Finding the Next Einstein in Africa

Geoffrey York, Globe and Mail, November 14, 2011

When she left her home in war-torn Sudan a few years ago, Esra Khaleel found herself on a small campus near one of South Africa’s most famous beaches, where she could see the surfers and sunbathers from the windows.

But she never learned to swim. She was too focused on her work at the innovative new African science institute, where she eagerly explored the mysteries of the universe.

“The environment was 24-hour studying,” she marvels. “You felt so good, you didn’t feel tired–you just wanted to study. Sometimes we couldn’t even sleep from the excitement.”

Ms. Khaleel, who grew up in impoverished Darfur on the eve of a devastating civil war, had never been outside Sudan and had never spoken English before her arrival here. Today, thanks to her formative year at the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, she is completing her doctorate in nuclear physics at a South African university and has spent time with Stephen Hawking, the famous physicist.

The computer laboratory at AIMS is filled with young men and women from across Africa who often study and work together until 2 or 3 a.m. before finally crashing in their dormitory rooms on the floor above. Until coming to AIMS, most were frustrated by the rote memorization methods of their classes at underfunded African schools. “We were so hungry to learn,” remembers Thifhelimbilu Singo, another recent graduate who is now completing a PhD in nuclear physics at nearby Stellenbosch University.

The institute, created in a former hotel in the beach town of Muizenbergnear Cape Town in 2003, has produced 360 graduates from 31 African countries over the past eight years. Almost all have gone on to graduate degrees at universities around the world, and many are planning to return to their homelands to apply their knowledge to help solve Africa’s social and economic problems, from energy shortages to malaria transmission.

The institute is now rapidly expanding across the African continent, with $20-million in assistance from the Canadian government. A new branch has just opened in Senegal, and another is opening in Ghana next year, with Ethiopia and Tanzania likely to get the next branches. In total, the institute hopes to have 15 campuses across Africa by 2020.

The project is known as the “Next Einstein Initiative.” The belief is that the world’s next Albert Einstein could just as easily be found in Africa as anywhere else–if the educational opportunities exist.

In science and math, the gulf between Africa and the developed world is huge. Nearly a million students graduate from African universities every year, yet advanced scientific education is virtually unavailable, and the brightest students tend to leave Africa to work in Europe or North America. Only about 1 per cent of the world’s patents and scientific articles are from African-based researchers, and there are only two mathematics journals in the whole continent.

“When I meet the students, I see the richness that the world is losing by not having more African scientists,” says Carolina Odman-Govender, director of academic development for the Next Einstein Initiative.

“There’s so much potential that’s unseen and untapped. There are all these people who are brilliant but haven’t had a chance to shine. Many of them have never left their country before, never even flown before.”

Ms. Odman-Govender, a Swedish astrophysicist, was a teaching assistant at AIMS in its early days and later decided to return full-time. “It makes more sense to do science here than anywhere else because the impact is so much greater,” she says. “It’s a life-changing experience. You see them exceed the expectations every day.”

The founder and chairman of the institute is Neil Turok, a renowned physicist and long-time collaborator with Mr. Hawking. Born in South Africa to anti-apartheid activists, he now works in Canada as director of the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Ont.

Mr. Turok believes the AIMS institute can contribute to an “African renaissance” by helping to overcome decades of underfunding and isolation at the continent’s universities. “Just think what will happen if Africa does for science what it has done for music, for literature and for art,” he wrote in The Globe and Mail last year. “Not only Africa, but the world could be transformed.”

Every year, about 50 to 60 students are accepted at the South African AIMS campus from all over Africa. A minimum of one-third are female. Nearly as many are accepted at the Senegal campus, and similar numbers are expected at future campuses in other African countries.

The 10-month program at AIMS includes intense classes in computer skills, language and mathematics. Competition to enter the institute is fierce: Only one of every five applicants is successful. They are truly the best and brightest of Africa’s science and math students.

Once they are accepted, tuition is free and travel costs are covered. They are given free accommodation and meals in the same building as their classes, allowing them to focus entirely on their studies. “They need to do their own laundry, and that’s about it,” Ms. Odman-Govender says. “And we provide the laundry machines and detergent.”

