Segregation Curtailed in U.S. Cities, Study Finds

Sam Roberts, New York Times, January 30, 2012

More than 40 years after the federal government enacted fair-housing legislation and the Great Migration of blacks from the South began to ebb, residential segregation in metropolitan America has been significantly curtailed, according to a study released Monday.

The study of census results from thousands of neighborhoods by two economics professors who are fellows at the Manhattan Institute, a conservative research organization, found that the nation’s cities are more racially integrated than at any time since 1910, that all-white enclaves “are effectively extinct” and that while black urban ghettos still exist they are shriveling.

An influx of immigrants and the gentrification of black neighborhoods contributed to the change, the study said, but suburbanization by blacks was even more instrumental.

The progress was less pronounced between blacks and non-Hispanic whites, though, than it has been between blacks and non-blacks.

The findings by the two professors—Edward Glaeser of Harvard and Jacob L. Vigdor of Duke—were generally seconded by a spectrum of other experts with several caveats and an admonition that the study should not be seen as declaring the end of all segregation. Also, barriers, like exclusionary zoning in the suburbs, persist, and the decline in busing to achieve racial integration means that some public schools are more segregated than before.

“There is now very much more black-white neighborhood integration than 40 years ago,” said Professor Reynolds Farley of the University of Michigan’s Population Studies Center. “Those of us who worked on segregation in the 1960s never anticipated such declines. Nevertheless, blacks remain considerably more segregated from whites than do Hispanics or Asians.”

Douglas Massey, a Princeton sociologist, said: “In terms of trends in black-white segregation, we really see two trends: in metro areas with small black populations we indeed observed sharp decreases in segregation; but in those with large black populations, the declines are much slower and at times nonexistent. Although all white neighborhoods have largely disappeared, this is more due to the entry of Latinos and Asians into formerly all-white neighborhoods.”


Still, Professors Glaeser and Vigdor found that only 20 percent of blacks live in “ghetto” neighborhoods where 80 percent of the population or more is black, compared with nearly 50 percent who lived in similar neighborhoods a half-century ago.


{snip} The analysis relied on the two most common segregation indexes: dissimilarity, which is the proportion of individuals of either group that would have to switch neighborhoods to achieve perfect integration, and isolation, which measures neighborhoods where the share of the population of one group surpasses the citywide average.


Many of the cities with less segregation—or cities that demonstrated disproportionate gains in integration—are in the Sunbelt, where population growth has been greatest and immigrants have congregated. Those gains are attributable, in part, to the proliferation of subprime mortgages and threatened by the foreclosure crisis.


“While it may be tempting to see the overwhelmingly white nature of many suburbs as evidence of stagnation or stasis, the presence of even modest numbers of African-Americans in suburbs demonstrates the remarkable change in American society,” the study said. {snip}



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  • Anonymous

    Maybe this is because of the dwindling white population and miscegenation…

    But the subprime mortgage crisis may also have blame.  That could have been the whole intention all along.  Indeed, I think it was.

  • Anonymous

    “…all-white enclaves “are effectively extinct”

    The American pogrom.

    • Oil Can Harry

      Section 8 housing strikes again!

    • Please don’t call it “American” Sir for it is anything but.

      There is America and American and there is “america” and “american”.  The Two are entirely Different.  You know this Sir.

  • Anonymous

    black “UNRULY TEEN”  savages laugh and mug for camera after beating random white man and dragging him out of his cab

  • The cities then proudly proclaim that crime is decreasing, not divulging that crime in the suburbs has risen…

  • “effectively extinct” – Another fine reason why I keep harpin’ about us Speaking Up!  This cannot be aloud to stand.  It just can’t.

    non-hispanic white – This is deliberate.  It is meant to “de-legitimize” us White People and everything about us.  I am NOT a “non-hispanic white”.  I am American and Americans are White!

    integration – How many people must tell you, how many different ways must it be said but most importantly, how many FACTS do you need in order to see how this has never, does not and will never work?

    If you’re a “Professor”, an “Expert” or just have an IQ of oh, I don’t know, a basic 100, you MUST acknowledge that the ONLY way to help people is to first separate them.  Segregation is Key.

    hispanics/asians – This, I happen to personally believe is because, Blacks, for whatever they are, I don’t believe actually mean to take over anything.  People hand them the way to infiltrate.  If they weren’t shown the way, they wouldn’t even think about it.  I’m sorry but I just don’t think they think that way.  They think wild animal like, not strategy like.

    hispanics/asians – because these groups have every intention of taking over.  It’s their goal.

    ghetto – NEVER will they Admit this Pesky little Fact:  White Man Built Low Income Housing and Non-White Promptly Destroyed It.  White People did not enter the Black Area in the middle of the night and spray paint everything, throw trash everywhere, bring in junk cars and set them on fire, bring in Prostitution, Sell Drugs or anything else that’s wrong with the “ghetto”.

    formerly all white – This is too much.  How does one form a Community that is just White?  Is it possible?  Beside becoming Amish I mean…No offense to the Amish…

    perfect integration – Now this, this needs to be held under the Microscope.  Why is that it’s never a White to every Non-White?  I mean, Whites are not White.  There is German, English, Swede, Norwegian, French, Scottish, Irish and on and on we go.  Why is it only different non-whites but only one White?  Extinction anyone?  One White surrounded by nothing but non-whites is a guaranteed murder (race-mixing, etc.) of that White Blood.

    remarkable change – What’s “remarkable” is how you people believe you will get through this unscathed.  You may get rid of us, this may happen but know this, those whom you set loose on us will come after you next.  And they’ll get ya too.  There ain’t a place you can run to where there won’t be non-whites waiting’ for ya.

