Children Suffer from Growing Economic Inequality Among Families Since Recession

Brigid Schulte, Washington Post, September 11, 2013

American families are becoming increasingly polarized along race, class and educational lines, according to a new report released Wednesday, a sign of growing economic inequality that was exacerbated by the Great Recession.

The report, “Divergent Paths of American Families,” found a widening gap in recent years between families that are white, educated or economically secure and minority families, those headed by someone with a high school degree or less, and poor families.

The concern, report authors say, is not that American families are becoming diverse. Advances in civil rights and women’s economic independence have opened up individual choice and transformed the American family in the past 50 years. The concern, they wrote, is that the divisions fall along race, class and educational lines and that they are accelerating.

{snip}

Qian and his associates analyzed census data from 2000, 2008 and 2010 to study the effects of the Great Recession on families and found that men and women with high levels of education were more likely to be married. They were more likely to stay married. There were fewer instances of cohabitation or divorce than those with lower levels of education. And their children were much less likely to live in poverty and instead more likely to benefit from family stability, increased parent time and higher economic resources.

{snip}

“What we’re seeing today is two divergences,” Coontz said. “On the one hand, people have more options than they used to. Women have a choice not to enter a bad marriage or to get out of it. Divorce is no longer stigmatized. That diversity is here to stay. But then there’s this unpleasant diversity that’s not a matter of free choice but constrained options.”

This second divergence is a result “of widening economic inequality that, unless we decide as a society to invest in livable-wage jobs and a truly egalitarian educational system, will only get worse,” Coontz said.

{snip}

Half of all U.S.-born white children younger than 17 lived in families with married parents, both of whom worked in 2008 to 2010, as did 33 percent of all U.S.-born Hispanic and 53 percent of U.S.-born Asian children. Nearly one-quarter of U.S.-born white, Hispanic and Asian children lived in more traditional breadwinner-homemaker families, fewer than among their immigrant counterparts.

The report found the biggest discrepancy for U.S.-born African American children. Twenty-four percent lived in families with married, dual-income parents—about half the percentage of children of other racial and ethnic groups. Thirty-seven percent lived in families headed by never-married or previously married single mothers, in contrast to 10 percent of US.-born white children, 16 percent of U.S.-born Hispanic children and 5 percent of U.S.-born Asian children. And 15 percent of U.S.-born African American children, higher than any other racial or ethnic group, lived with grandparents.

{snip}

Topics:

Share This

We welcome comments that add information or perspective, and we encourage polite debate. If you log in with a social media account, your comment should appear immediately. If you prefer to remain anonymous, you may comment as a guest, using a name and an e-mail address of convenience. Your comment will be moderated.
  • Similar news from the BBC:

    ***

    US income inequality at record high

    The income gap between the richest 1% of Americans and the other 99% widened to a record margin in 2012, according to an analysis of tax filings.

    The top 1% of US earners collected 19.3% of household income, breaking a record previously set in 1927.

    Income inequality in the US has been growing for almost three decades.

    Overall, the pre-tax incomes of the top 1% of households rose 19.6% compared to a 1% increase for the rest of Americans.

    (snip)

    ***

    So what are we going to do about it?

    The left wingers will pitch tents outside of banks and stockbrokers and start screaming platitudes about one percent.

    Your way too snarky ever-lovin’ blogmeister, OTOH, will continue to do what he’s been doing all summer, that is, calling as many members of Congress, first Senate and now House, to request that they not do more of what has been the prime driver of wealth and income in equality in recent decades, that is, swing the borders wide open to let even more cheap labor non-white immigrants into the country to drive the wage and salary equilibrium down even further.

    Meanwhile, Occutards want open borders, and have repeatedly said so and made as much clear in their documents and manifestos.

    • JohnEngelman

      A high rate of immigration interferes with nearly everything else progressives want to achieve.

      • White Mom in WDC

        It’s not progress they want, but cheap slave labor and the destruction of American society

        • JohnEngelman

          By “progressives” I meant liberals and radicals on the left. They do not want cheap slave labor, but higher wages for everyone. They do not desire “the destruction of American society,” but what they believe to be a better society.

          • MBlanc46

            You might be right, John, but I’m not so sure anymore. The Left used to be about promoting the interests of working people. But since the collapse of the labor movement in the 70s and 80s, the Left, if it can still be called that, has become obsessed with identity politics. I don’t think they know anything or care anything about a better society. Their only concern is the interest of (middle-class) women and people of color.

