. Honesty of the 2+2=4 kind has now become “white racism” and, in a concatenation of odd thinking, the mere fact of mentioning black shortcomings is now said to cause shortcomings. Like some invisible gamma rays, white thinking alone debilitates blacks. Blacks, of course, know that Derb’s views are commonplace among whites, so his Takimag essay is smoking-gun proof of this ubiquity.

Fourth, with this new, Takimag case of incapacitating “white racism” now out in the open, the inevitable call will be for yet more government intervention, yet more totalitarian dictates, and yet more of all the rest that has come to characterize “helping blacks.” No matter that every one of these suggested nostrums is either pointless or will only make matters worse. If Derb-type thinking gets around, blacks are going to raise an enormous, potentially violent stink and will have to be placated. The solution? Stamp out Derb-type thinking before it spreads! The medical parallel might be finding a single case of bubonic plague, then mobilizing a huge public health campaign: vaccinations, quarantines, alerts to hospitals, TV commercials on the disease’s early symptom etc.

The script here never varies, and can be seen in the latest episode, the Trayvon Martin case. This is why any reasonable white must react like a sensible public health official, with early, draconian intervention: lynch Zimmerman, punish the police chief, subject police officers to mandatory sensitive training, hold a public ceremony to honor this model student (a college scholarship in his name?) and, perhaps, establish a Trayvon Martin Memorial Park. Hopefully, that will quarantine the damage before it spreads and becomes more violent.

Since the Derb is a mathematically inclined man, let me state matters as a series of probabilities. The odds that his honest analysis will teach whites (even NR editors) something they did not already know: one out of a hundred, I’d guess. The odds of languishing black organizations like the NAACP and race hustlers like the Rev. Al using the Takimag column as proof of “America’s lingering toxic racism:” a near certainty. Odds of this black outrage being converted into a set of expensive but useless demands, e.g., hiring more black security personnel, more black-lead sensitivity training: again, a virtual certainty. We might just avoid another round of expensive, burdensome, useless programs if we slap down these Derb-like paroxysms of honesty.

Put into a larger perspective, quickly killing off the truth-bearing messenger is all part of today’s management program. This program frankly (though silently) acknowledges the hopelessness of making blacks into whites and so instead just settles for a semblance of domestic tranquility. If anything, it resembles how primitive people once managed the ever-present threat of droughts and plagues—an occasional human sacrifice to placate the easy-to-anger gods.



Share This

Joseph Kay

Joseph Kay is a retired academic who suffers from compulsive truth-telling disorder.

We welcome comments that add information or perspective, and we encourage polite debate. If you log in with a social media account, your comment should appear immediately. If you prefer to remain anonymous, you may comment as a guest, using a name and an e-mail address of convenience. Your comment will be moderated.
  • WmarkW

    Besides reading his columns on TakiMag and weekly report on NRO, I’ve also followed his occasional contributions to, a conservative atheist site to which Heather MacDonald and Razib Khan also contribute.

    Derbyshire, like me, saw race denialism as a theodicy problem (why does an all-powerful, -knowing, -loving God permit evil).  Just as theists have long constructed mental gymnastics about the reverse sides of tapestries and an afterlife in which all is made right, the race-deniers invent increasingly far-fetched theories (like “stereotype threat”)  to explain why there is zero affirmative evidence of equal mental ability, and everything around us appears to correspond to the opposite, from the condition of black countries, to test scores, to the failure of every intervention ever tried.

    NR did the only thing an institution opposing reason could — burned the heretic.

    • KevinPhillipsBong

      That’s why a good label for the left’s anti-racialism is “liberal creationism” (the belief that evolution is true but hasn’t applied to homo sapiens in any substantial way in 50,000 years or so). I use the term as often as I can and it never fails to rile them up.

      • WmarkW

         I’ve used that analogy, too.
        Their reasons for saying mental ability didn’t diverge in different environments, don’t make any more sense than “Teach kids they’re descended from apes, and they’ll act like apes.”