    • John Maddox

      Stephanie, you make some good points here. Immigrants don’t come into this country to become Americans they come here to get rich. They could care less what happens to this Government. The economic benefits they enjoy will be the same under a hard line socialist government as it is under our government today. That goes for blacks as well; the government will keep on giving. 

      Its hard not to think that these leftist academics aren’t reveling in these changes because they and the affluent will inherent most of the power when our population becomes minority white. 

      • Sir John,

        Thank You First but to hell with points, Let’s Speak.  I mean, I want TONS, ALL White Folk to LITERALLY, Literally, shut down The White House Switch Board.

        I want, I NEED for us to Speak of all the Discrimination, Lies about us and of all the outright Abuses of us committed against by both non-whites and our very own Fellow Whites.

        Everybody’s also Feelin” Quite Well on Our Dime, Our Time AND on Our Jobs and that ain’t Right.

        keep on going – No, it will end and you know this better than I do.  How can you write that?  You know damn well how Money does indeed run out and especially so when it’s being skimmed.  Third World in The Year 2011/12 on top of American Foreign Aide My Dear Sir John?  You know Sir.

        inherit power – Yes, but, with it will come a Massively Non-White Majority and for the Life of Me, I just cannot imagine all that going on (mostly non-white) without some sort of backlash somewhere, somehow, someplace, sometime.

  • Anonymous

    4 mexicans including girl call cab slash drivers throat philly welcome to the 3rd world

  • Oil Can Harry

    “While it may be tempting to see the overwhelmingly white nature of many suburbs as evidence of stagnation or stasis…”

    Calling all real eastate agents: I’m looking to purchase a home in a neighborhood with plenty of stagnation and stasis!  

  • Anonymous

    There’s another aspect to this story and others like it.

    The implication is that segregation has ended because there are blacks in formerly white neighborhoods or there is now a perfect ratio of all races with no one majority in a formerly white community.

    The authors of these studies seem to believe that integration has been a success. That’s not true. There reports are only snapshots in time. They don’t report on the long term trends.

    It’s not as if the perfect racial balance has been achieved. It has only been achieved for a moment. Over time, the numbers are likely to keep shifting. More blacks will move in and more whites will move out. This celebrated perfect racial balance will keep changing.

  • Anonymous

    I am relieved that integration is progressing apace. But there are flies in the ointment (quite a few actually). MLK worked overtime to integrate Marquette Park in Chicago. It’s unrecognizable now.

    [A Marquette Park neighborhood man is expected to appear in court later today
    after he was accused of wrestling a Taser away from a Chicago police officer and
    using it on him Sunday night during a struggle on the city’s Southwest Side,
    police said.

    The incident began with officers attempting to interview Dashawn James, 19,
    because they thought he had violated curfew in the 6500 block of South
    California Avenue, according to police.]

  • asians live in “peace” because their concern is Take-Over via Business and Politics AND, scamming and cheating America and Americans every which way they can.

    The East was Never Meant for America.

  • Anonymous

    As more whites come into contact with large numbers of blacks the messages of American Renaissance should become more popular. 

  • Anonymous

    Eric Holder (shouldn’t he be indicted by now?) should lecture the country on the need for white gangs to act as a solvent for continued racial integration in mixed communities. It works in neighborhoods changing from black to Mexican! Though I think eventually nearly all the blacks under the age of 40 leave.   

    I remember the Gaylords  (Chicago’s last white gang) keeping the Hispanic  influx somewhat contained as (some)  of  their  white working class neighborhoods slowly morphed to SWPL.  That was in the 80s-these days they’s all be facing long FEDGOV prison  terms for  “ethnic intimidation” and miscellaneous other “civil rights” violations.    

  • Seek

    What’s wrong with “all-white enclaves?”  They’re certainly a lot more successful as living environments than all-black enclaves.

  • A Dutch ship with Bantu slaves aboard,  landed in a Virginia port, in 1619. The pilgrims came to Plymouth Rock in 1620. So, technically, Bantus were here before the pilgrims – a fact that King always bragged about (‘before the pilgrims were here,we were here”) .

    Actually, the Jamestown colonists set up shop in Virginia in 1607. And before them, were the Spaniards who founded St. Augustine, FL in 1519. Indeed, St. Augustine, FL is regarded as the oldest city in the U.S.

    • Zorro

      Let’s not forget the Vikings who were here 500 yeras before Columbus, and St. Brendan the Navigator who was here before the Vikings.

      But if you really want to clinch the argument, have these brain dead Liberals watch the video, “Ice Age Columbus” which shows White European people here 17,000 years ago.

      • Anonymous

         I read a book many years ago that theorized that some Mediterraneans may have sailed to the Western Hemisphere in ancient times.  Thor Heyerdahl proved it was possible with his “Rah Expeditions” where he built a reed boat as used on the Nile and in the Mediterranean during the time of the Pharaohs.  The book noted the phrenological differences between Western Amerinds and many tribes on the Eastern Seaboard.

    • Anonymous

       Those Bantus were brought to work on Dutch plantations outside of Dutch New Amsterdam, later New York City.  So whites were here first.  The fault is with saying Pilgrims and Mayflower, not whites.

  • Anonymous

      …..”ahead of Christ’s command
    to follow him.”

    I was with you all the way until that.  “Christ” called on his followers to accept everyone – for such is the Kingdom of God.”  That’s why the Church acted as it did.  Accept it, Christianity is not a pro-white force, and we’re better off without it.