          • JohnEngelman

            Too many posters here seem to think that those on the left are deliberately evil, and take pride in their wickedness. The image of a leftist here seems to be someone who twirls his mustache, and chuckles with fiendish glee as he plans the downfall of white America.

            I have known many people on the left. We argue about basic issues. Radicals love to argue. Nevertheless, most were good people.

            A lot of them are exasperated by the behavior of lower income white Republicans. They think lower income white Republicans trudge to the polling place on election day like zombies, and vote mechanically against their economic interests.

            I have more of an understanding of how liberal Democrats betrayed lower income whites on crime, especially black crime.

          • Of course, but you talking to young Democrats about welfare is like me talking to young Republicans about war.

          • JohnEngelman

            Right now I am having what I try to maintain as a civil e-mail conversation with Tim Wise. Unfortunately, he becomes rude from time to time. I try to ignore his bad manners, and continue to post my facts.

          • You won’t convince him. Don’t you know this? I hope your project works out, but I would not be optimistic. I don’t think Jews are all deliberately evil. My old gun show partner was a Jewish retired Lt. Colonel and retired CIA agent, and he was fanatically honest. Richard David Fierman was a good, good man.

          • Right now I am having what I try to maintain as a civil e-mail conversation with Tim Wise.

            Don Quixote tried to joust with a windmill, too. You have my condolences.

          • JohnEngelman

            His most recent response was even nastier. 🙁

          • There’s a theory that Wiseguy is subconsciously in the process of becoming one of us, but his sub-c is running up against his egalitarian conscience, and that explains his far over the top lunatic rhetoric.

            Another theory is that the universe of these “anti-racist” hustlers has gotten so big that one has to be more outlandish and crazy than the last to get attention and get donations and jobs.

          • MBlanc46

            “Blacks have proved the arguments of the segregationists I argued with as a child and teenager.”

            That’s as about as good a way to summarize it as any.

          • MBlanc46

            I’m aware that politically I’m in a distinct minority here on AmRen and of what the prevailing stereotype of the Leftist is. Most people here find it incomprehensible that anyone can sincerely believe in the integrationist narrative, just as those on the Left find it incomprehensible that anyone can sincerely believe in the unalloyed virtues of the wage labor system. But I no longer see the soi-disant Leftists doing anything to champion the interests of working people. If I’d said “working men”, they’d be doing even less. I’m still not willing to give up the label “Left”, but I do find that I have very little in common politically with most of those who claim it.

          • I’m not really in the far-right, either.

          • MBlanc46

            I think that what many of us find is that the old left-right dichotomy no longer describes the social reality that we experience.

          • Sick of it

            Well, the thing is, with the way ideas have changed over time, to them you’re probably a radical right winger. Hell anyone who doesn’t praise Chairman Mao has been labeled as such.

          • JohnEngelman

            Admiration for Mao Tse Tung was always fairly limited to the Progressive Labor Party. During the War on Vietnam PLP was a force on several college campuses. Now it is restricted to a few hundred members.

          • MBlanc46

            I encountered them on the campus of the University of Chicago. Like all of the other Marxist parties, they’re almost non-existent these days. The people who in earlier days would have belonged to them are now consumed by identity politics.

          • JohnEngelman

            Despite all this talk about “cultural Marxism” real Marxism has not been fashionable in the United States since the War in Vietnam. Even then it was only noticeable on a few universities.

          • MBlanc46

            I’ve argued here on more than one occasion that the expression “cultural Marxism” is a solecism. But the term Marxism is seen to be such a convenient bludgeon by so many that they’ll twist it into inconceivable shapes in order to employ it.

          • MBlanc46

            Chairman Mao is so 1960s. What can be called the Left has almost completely abandoned class issues for race and gender.

          • Sick of it

            Someone needs to inform Maxine Waters…and Barack Obama.

          • me

            Indeed! The above comments are socially naïve, at best. I’m all for working towards helping unfortunate Whites, but it’s a waste of time to help ‘diverse’ groups. They bite the hand that feeds them.

          • JohnEngelman

            Karl Marx ignored race and gender entirely. In “The Communist Manifesto” he wrote: “The working men have no country…

            “National differences and antagonism between peoples are daily more and more vanishing.”