  • JohnEngelman

    most whites—and this includes the likes of the self-described “respectable” conservatives who run the National Review—know that the black-into-white enterprise is hopeless. Just ask them about their plans to reduce black crime, black illegitimacy, and the racial gap in educational attainment. There is not a single area in which they can offer a solution that has not already been attempted. When pressed, they respond, like liberals, with cliché nostrums like “more funds for pre-school intervention.”                                                                                                                  
    Joseph Kay, American Renaissance, April 9, 2012                          
                                                                                                                        The overall crime rate, and presumably the black crime rate too, has declined since 1980. The rate of violent crime has declined since 1992. The reason has not been “more funds for pre-school intervention.” It has been a tripling of the prison population since 1980. 
    Putting more criminals in prison and keeping them there longer is one social experiment that has actually worked. 

    • Oil Can Harry

      The other main reason for the decline in crime is white technology.

      Thanks to the dna revolution, luminol, blood pattern analysis, increased prevalance of security cameras, etc. criminals are often captured after their second or third offense rather than their thirtieth or fortieth. 

    • Do you TRULY believe in the veracity of “crime stats” as reported by the US Government?

      The same government that claims  “the economy is getting better because the unemployment rate is decreasing?”

  • holyflower

    Joseph Kay: “The odds of languishing black organizations like the NAACP and race hustlers like the Rev. Al using the Takimag column as proof of ‘America’s lingering toxic racism:’ a near certainty.”


    I do not agree.  Although the two situations aren’t directly comparable and the message not as pungent, the black reaction to a John Derbyshire race realist address in 2010 at the University of Pennsylvania — at the invitation of the Black Students Law Association — was mild:

    “Many of the 140 law students who heard Derbyshire were baffled and perplexed. They had never heard anything like that before, one of their professors said. But there were no confrontations. After his remarks, Derbyshire recalled, ‘People were pretty friendly, or just ignored in a way not, so far as I could tell, meant to be offensive.’

    “Derbyshire advised others who might be invited to a similar venue, ‘Just be frank, honest and polite. Nobody will set you on fire.'” (“Closing Gaps,” Professor Raymond Wolter’s address to the 2011 American Renaissance Conference).


    The venom will the ginned up by whites — on the left and on the mentally-crippled right.  The CEOs of the black racial grievance industry will bring as little attention as possible to the Takimag piece.

  • KevinPhillipsBong

    Perhaps we can take all of the writers no longer welcome at NR and start up a Post-National Review.

    • JohnEngelman

      At least they should be invited to speak at American Renaissance conferences. 

  • crystal evans

    One thing that is never mentioned when it comes to Blacks that is important than anything else. That is marriage. Married Blacks have higher incomes than single mothers. Children of married parents do better in school than those that come from single parent homes. Girls that come from homes where there are a married couple at the head of the home, are less likely to get pregnant as teenagers. You never hear Jesse Jackson or Al Sharpton ever mention the M  word.

    • Oil Can Harry

      Why would Rev. Al Charlatan mention marriage when his wife dumped him because of his philandering?

      Why would Jesse Jerkson criticize single mothers when he had a child out of wedlock behind his wife’s back, thus creating yet another black single mother?

      • crystal evans

        Before welfare, most Black families were married couples, not single mothers. However, with the advent of welfare and food stamps, where having a husband was against the rules, the man was kicked out of the house and the women raised the children on public assistance, some without ever holding down a job. Black married couples are not in poverty and therefore, do not need Rev Al or Jesse. The poor single mothers do. 

  • loyalwhitebriton

    Now that John Derbyshire has been fired, can we have him back in the UK please?. I would just love to see him working with and

  • anarchyst

    Look at who the “enablers” are. Primarily of one political (and ethnic) persuasion, they are the TRUE “supremacists” and have been spouting their vile filth for
    generations (if not centuries).These “enablers” reserve the right” to uphold their “cultural insularity” while demanding that the rest of us succumb to their false gods of “multiculturalism” and
    “diversity”. The “Tower of Babel” of biblical lore WAS NOT a physical structure, but the twin evils of “multiculturalism” and “diversity”.