The professors and lecturers are volunteers, including Nobel Prize winners and other top scientists and mathematicians, who visit the AIMS campus for three-week teaching stints for a modest stipend. One of the key benefits of the institute is that the students can build a lifelong network of friends among their professors and fellow students, since they are together at meal times as well as in the laboratory and classroom.

“That’s the magic of AIMS,” says Bruce Bassett, a professor of cosmology and mathematics at the institute and at the University of Cape Town. “The students are networking. They’re eating with their professors and having a beer with them and working with them at 2 a.m. As a model, it’s brilliant.”

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  • Anonymous

    I hope they do, and I hope that they use their intelligence and talent to fix things in their own countries. It’s highly unlikely though. And that’s typical British understatement.

  • Anonymous

    “Born in South Africa to anti-apartheid activists, he now works in Canada”

    That sums it up for me. Nuff said.

  • Rhialto

    What percentage of African-Africans have IQs above 140, the minimum to do serious mathematics? Considering the Average African-African I.Q. is less than 80, the number of “exeptionals” that they admit seems right to me.

    While I think that Einstein’s reputation is somewhat inflated, it is a liberal delusion to expect that an African-African with Einstein’s mental capacity would be probable. Actually in the 20th century, there have been Asians and Caucasians who have equaled or exceeded Einstein’s brain power (however, they lacked his expertise in public relations).

  • Ciccio

    In ten years, the magnificent total of 360 potential Phd students.

    China has about the same population as the whole of Africa, they are currently graduating some 50,000 Phd. students A YEAR.

    Need anymore be said?

  • Seek

    Keep wishing, praying and hoping, Ms. Odman-Govender: Sub-Saharan Africa will not produce the “next Einstein” any more than it was able to produce the “first Einstein.” Blacks, with rare exceptions, are simply not capable of levels of abstract problem-solving necessary to produce works of significant scientific discovery or any technological applications. This project is yet another complete waste of money, whether from private or public sources.

  • Question Diversity

    They will be searching for a long time. If the average black African IQ is 70 and the standard deviation is 15, and 160 is the minimum IQ for Einstein-like genius, this means that you need to be 6 SD above the mean. Only one in about 800 million people have IQs 6 SD above the mean or higher.

  • Tim in Indiana

    In science and math, the gulf between Africa and the developed world is huge. Nearly a million students graduate from African universities every year, yet advanced scientific education is virtually unavailable, and the brightest students tend to leave Africa to work in Europe or North America. Only about 1 per cent of the world’s patents and scientific articles are from African-based researchers, and there are only two mathematics journals in the whole continent.

    Notice there’s no speculation about why this is the case. Hasn’t Africa been around as long as the rest of the world? Besides, why would Africans want to learn things like science and math? Aren’t these things part of the “legacy of colonialism?”

    Watch them try to claim exactly the opposite–that Africa was held back by colonialism. Fortunately, it’s not hard to expose the folly of this claim: simply look at how primitive and behind the rest of the world Africa was before the first colonists came.

  • Urban Teacher

    Is there anyone from South Africa who can tell us what is going on here?

  • BO_Bill

    The African Science Institute staff’s time and effort would be much better spent supporting and encouraging Special Olympians.

  • Anonymous

    “Once they are accepted, tuition is free and travel costs are covered. They are given free accommodation and meals in the same building as their classes, allowing them to focus entirely on their studies.”

    How well could White students do under such a program, having only to focus on studies?

    ” One of the key benefits of the institute is that the students can build a lifelong network of friends among their professors and fellow students, since they are together at meal times as well as in the laboratory and classroom.”

    In college, my professors had a life and didn’t want to be with the students 24/7. How would Whites perform with such professors?

    ” “Just think what will happen if Africa does for science what it has done for music, for literature and for art,”

    I can’t think of one thing it has done in any of these areas. I know of no great African authors or artists. African music, I’ve probably never heard, Anglicized Afro music (jazz, rap) is not of interest to me.

    “The belief is that the world’s next Albert Einstein could just as easily be found in Africa as anywhere else—if the educational opportunities exist.”

    I think rather than have another failure to add to their litany of disappointments, the left will do something crooked to prop up this, the number one tenant of their religion.

    In a sane world, gold would be look for in gold mines, and not in the tops of trees.

  • WR the elder

    The “next Einstein” will be a black African and here’s why: The media will not declare anybody to be the “Next Einstein” until they find a black African of at least moderately good accomplishment in mathematics or physics. It doesn’t matter how many brilliant scientists of other races do outstanding work in the meantime, I assure you that the honorary title of “Next Einstein” is reserved for a black African.