            When American Marxists finally became aware that white male blue collar workers in the U.S. were not behaving the way Karl Marx said they should behave, they adopted race and gender politics out of desperation.

            Karl Marx’s belief that class consciousness is stronger than loyalty of nation and race is the central weakness in his philosophy.

            Since the War in Vietnam the extreme left in the United States has not had an issue it could use to appeal to intelligent young men on the basis of self interest.

          • MBlanc46

            The Communist Party jumped on the Civil Rights bandwagon in the 1920s. It wouldn’t surprise me if that by the 1960s the only members they had, Gus Hall and FBI agents excepted, were black.

          • Gislia Jackson

            You are a pretty intelligent person. And you seem well educated. Do you have any degrees? Not being rude, just asking, and trying to be polite.

          • Karl Marx was also writing about European labor conditions in the mid 19th century. There simply were no nonwhites in Europe at the time, except for Gypsies.

          • JohnEngelman

            During the War in Vietnam I was active in the anti-war movement.

            In October 1971 Richard Herrnstein had an article published in Atlantic entitled “IQ.” In this he anticipated arguments he later presented with Charles Murray in “The Bell Curve.”

            I found the article depressing, but also convincing. I was shocked by the intolerance many student radicals expressed toward the article. Until then I thought that it was the right that was intolerant.

          • MBlanc46

            You got to the IQ issue earlier than I did. It still seems to me to be the best way to approach the entire question of racial difference. E.O. Wilson’s “Sociobiology” of about the same time had a similar effect on me.

          • JohnEngelman

            E.O. Wilson’s “Sociobiology: the New Synthesis” was published in 1975. I had anticipated much of Professor Wilson’s thesis on my own.

            I was trying to understand why lower income whites were leaving the Democratic Party and voting against their economic interests by voting Republican, and why the United States and the Soviet Union were preparing to fight a nuclear war that neither would win.

            I concluded that human behavior was influenced by instincts that had survival value during the stone age, even while they were dysfunctional now. This conclusion attracted me to anthropology.

            Since then I have realized that lower income whites have legitimate concerns about black crime that Democrats were ignoring during the 1960’s and 1970’s.

          • MBlanc46

            I can’t say that I’d anticipated Wilson’s work, but the nature/nurture controversy was the dominant question of my early intellectual life and is more than anything what prompted me to devote myself to philosophy. I wasn’t immediately converted by “Sociobiology”, but it sowed the seed that ultimately led me to come down on the “nature” side. Once you accept that behavior is affected by natural selection, you’re practically a race realist, whatever your political values are.

          • NorthSea

            Now both parties ignore it.

          • NorthSea

            Wilson took a lot of heat from faculty and students at Harvard for that position.

          • MBlanc46

            He took a lot of heat from the entire liberal intelligentsia.

          • A Freespeechzone

            “Good People” don’t actively work for the destruction of the American Society in the interest of ‘fairness’ and ‘diversity’.

            These are NOT ‘good people’–if they were, they would espouse empowerment, self reliance and taking responsibility.

          • Sick of it

            Personal responsibility doesn’t seem to be popular these days.

          • JohnEngelman

            Says you.

            Good people on the left join me in regretting the growing income gap.

          • A lot of them are exasperated by the behavior of lower income white Republicans. They think lower income white Republicans trudge to the polling place on election day like zombies, and vote mechanically against their economic interests.

            That’s an outgrowth of the hatred the left has for white Southerners. The reason for that in turn is the fact that white Southerners are no longer a reliable bloc Democrat vote, if they were, the Democrat Party would run just about everything now. What they don’t realize is that they can’t have both the white Southerner and the black at the same time. However the black votes, the white Southerner will be on the opposite side.

          • So CAL Snowman

            Bingo! Also it’s the result of decades of brainwashing by the mass media that has convinced the rank and file lefties that lower income white Republicans are all trailer trash hill billies and are to be looked down upon. The lefties just LOVE to look down their noses at poor Southern Whites because it gives them a feeling of moral superiority that has replaced traditional Christianity in their lives.

          • Sick of it

            Well said. Many of these pukes are descendants of the self-righteous zealots of the American Northeast. So many things they claimed to do in the interests of religion…and look at how anti-Christian they have become.

      • NeanderthalDNA

        Sociology largely gets things right when we talk about “groups of people”, people of generally similar propensity. Where it falls apart is when it assumes several “groups of people”, of different propensities and capacities on average, form one “group of people.”