  • 1proactive2

    What would an anthropologist write when describing the black “community” today?  Because of political correctness, they’d have to lie.  Then again, historically, they have as they tried to engineer the social practices of the cultures in which they were born.  But I digress.

    As an amateur participant-observer, as anthropologists call themselves when they live among those they are studying, I would write about the black community nearly exactly as that described by Derb.  But I would add that they are a self-culling race of people that get very upset when their progeny kills their family members, or even their children, and someone tries to effectively stop it. 

    I would also add that the majority of blacks have the emotional maturity of an adolescent – and often pre-adolescent, where their narcissism, common with that age range, demands immediate gratification without having to suffer the consequences.  Then there is their demand to be parented by the government without having to follow simple cultural rules found among most whites such as honesty, charity, personal responsibility, and peaceful living.

    It can’t happen today.  A budding Margaret Mead, as intellectually corrupt as she was, would be fired as fast as you could say “Derb” if she wrote honestly about today’s black “community”.    

    • WhiteGuyInJapan

       Great point!  When Rushton, Lynn et al report the mean IQ scores of Blacks, they also explain that Blacks are not retarded in the sense of Down’s Syndrome (a genetic aberration) but rather instead have a mental age of around 11-13.  This certainly fits into what we see in both Africans and African-Americans: little sense of long-term planning, a childlike dependence on authority plus the budding teenage tendency to rebel against said authority, inflated sense of the self, etc. 

      The thing that always surprises me about Blacks in general is their almost superstitious belief that the “government” can and should solve all their problems.  There seems to be some mathematical illiteracy at work in that they don’t realize that, at least financially, the government is us taxpayers.   Oh, wait, now I see my mistake.  Never mind.

      • crystal evans

        There are some Blacks who have never taken personal responsibility. I remember after Katrina hearing Blacks who stated that they expected the government to take care of them. They never even thought of getting any kind of renters’ insurance that would have paid for them to restore what was damaged. Renters insurance is not expensive at all only about $200 a year or so. 

  • loyalwhitebriton

    I have had two perfectly sensible comments on this story taken down by the Moderator.
    I have therefore decided to ditch Amren.
    You will never hear from me again. Goodbye.

    •  Eh, happens to me a lot, too. Don’t give up.

    • bopberrigan

       I guess I didn’t know that Amren edited the comments.  Too bad…

    • Boereseun

      I’ve also had similar, what I would call, sensible comments deleted. Although I would say more than 90 % of my comments stay up and are not moderated at all, except by myself of course.

      Stay the course, don’t ever give up and keep moderating your comment until it stays up.

      I can tell you one thing though, if I comment on other sites, like I do on Amren, it doesn’t get moderated, I don’t get a warning, my comments are simply deleted, my account purged and my IP banned. A firm but fair moderator is all that I ask for and if they feel I’ve over stepped the bounds of decent criticism, I ask that they warn me and allow me to correct my comment or argue why my comment should be considered decent. It’s obviously not in the realm of reasonableness to expect the moderator to allow everyone and sundry to argue over every single comment they make; so it is up to Amren to give us the guidelines by which we should moderate our own comments before posting them.

      I’m one of those who think we all need to do more in our own spheres of influence, in our daily lives, by bringing awareness to those around us, however, being able to comment on sites like this relieves a huge amount of tension. Which allows me to get on with my life without feeling the extra stress of never having our plight heard. It’s the ability to at least voice my thoughts and to criticise the establishment as the overburdened, immoral, cesspool that it is. Even the so called ‘Conservatives’  have no moral scruples as witnessed by this incident. They merely pay lip service to their apparent ‘conservative policies and beliefs’ and are as liberal and pathetic as the lefts are.

      I know some don’t particularly like John Derbyshire, as he has an Asian wife and half white/Asian children, but that doesn’t change the fact that he speaks the truth about blacks. I don’t agree with his choice of life partner but that doesn’t stop me from admitting that what he states about black pathologies are 100 % on the money and should be used by all whites to live their lives safely.