    I think it’s a fine thing that the most talented 0.01% in Africa have the opportunity to study serious science and develop their talents. But surely they could spare us the “Next Einstein” hype.

  • Chicagoan

    How about identifying and subsidizing white youth with potential but who might not otherwise get a college degree? The results would be way better, I’m sure.

    One of those profiled is said to have “spent time” with Stephen Hawking. What does that mean? She had coffee in the same room as he did? Most of those who get degrees will ditch their native countries and look to make more money elsewhere. Just like Turok, now living in Canada after his anti-apartheid parents helped destroy South Africa.

  • Anonymous

    Maybe in Morroco or Egypt, not in the Congo!

  • Anonymous

    Yeah, and the Florida everglades are a good site for the tallest skyscraper in the world!

  • Daniel Williams

    “Just think what will happen if Africa does for science what it has done for music, for literature and for art.”

    There’s no need to imagine it! I’d say that African contributions to science are ALREADY just as negligible as African contributions to music, literature, and the arts.

  • Greg Deane

    Even the Chinese and other East Asians don’t have the temerity to suggest they could provide ingenious innovators-they are prepared to stop short at dubious claims to higher average intelligence. But instinctively they know that the vast mass of their populations are anchored to the average and very few, if any, are capable of genuine invention or creative. They are happy to imitate, a fact that early Western visitors to the Orient acknowledged, giving credit to the Asian capacity for accurate replication.

    For Africans to think they can provide a scientist on a level with Einstein or Leibniz or Newton or Bacon beggars belief. The claims made in this article to have made contributions to literature is absurd coming from peoples who don’t have their own alphabets. Any books written by Africans are only the usual lies and misrepresentations and ingratitude regarding contact with Europeans. Their contributions to music have been equally minimal – the bongo drums do not compare with the western symphonic genius of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. No doubt their apologists would like to overstate the African contributions to Jazz, Rock music and bluegrass-but even these would not have come into being without European musical instrumentation and the diatonic scale based on the octave. For this, the Africans, and the world, has a debt of gratitude to the ancient Greeks, starting with Pythagoras.

    Perhaps the most noteworthy African invention of modern times is the burning tyre necklace used to instruct those who diverged from tribal norms. No Einstein was needed for this invention.

  • Factmeister

    1. Assuming a Mathematical model for probability in terms of permutation and combinations there is a chance for a black African Einstein.

    2. The highest probability for the next Einstein would be somewhere in Asia – India, Israel, Lebanon ( Maronite Catholic) or Japan. The Chinese and Koreans do have an average higher IQ than some of these Asian nations ( India only 85 and Israel, just 90) but nevertheless, these aforementioned Asiatic groups have a higher innovation/creativity curve as compared to the robotic Han Chinese. Lets take some brilliant minds in my subject : Physics for example. Some of the greatest minds of the 20th century from these Asiatic groups: Jewish: Einstein & Niels Bohr ( Quantum Physics). Indian: Satyendranath Bose ( discovery of the Boson/ Bose-Einstein Condensation and Quantum Tables), Dr Subramanyan Chandresekhar ( discovery of Black holes, neutron star, Quasar); Japanese: Yukawa ( Discovery of the Meson), Lebanese Catholic ; Steve Jobs ( what more needs to be said about this late legend!)

  • Integration Anxiety

    The person in this article who stated they feel that the world is missing out on not having more African scientists. I’m sorry- I know I shouldn’t laugh but… Ha ha ha ha haaa! What difference does it make if a scientist WITH KNOWLEDGE came from Belgium or Somalia or Mozambique. But after all of these years where Western White man governments have given lots of $ for bringing up the black-white achievement gap, Somalia and Mozambique will never be up to speed with Belgium. But it’s like a football analogy in a way. Team A is up on team B by four touchdowns with 15 minutes to go. Team A loosens up the defense and team B moves down the field, scores, team A gets lazy with the ball, gives it back to team B, the cycle repeats, but the game only appears to look close at the end. Team A wins but maybe by only ten points or seven points. Everyone sees that w/o watching the game, they talk and say what a close game. Not really but that is how White nations handle their IQ advantage. They let third worlders come in, flood the market and make enough of a social impact to upset the White apple cart. The White people want to hold on to what they’ve built. But the sinister government wants to implement its will. That is the prevent defense. Preventing White domination.