        Then it is operating under a profoundly flawed assumption.

        I think a large degree if “left-right” hostility in this country is powerfully indirectly tied to our inability to recognize racial/group differences.

        Nothing works, someone must be to blame, can’t be the nature of REALITY, thence the Springer show histrionics of the media show debate between two intrinsically flawed pastiche/umbrella ideologies.

        Since neither nor any combination can work to eliminate racial disparities, we live in utterly un-fixable dilemma.

  • APaige

    The basis of black social dysfunction is black behavior. I tend to blame black males for the state of the black family until I am ‘reminded’ of black female behavior. A note to pop-conservatives: The welfare state has just subsidized, not created black behavior.

    • Diversity Awareness Brigade

      Black girls don’t understand the meaning of our word No.

      They are perpetually in eustress heat, so anything like a negative against hypersex is incomprehensible, as is the idea of original sin and redemption through Jesus.

      Abstinence is a White thing- they can’t understand.

      Blacks don’t understand White religions- they only imitate them. Everything blacks have is derivative for White civilization, except voodoo, a bone through the nose, dirty loin cloths, and disgusting villages full of malaria infested starving pickaninnies.

      Without Whites, blacks would soon revert to type by descending into cannibalism, because they certainly are incapable of agriculture or husbandry without Whites to show them how to do it and then do most of it for them.

      • Chris

        “Abstinence is a White thing- they can’t understand.” You are correct about that. Its otherwise known as “Delayed Gratification.” That is a completely foreign concept to the Africans.

        • Diversity Awareness Brigade

          Bill O’Reilly just interviewed a N’ro Civil Rights expert from Drexel University- well dress, articulate, not black sounding, but with ugly afro, but combed neat, unlike “Dr.” Cornel West’s kinky wool.

          Bill gave a list of several black on White hate crimes (is he Amrennish?) and the N’ro admitted that violence is increasing, but there isn’t evidence of payback for Trayvon.
          Both agreed that blacks are angry, then Bill said they are angry because they don’t have fathers, implying that blacks are all about sex and irresponsibility, i.e. unfit for assimilation into White civilization.

          The N’ro really reacted- you could tell he was shocked at the “prejudice,” but he just smiled and semi-laughed at Bill, almost like you are supposed to mock and ridicule bigots, and he said, “No, I don’t think that’s it,” and he keep smiling and saying the same thing.

          He looked guilty has heck.

          • Libs are We Todd Ed

            He might have been shocked at the stupidity of O’Reilly’s suggestion that it is a lack of fathers.

            The N’ro expert might well know that blax are just a genetically violent group.

          • NeanderthalDNA

            Classic confusion of symptom with problem.

            The r-style Bantu breeding machine is the cause, absent fathers is a symptom identified as a root problem because we refuse to see the 1000 lb invisible gorilla stinking up the place.

    • Libs are We Todd Ed

      “The welfare state has just subsidized, not created black behavior.”

      You are correct.

  • D.B. Cooper

    So, I guess things are soooo bad in some parts, that a high school has a girl that does double duty during football games:

    in South Allegheny (McKeesport, Pa.) High’s Audra Lewis wears her majorette uniform under her football uniform, serves as the team’s kicker for two quarters, takes off her pads, twirls her baton during the break and then puts it back on for the second half. Now a senior, she earned the starting job this fall and scored the only points on a 31-yard field goal in the Gladiators’ 31-3 opening night loss to Pittsburgh’s Seton La Salle High.

    This isn’t some super girl, she’s only 5’4″.

    I made the mistake of reading Audra’s story earlier, so I’m not feeling sorry for these low income kids who still have a chance to become whatever they want to be, no matter how poor. It takes a little ambition, doesn’t it?

  • Be responsible, get married to someone who is responsible, and stay responsible and married.

    This is too complicated for blacks.

    • Diversity Awareness Brigade

      Not too complicated- too foreign. They rather keep it real, because they are really N.

    • So CAL Snowman

      Blacks are primitive tribal people. They only form family units out of NECESSITY. When there was no central provider to take care of the babies and the “baby mommas” blacks were forced to form family units and communities to ensure their survival and place in american society (much like the tribes in Africa). When Uncle Sugar convinced black america to hop on the welfare gravy train, that was the end of the black family unit in america. With Uncle Sugar taking care of all of the necessities of life, black men were left with the “freedom” to be as black as they wanted. As tribal people this meant that providing for their children and their children’s mother was no longer a necessity; so if it is not necessary for their survival, it seems that blacks will simply not form family units. Once black males were “free” from having to provide for their offspring they had all the time in the world to do nothing or commit random acts of tribal violence. We are not even remotely the same species.