      Here’s the real problem though, if John states something we disagree about, we would criticise him, as is our right. We would expect him to back up his statements with facts, evidence, FBI statistics and follow through with a logical counter argument. We would not merely hurl names and fire him. That’s the realm of the left, the Marxists and liberals. And that’s why it hurts because these are meant to be the Right side of the political spectrum, they are meant to represent us in the manner in which we operate, which is to debate, reflect and solve problems. Criticism for us is a tool by which we test the beliefs of those around us. It’s not used as a tool to oppress but one to enlighten.

      And finally, don’t merely leave because you feel you have been slighted by having your comments deleted. Try again because those of us here actually enjoy reading your comments as they bring a different perspective from Britain that we don’t hear in the main stream media.

      • loyalwhitebriton

        Thanks for the support, from yourself and all the others. I got a bit miffed last night when my comment was removed; but I realise now, in the sobre light of day, that I probably over-reacted.
        I also agree with you that being able to comment on sites this this one does relieve a huge amount of tension. When I look around and see the steady ‘drip-drip-drip’ of societal and cultural decay that is rotting away formerly great white cultures, I get jolly mad; and the knowledge that all of this cultural marxism, islamic proselytization, and 3rd world immigration is a deliberate strategy to completely destroy my culture, and even eradicate my race, makes me jolly mad indeed (to the point where words can’t describe just how bloody furious I am!).
        As far a John Derbyshire is concerned, the fact that he got fired for what he said to his own children! makes manifest the purest meaning of the word ORWELLIAN.
        Does anybody really doubt that within, say, a decade, people will be thrown into prison, or worse, for utterances which are not deemed acceptable by the state’s Politburo?.
        NR ought to be ashamed of itself for sacking JD, but they aren’t, because like all true fascists, they are without a true moral compass, just blind adherence to an ideology.

  • tickyul

    This country has become so PC/Phony, the truth boils many peoples brains.

    • This is true. The inmates run the asylum.

      How better to explain Rachel Maddow and Bill Maher getting rich
      BUT Derbyshire getting fired?

  • MikeofAges

    Not exactly true that no outreach programs have succeeded. During the segregation era certain jobs were black only and these brought some blacks into the middle class or the stable element of the working class. In the era from the late 19th Century until the end of World War II, sleeping car porter was a good job for a working class man. Many would have done that job, but only blacks could get it. There were other less well known jobs that were set aside as black only. Some of these paid well and, again, brought their holders at least into the stable element of the working class.

    The willingness of the auto industry to hire blacks, and later the steel industry, again brought many blacks into middle income territory. Blacks were devastated by the deindustrialization process which occurred after 1970s.

    The desegregation of the armed forces opened another career path for a self-selected group of blacks. The same can be said for the civil service.

    The start of the affirmative action era (c. 1970) coincided with the beginning of the service, information and knowledge economy. This outreach focused primarily on those who were able to enter the “new economy” workforce, the “talented tenth” so to speak.

    There is a lesson here. Maybe it is as simple as the idea that working men need working men’s work. And don’t let anyone tell you anything different.

  • Liddell

    This article is the nearest in its message to my own article on this subject:

    Great minds…etc.

  • I’d love to read the Joe Sobran and Sam Francis take on current events. if only…..

  • occam24

    “Every effort, no matter how well-intentioned, carefully planned, and expensive, has failed to transform blacks into whites.”

    Not exactly true.  Before 1960 blacks were making strong and steady progress economically, and were well-behaved in general.  They were operating under the Booker T Washington philosophy, which was basically the same as the typical white philosophy.   Work hard, do the right thing, understand reality.

    After 1960 the utopian Comrade MLK Boulevard philosophy took over, aided by LBJ’s welfare programs.   That has been deadly for both blacks and whites.   Got even worse in ’68 when Comrade Boulevard was displaced by outright gangsters Jackson, Sharpton et al.