  • James

    Well, they did build the pyramids………………………

  • john

    Umm, I rather doubt it. From the continent that never invented the wheel, never had a written language, no sense of the abstract, no dwellings beyond the thatched hut, the next Einstein?

    Methinks not.

  • Al Gator

    Men were not created equal. God saw fit to endow the different races with different strengths and weaknesses.

    That said, there are always exceptions to the rule. There will always be a Larry Bird, a Yow, a Walter Williams, Allen Keyes.

    These are the exception, not the rule. There are a FEW blacks, who when they embrace a Western education without prejudice, can be productive and even cutting edge. There are a few examples in history. Every once in a while, a white heavy weight champ comes along. (Hasn’t been one in a while! But recently, some white female sprint runners have given the black world a headache.)

    However, this is not the norm.

    My point here is that such anomalies do occur. But they are few and far between and anyone who tries make a blanket statement, based on the flukes, that all races are equal and can create and progress equally, is a person trying to ignore nature or just a flat out marxist liar.

    The Chinese could NEVER have gotten to where they are today had they not stolen or bought Western technological know-how.

    Japanese are refreshing in their understanding of racial differences.

    The Japanese recognized during the Meiji restoration that they could not compete with the West with what they had. Therefore so as not to be consumed, they made a conscious effort to study and learn everything the West had to offer. They did good, as proven by the fact that they went from stone aged feudal to Pearl Harbor in record time. No other nation or people ever pulled off such a feat.

    BUT, even as they can COPY the West and make some really handy-dandy improvements on existing ideas, they lament till this day in endless White Papers, that they simply cannot take the lead. It is still today a major cause for discussion in Japanese intellectual circles.

    (Side bar, the Japanese written system, kanji, is borrowed from China, and does not “fit” their language, and is a severe hindrance to learning. The Koreans did the right thing by inventing a 37 character (?) alphabet, Hongul, that is specific to their language. Just an observation.)

    The Japanese have a sense of humor about race though. One theme goes something like this: “When we can field a world champion basketball team, then maybe we can show the West the way.”

    Just an opinion based on a few years of observing the racial differences of people, without the help of rose colored lenses.

  • Anonymous

    It’s easy, all we need to do is hire some of the Atlanta school system teachers to run that school, sit on the review committee of Nature, and put them on the Nobel prize committee, and I’m sure we could have plenty of black Einsteins!

    There are no black Nobel prize winners in the sciences, so they had to create the prizes for literature and peace. There has never been a black recipient of the Fields Medal (mathematics equivalent of the Nobel Prize). There have been only one or two (?) black chess grandmasters in history, out of thousands, and note that chess is absolutely fair, does not favor rich people, does not favor people who speak any particular language or have any particular educational or social background.

    And anyone who is active in the sciences knows that black scientists who do real research are almost non-existent.

  • madison grant

    Yeah, the next Einstein could be found in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Just like travelers to the North Pole could find Santa Claus, the Easter Bunny and a unicorn.

  • eduard

    In spite of all these black PhD’s and whatever, Africa is still where she is like a thousand years ago. Blacks, in spite of their tertiary achievements, cannot invent, develope discover or design. It is often stated that others are highly intelligent, but they are not as creative as the white race. The white race leads, other races can only follow.

  • angry mike

    I read this earlier and all I could think of is hana very funny. So I read it over, he ha ha ho ha he thanks for the laugh.

  • Cogitator

    This is just politically correct wishful thinking. If there are so many brilliant black Africans, why have they not accomplished more? While Europeans were filling libraries with books, building great architecture, and making many scientific discoveries, Africans never developed a written language, or built anything much more sophisticated than a mud hut.

    Just because the average IQ of blacks is lower does not mean there are not any intelligent black Africans. But given this disparity of accomplishments, what clear thinking person would think there would be a treasure of untapped knowledge among black Africans?

    If I were looking for the next Einstein, I’d look where the last one came — among the Ashkenazi Jews.

  • Anonymous

    White Africans don’t meet there strict racial hygienic standards no doubt.

  • Cacciatore

    @Anonymous(the first comment on this page):

    Yes, probably in Egypt.