    • me

      You ARE rich. You’re blessed, actually. Good for you!

    • Ella

      Most Whites used to live like this and kept it simple before materialism or easy credit. You are very smart to pay off the mortgage and avoid banks.

  • Rhialto

    The economic/social situation of the US is the result of Liberal policies, mainly massive immigration and discrimination against White men (Diversity). Since Liberal policies have caused these problems, the way to solve them is to eliminate Liberal policies.

    • me

      Exactly!

  • Diversity Awareness Brigade

    The suffering “families” canard again. You are supposed to feel compassion and “advocate those measures that will do more for ‘the Other’ in our midst.”

    Blacks in Africa have families made up of 50 “wives” and so many children then still sell them to the coffee plantations Benin.

  • Spartacus

    “Thirty-seven percent lived in families headed by never-married or
    previously married single mothers, in contrast to 10 percent of US.-born
    white children, 16 percent of U.S.-born Hispanic children and 5 percent
    of U.S.-born Asian children. And 15 percent of U.S.-born African
    American children, higher than any other racial or ethnic group, lived
    with grandparents.”

    ———————————————————————————————————————

    I’m shocked so many of them actually manage to mimic human families. Reminds me of a documentary I saw about some monkeys in Japan who started bathing in hot water springs after they saw humans doing it .

  • Martel

    Read: The money to artificially close these “gaps” is running out

    • It has already run out, which is why the Feds borrow it from China in our name.

    • Ella

      Feds also print monies and create mass inflation for everyone, but they pay out the checks.

  • joesolargenius

    The statistics for whites would have been a lot worse had many White men not stopped marrying and making families after they saw what affirmative action was doing to White families

    • me

      Typical argument from an arrested development asshat from the ‘manosphere’. What are you good for, if you don’t make White babies?

      • joesolargenius

        The point I was trying to make was that White men wish to have a family instead of having a child and then paying child support while some other man enjoys quality time with his children . Any man can father a child . it’s being allowed to raise one that is now the hard part and affirmative action is the main reason this problem exist !

        • me

          Wut? You must be new to the internet.

  • 1stworlder

    So knowing the name of your dad increases your IQ.

    • Spartacus

      Dat be sum weerd vooddoo rite their !

    • me

      Yes. And your self-esteem. And your standard of living. There are lots of exceptions in the White race, but not so much in ‘minority’ communities.

  • A Freespeechzone

    It’s Whitey’s fault!

  • John R

    Children suffer from inequality? Gee. Do you think it may have something to do with the fact that some types of people have a habit of popping out one offspring after another, whether or not they have any decent job, or any legitimate way of supporting them? Naw! It must be because of White racism, right? (Rolling my eyes) Seriously, how long must we White people continue to get lectured to, and even punished, for the bad behaviors of blacks?

    • Mark Hillyard

      Until the move back to Africa???

  • MBlanc46

    Wilson and Pinker provided the theoretical foundation, but Rushton provided the empirical data. I’m pretty confident that despite it’s still being very politically incorrect, more researchers will build on the foundations that Rushton laid, and that the empirical evidence for low IQ, deficient long-term thinking, and limited impulse control in blacks will become so overwhelming that we can finally establish sound policies for controlling them.

    • JohnEngelman

      My parents taught me not to hate blacks. I still try not to, but it gets more difficult. I like individual blacks, while having a low opinion of the race as a whole.

      Over the years I have come reluctantly to suspect that Jim Crow legislation in states with large black populations was based on sound instinct.

      • My parents didn’t raise me as a racist, either. I developed my opinions as an undergrad in California. Even in college, there was a very notable difference between blacks and browns on one hand, and whites and northeast Asians on the other.

        Far from being a social “leveler” between the races, college education is the Himalayas.

        • Sick of it

          My parents were the polite didn’t talk about it types. Boy did they ever leave me in the dark about a lot of important things.

  • JohnEngelman

    I was trying to have a polite conversation with Tim Wise. His crude responses to my letters was breathtaking.