    • Formerly_Known_as_Whiteplight

       Thomas Sowell has said and written exactly the same message you encapsulate here;  The Great Society and other programs made single black parenthood more prevalent, created a giveaway subculture among blacks, which includes a culture of continual victimhood with endless demands for compensation.  Mr. Sowell demonstrated that Black society in America was as you say, better off in every way and healthier by far, than before LBJs programs became law and all the national habits, including institutionalized “white guilt” became the new geography in a nation that no longer would place value on merit, but on who can claim the most discrimination.  The Women’s Movement did not lose a cue and used and created its own parallel culture.  With both of these well entrenched in our political and national landscape, there is little hope that there can every be a true “renaissance” in America.  It must collapse first and be reborn into a new, refined entity, purged of the weight of such excesses as these.

      • JohnEngelman

        A factor Thomas Sowell and others ignore is the decline in the manufacturing sector of the economy. From the New Deal to the stagflation of the 1970s a factory job with a strong union offered one with an average to slightly below average IQ a decent living. 
        Just as the expansion of the welfare system reduced the economic punishment for morally irresponsible behavior among the intellectually unendowed, the decline in the manufacturing sector reduced the economic rewards for the morally responsible.
        Whites have not been immune to this. In his book, “Coming Apart: the State of White America 1960 – 2010” Charles Murray describes the increase in social pathology among white blue collar workers.  

        • Formerly_Known_as_Whiteplight

           Of course, there are other factors.  No social or economic condition arises from one cause, but is usually the result of a number, sometimes many of cumulative causes.  However, the effect of the welfare state and the victim/compensation culture in the black community is easily understood and quite obviously A if not THE major cause.  Since Thomas Sowell is a black man, the mention of his comments has added impact.

          On the other hand, offering low IQ people jobs that provide a decent living might have better results socially than not letting them make enough to live in anything but  a cardboard box.  I understand the issue of union corruption, but one must wonder what sort of “social pathologies” we might have seen and will see if large numbers of people of any race cannot earn enough to live decently.  However, the embrace of black culture could be a huge factor in the more recent increase in social pathology among “blue collar workers” or people of certain social classes.

  • Rhetorical question:

    When does the merger between National Review and MSNBC become official?

  • Wayne Lo

    Actually I have a modicum of respect for you, Mr Jupiter,  for not being a hypocrite, and staying true and consistent to your principles.

    Derbyshire is married to a Chinese women with half-chinese kids, and Mr Taylor is asking for donations to support this ‘diverse’ family. Incredible.

    I hardly think Taylor would do the same for a ‘race realist’ white woman married to a black man with half black kids —that is ask for donations to support the black husband and the half black kids.

    Again, it seems white males+Asian females is pretty much ok, but definitely not white females with black males.

    So you see, it is not about white ‘rights’. Amren is all about white males like Taylor ruling over everyone else.

    Small wonder that Courtney of Alabama seems to be ignoring these Derbyshire threads.

  • KevinPhillipsBong

    Their view is that evolution only affects “unimportant” traits like skin color, hair texture, etc. This is utterly silly. Natural selection would act most upon those traits that were most beneficial to a population’s survival (ie intelligence, genetic influences on various behaviors and attitudes, etc).

    When I took Anthropology classes in college, I found it interesting that pre-human hominids differed from each other in brain size more than in any other trait. This told me that natural selection was operating most on the brain. For each hominid we studied it was always important to note the average ccs of the brain case. However, once we reached homo sapiens, we were supposed to pretend that none of that mattered anymore. Evolution never gives you more of something than you must have (mutations are expensive, so to speak) – but we are supposed to believe that all of us have just as much brainpower as Marilyn vos Savant (and it would be revealed if only we were to spend more on education). 

    This is the essense of liberal creationism. Every barrio orphan can be an Einstein, every hood rat can be a Heisenberg — it’s just racism and the tyranny of low-expectations that keeps aborigines from discovering the secrets of cold fusion and dark matter.

  • Eagle_Eyed

    “There is not a single area in which they can offer a solution that has not already been attempted. When pressed, they respond, like liberals, with cliché nostrums like “more funds for pre-school intervention.” And if pressed harder, the response is a lame “we have to do something!””