    And probably among the Coptic minority there, not among the “Arabs”. Having come across many Copts, they strike me as a people with a high average IQ and a genuine desire to better the world.

    I would say that Copts are more intelligent people than SouthItalians/Sicilians and MODERN Greeks, both nations plagued by laziness and low intelligence.

    Too bad there is a genocide against Copts today and the West is run by leftist leaders who have no balls or desire to help out these Children of the Pharaohs and Ancient Greeks.

  • Mike B.

    95% of the articles on AmRen (since it went interactive) have been either frustrating or maddening or insane or head shaking or depressing or all the other usual emotions most people have when reading them. Nothing’s changed in 45 years. Scratch that – everything’s gotten worse. Much worse.

    However – every once in a blue moon, AmRen runs an article which makes me laugh out loud (and that’s rare for me to laugh at something on the Net – as opposed to when something happens in real life).

    THIS is one of those articles…

  • Cacciatore

    To follow up my comment about Copts:

    Although their skin has a noticeable brownish tone, Copts are white by just about every other criteria.

  • Anonymous

    For the benefit of American and other readers, the newspaper THE GLOBE AND MAIL is a Canadian newspaper that operates out of Toronto. It is a very liberal and left-wing paper, always championing the “merits” of diversity and egalitarianism.

  • Jim

    Maybe they can aske NASA for a grant for the islamic space program outreach.

  • Anonymous

    So where is the black “Einstein” from this country? Blacks have been pandered and catered to for the last 40 years in this country. Funds have been diverted from the bright students to close the racial achievement gap. Of course, all this is fool’s gold, no amount of money can change inferior genes.

  • rjf101

    “The project is known as the “Next Einstein Initiative.” The belief is that the world’s next Albert Einstein could just as easily be found in Africa as anywhere else—if the educational opportunities exist.”

    Perhaps, but it would have to be a white South African, not a native black.

    “Only about 1 per cent of the world’s patents and scientific articles are from African-based researchers, and there are only two mathematics journals in the whole continent.”

    I would not at all be surprised if most of that one percent came from white South Africans. There have been some prominent white South African scientists, but I know of none from black Africa.

  • Eric

    I haven’t been able to locate the Lost Dutchman’s gold mines in my closet. Perhaps I should try this endeavor.

  • Eric D

    I made the mistake of drinking a Pepsi as I was reading this article, because when I came across “The belief is that the world’s next Albert Einstein could just as easily be found in Africa as anywhere else”, a repressed explosion of laughter sent a spray of soda all over my computer. And I then had a sticky mess to clean up. I hate it when that happens.

  • Charlesz Martel

    If you give an African a fish, you fed him for one day. If you try to teach an African to fish, he eats the bait! Or something like that……

  • Anonymous

    Neil Turok, born in South Africa to anti-apartheid parents, now workd in Canada. Funny how that ALWAYS seems to be the case. Nadine Gordimer and John M. Coetzee, both literature Nobelists from SA, are two more examples of ex-pat success by white Africans. Needless to add, there are no similar stories of black African success in intellectual endeavors. Not at the Nobel Prize level, anyway.

  • john

    Certainly, given the scientific, cultural, literary, and architectural advances for which Central and South Africa are known, it’s more than reasonable to actively seek the new Einsteins of the world there.

    There have even been recent reports that the Zulu tribe is readying a nuclear-tipped spear, which is expected to be deployed early next year.

  • Elitist

    Africa’s most urgent needs are very, very basic:

    Completely and totally lacking in most of black Africa are:

    basic sanitation and sewage facilities (simple dirt latrines represent a quantum leap forward for most Africans communities)

    basic healthcare (for pennies per capita a day, the health of Africans could be light years better)

    Basic family-planning services (Africa’s population is exploding to the point where it will soon become impossible, even theoretically, to improve any aspect of life)

    basic food security (malnutrition is pandemic in black Africa)

    basic personal security (crime, war, domestic violence, the burning of “witches,” and even child sacrifice are completely out of control)

    Basic education (mentally, most black Africans are too superstitious and ignorant to participate in any aspect of modern society, and few are literate)

    Instead of focusing on something as exotic and unreal as an “African Einstein,” people who care about Africa should be focused on the basics.

    Even if a tiny number of black geniuses are eventually discovered, it will not significantly affect quality of life for the vast majority of black Africans.