  • JohnEngelman

    Franklin Roosevelt had the sense to do that. Because white blue collar workers benefited from his policies, and because he kept civil rights legislation off the table he carried each of the eleven Confederate states during each of his four election landslides.

  • Mark Hillyard

    Just a quick review of Marxism from the Historicist. It pretty much identifies Obama and the halo’s around his ignorant head, and various people referring to him as “almost god like”, swooning, and having tingles run up ones leg whenever he speaks.

    The Marxist View: “This philosophical scheme of history views all mankind as being involved in a “class struggle” between the bourgeoisie (capitalists, middle-class) and the proletariat (industrial working class) which will eventually result in a “utopia” or the “perfect socialist state.” When formulating this philosophy, Karl Marx put all men into one of two categories: the “liberating class” as “saviors” or into the “oppressing class” as the adversaries of the perfect social order. This atheistic view of human history while polarizing a society has resulted in utter social chaos and revolution. Marx viewed man as nothing more than an economic materialistic animal whose sole purpose was to serve the all-powerful state through human labor. This view also results in utter hopelessness for man both now and in the hereafter.”

  • LIBERTYSINCURSION

    Anyone want to take a guess at just what exactly Mr. Coontz means by a “truly egalitarian educational system”? Even when black kids and white kids are taught in the same small schools, the same small classes, by the exact same teachers at the exact same time as well as coming from the exact same economic status. The black kids still test lower than the white kids! What more can you do for these people, stupid is as stupid does, and that’s all I got to say about that.

  • pcmustgo

    Holy sh–, 15% of Black kids grow up with their grandparents… amazing. Seems white and latina single mothers re-marry quickly…

  • pcmustgo

    60% of Black women have children from multiple “baby daddies”.

  • me

    For all of the intellectual dueling, the fact of the matter is that well-off Whites could give a crap about their struggling White brothers and sisters. It’s almost a pathological hatred of poor Whites. The mitigating factors that are holding most Whites down are well known to the ‘intellects’ on this site, but they chose to whip the downtrodden Whites with labels. It’s a dirty SHAME! Whites have been marginalized and vilified for the past seventy years, been discriminated against, been given absolutely no help in getting into college, been denied promotions because of affirmative action, attacked in their only affordable neighborhoods and schools, robbed by a corrupt tax system, sent to war to fight for unjust and profit-motivated wars, and cannot even get assistance with food because of the ‘minorities’ sucking up all of the social safety nets. It sickens me! Whites truly are our own worst enemies, along with the ‘government’.

  • me

    While the White race dies. Fool!

  • me

    The Marxists always hide behind the label of ‘liberalism’, ‘socialism’, or other isms of their creation. They’re like a snake that sheds its skin and dons a new skin to hide behind. They lie and lie, and think people are too stupid not to see through their pretty lies. Note the above comments on this thread. The White ‘liberals’ are the enemy, make no mistake about it. They abandoned White poor a long time ago, and vilify the White poor every chance they get, especially White Christians. They are the enemy. They are going to destroy this country and every White and White Christian in it, just like in the former USSR.

  • Sick of it

    Many people are ignorant or misguided, but a certain group has pushed the entirety of what was once called evil in this country for generations.

  • He was honest; that’s all I expect out of any business associate. I think our First Railway Baggage Porter in Chief is a (moderated) expletive deleted. I believe that our pursuit of a useful consensus here does not require that we all be in ideological lockstep.

  • John Engelman waded into his email discussion with Tim Wise with this same erroneous assumption. They’re not all ignorant or misguided. Some of them are evil, crazy or a combination of both.

  • Who says one has to live and work in San Francisco? I wouldn’t live there however much I was paid. I’d work on a long-line fishing boat again before I did that. When you’re at sea, you make plenty of money and there’s nothing to spend it on. There’s also plenty of work on the oilfields in North Dakota. I’m a pretty good welder and machinist; if I was still single, I’d fit my Pinzgauer truck with a well-insulated camper shell and drive north to work there.

  • I was once lost in Nanjing China in 1987 on a borrowed bicycle after dark. I wasn’t worried, even though my only Mandarin is “hello” and “thank you”. It never occurred to me that anyone would hurt me there. They were very poor, most of them cooking over charcoal hibachis, but they were also civilized. I used to buy my friend and his girlfriend Zhuan there a great lunch for us for what worked out to be US$ 3.50 for three. I dislike only their government, but I dislike our own as well.