    More specifically, however, mainstream conservatives favor school vouchers and the elimination of welfare programs which have become surrogate fathers.  While I can certainly make an economic argument for vouchers (or better yet, the elimination of state-run schools entirely), this doesn’t begin to touch the real, physio-biological differences between Whites and blacks.

    Derbyshire, who is dying of cancer, apparently just had enough.  He knows he should say what he wants to say now.  Now nothing he said was untrue (and if anything were untrue, let us know liberals!), but offensive to most to say the least. 

  • You will never win over white conservatives, so long as as they live in penthouse suites far above the fray.

  • They do not care they have become what they hate.  They…do not even notice.

    And, if they did – they’d redefine The Argument.  They win.

  • xxxtonygunsxxx

     if blacks spent every hour studying or working that they do crying
    whining complaining blaming others they would be successful but they
    will not because they are LOSERS  and they know it we know it the world
    knows it. they are petty lazy drug addicted alcohol addicted babies who
    need the rest of the world to treat them like an adult infant and i
    personally am sick of it they are criminals we know it they know it and
    the world is not going to tolerate anymore.anybody who is not cautious when encountering a black on the street is a fool because the females as well as the males are violent and unpredictable and usually on some drug or intoxicated.  blacks represent every bad character flaw that a person can have. most whites asians etc learn character traits and manners when they are 6 years blacks never learn them . they are 45 year old people with the mind of a 5 year old it makes me sick. it is totally normal for them to spit in the face of the store manager if there is a dispute as one example. i could write 500 pages more of this stuff .

  • Afrikanerhart1

    I would far rather have a moderator who is over-zealous in performing his duties (something that is alleged alot, but that  I have not seen any evidence of here) than a “hands off” policy when it comes to posts.   The latter leads to the forum bieng over-run with trolls, which will eventually destroy a forum.

    We have a good thing going here. The introduction of Disqus to amren has really increased the discussion compared to the old “moderate everying by hand” comments system. But at the same time, we have not been over-run by anti-white trolls like I feared. We need to thank agressive moderation and the willingnes of the Amren community to flag problem posts on sight for that.

  • Dude the way you rationlize your racism and fear is amazing, i feel sorry for people that think like you!

    • Unperson


      Here we have a perfect example of Sailer’s “point and
      splutter”. No attempt to disprove my statements;  just ad hominem and trendy self-righteousness.

      So please, Mr. Sampson, if you care to be taken at all seriously around here, finish the following sentence:

      “Despite all the blatant physical differences between the various races, every racial group’s brains all turned out EXACTLY THE SAME because ____________________.”

  • Simply amazing how a group of idiot racist justify their backword thinking with  unproven science and mass hysteria. What schools taught you people to hate so much?

  • Dedicated_Dad

     I do not wish to live in that world, and would resist by any means necessary.

    Frankly, so would a majority of people who gave the matter any thought at all.

  • Matthew J

    The fawning over this race traitor John Derbyshire is rather vomit inducing. If every white man followed Mr Derbyshire’s example, marrying a mongol wife and having  mongol children, what is left of white America would be extinguished almost immediately.

    Derbyshire is a disgusting example of a human being. He claims he is a matyr for for the white race, while at the same time importing non-whites to this country and producing more non-whites  to compete with white American children.

    What do you think these hybrids look like—-Kazahks or Uighurs or something like that?
    Certainly not American.

    Derbyshire and his brood should be forced onto a very leaky boat and told to row back to Ching chong land.

  • Matthew J

    Jupiter, I agree entirely.Derbyshire is an Asiaphile race traitor through and through. We should be demanding that he and his ‘family’ be sent back to china. Not panhandling for them. I’ll donate to poor white children. Not half breed mongols. They can go back to china for their bowl of rice.

  • I do not believe Rich Lowry or Sean Hannity live any other way.

  • donaldsd

    Perhaps in the mid-term future, genetic remediation can provide a solution.

  • rondo smith

    Less Policemen less crime

    • Tommy Ge

      I was thinking more along the lines of fewer blacks, less crime.