    More relevant would be rigorous training for moderately competent black Africans in basic healthcare, policing, sanitation, and literacy.

    There is nothing wrong with shooting for the stars, but it seems prudent to try to get your sewage problems under control first.

  • Mr.Goldstein

    >africa

    >science

  • Laager

    Interesting to note that the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences is located in Muizenberg, a suburb of Cape Town, in the Western Cape, South Africa – the erstwhile source of apartheid – that evil Crime Against Humanity according to the UN

    When the Dutch settlers arrived in 1652 there were no black Africans this far south on the continent. Now, thanks to the infrastructure created and built through white Caucasian ingenuity since then, it is estimated that there are between 4m and 10m illegal black immigrants from north of the Limpopo River [the northern border of South Africa] that have headed south to get their slice of the most developed educational and economic pie on the African continent.

    And the leader of the ANC Youth League – Julius Malema – still consistently makes speeches claiming that blacks are oppressed and that “the country” was stolen from them. The fact of the matter is there was nothing to steal – unless you consider mud and grass huts and scrawny cattle as desirable booty.

    The reality is that absolutely everything the black man is today is thanks to his contact with white men – whether it be Dutch, British, Portuguese, French or Spanish settlers all over the continent, or cotton and sugar plantation owners in the New World.

    So far the closest Einstein to emerge from Africa can be seen here:

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kPsjlwjU39U

    http://www.youtube.com/all_comments?v=kPsjlwjU39U

  • ned

    “Just think what will happen if Africa does for science what it has done for music, for literature and for art”

    Yes. It will cause even more degeneracy in the sciences as it has caused degeneracy in OUR music, art and literature.

  • Tom

    Maybe we missed the African Mozart, Shakespeare, Rembrandt?

  • Phil

    In terms of finding the next Tesla (who didn’t get everything wrong like Einstein) it very simple to know where he will be found: just follow the venture capital money. People who put their own money in a place are the most honest, at least implicitly.

    You will find a lot in Eastern Europe, but very little, if any, in Africa.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venture_capital#Geographical_differences

    Were there any hope of a black genius cropping up, the dollars would be there, but for some reason the dollars just aren’t there……

  • EW

    Hmmmm – 50-60 bright ones per year from the millions of the whole African populations?

    It’s statistically quite possible.

  • Paul R

    Well, it’s not impossible. And there are certainly a lot of worse ways to chuck money at African countries – like every other way that’s ever been tried.

  • David Ashton

    Not absolutely impossible, but one swallow would not make a summer. The cleverest pupil I ever taught in England was a girl of Nigerian origin who went on to do physics at Cambridge; she was very black, though not prognathous, and her surname suggested some white ancestry on the paternal side. But generally black Africans have relatively little aptitude for mathematics, science or engineering.

    Their contribution to “music” alone is significant, but we are not dealing here with another Bach, Thomas Ades or even Lloyd Webber; I remember an amiable black graduate at a London University classical concert cheerfully tapping his head and telling me: “This sort of music does nothing for us.” At the same time, you get excellent black singers, and in time will have a fair number of lab technicians (some of mixed race)- but lots of Congolese Newtons, Babbages, Turings or Heisenbergs, I think probably never.

  • B J Deller

    Having lived in Africa for 25 years, Africans need to learn to survive before they think about nuclear physics and other such intellectual subjects so that the rest of the civilised World does not have to send them aid and read of the savage events there. Since “gaining” their freedom from te white Africans most countries have regressed back to the days where they had life expectancies of up to 50 years and previously eradicated diseases are becoming a serious threat again. So sad really because most Africans just want to live a normal life but the educated ones seem to grab power, often by murdering their fellow citizens and then run the country into the ground as in Zimbabwe, etc. Now South Africa has a leader who is screaming, with lots of popular support by the young uneducated, although education is freely available now, for all companies to be nationalised. A move to pure Communism. Get ready to fill more begging bowls in the near future.

  • Donnerwedder!

    Sure–a German scientist on vacation…

  • Juggernaut

    Dr Subramanyan Chandresekhar ( discovery of Black holes).

    Make sure you don’t give any White physicists credit. Why would anyone believe low g-loaded Whites could discover anything? Yeah, better to look in Africa using White technology and White knowledge — oops! I mean Indian-developed technology.

    John Michell was the first to suggest the existence of black holes. He referred to them “dark stars” and based his calculations on Newton’s Laws of gravity. However, he doubted that such objects could exist and after publishing his information, he abandoned further research on the subject.

    American physicist John Wheeler coined the name “black hole” in 1968, and is was one of the most influential scientists in the study of black holes, contributing a vast amount of research to our accepted understanding of black holes today.

    http://ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu/212_fall2003.web.dir/daniel_barnes/page2.htm

  • Daniel

    I think that I understand their reasoning.

    All races are equal? With so many dumb people in Africa it stands to reason that nature must produce at least one super genius to even things out. The problems is finding the gifted one before he/she is killed for being a witch.

  • Question Diversity

    Black holes are the result of the predictions of the mathematics of Einsteinian physics. Chandresekhar is famous for calculating the limit of mass of a stellar corpse that separates just plain ole burnt out dwarfs from neutron stars. The limit between neutron stars and actual black holes is the Oppenheimer-Volkov Limit.

  • Standard Bearer

    “The project is known as the “Next Einstein Initiative.” The belief is that the world’s next Albert Einstein could just as easily be found in Africa as anywhere else”

    And the next Michael Jordan could just as easily be found among Pygmies.

  • Anonymous

    The 1974 book RACE by then Oxford University Professor John

    Randall Baker offers a fine context for this topic. Africa had

    a long, long time for indigenous persons of an Einstein stature (relevant to their time ) to emerge. Didn’t happen. Didn’t happen in language, in number skills, in construction, in navigation…

  • Bill Black

    “Every once in a while, a white heavy weight champ comes along. (Hasn’t been one in a while!”

    Your lack of knowledge of the current heavyweight boxing champion is showing. The current heavyweight boxing champion of the world is Wladimir Klitschko of Ukraine and he has been so since 2006 and has defeated all of the black contenders.

  • Bud

    many are planning to return to their homelands

    Sure they are. I don’t care whether they produce scientists or not, just keep them out of the West. The forces squandering white tax dollars on this are the same pushing for one-world government, with the necessary concomitant policy of subjugating and ultimately exterminating white achievers. Most of these students will end up in the West, which is just fine with the sponsors of this program.

  • Anonymous

    11 — WR the elder wrote at 8:08 PM on November 14:

    “The “next Einstein” will be a black African and here’s why: The media will not declare anybody to be the “Next Einstein” until they find a black African of at least moderately good accomplishment in mathematics or physics. It doesn’t matter how many brilliant scientists of other races do outstanding work in the meantime, I assure you that the honorary title of “Next Einstein” is reserved for a black African.

    I think it’s a fine thing that the most talented 0.01% in Africa have the opportunity to study serious science and develop their talents. But surely they could spare us the “Next Einstein” hype.”

    Of course you’re right, just as “experts” found the most beautiful woman in the universe in sub-Saharan Africa.

  • Netzach

    #3 Rhialto,

    “What percentage of African-Africans have IQs above 140, the minimum to do serious mathematics? Considering the Average African-African I.Q. is less than 80, the number of “exeptionals” that they admit seems right to me.”

    They’re planning to have 5 centres soon and 15 by 2020. That’d probably be the upper end of what is realistic, and I don’t think such rapid expansion will bode well for many reasons. Oh well, even if they manage to open 10+, most of them will be campuses by name only.

    Several centres might in theory be a good idea (if not necessarily in practice, as I’ll address eventually). What must be understood about Africa and IQ is that intelligence is determined by both genetics and environment. As in the West the extremes of environment have been long since annihilated, genetics predominates. In Africa… well, I don’t really know. They have things like:

    * Not uncommon chronic, and occasionally severe malnutrition. Monotonic diets lacking in some nutrients are very widespread. Former retards development of all organs, brain included, causing increased risk of certain mental illnesses and cognitive retardation. Later is likely to have some subtle effects as well.

    * Severe endemic diseases such as malaria, capable of causing severe attacks as well as chronic infection. When (as it often does) it happens to a child, lots of resources that should have gone to development towards adulthood go to fighting the disease.

    * Tropical parasitical diseases… and hoo boy, this is a big ugly one. If you really wanted to help Africa, cut off half of development aid and put it to crash program to develop medicines, distribute them and break parasite life cycles. I’ll just give one example of many: hookworm. It infects about 600 million people worldwide, breeding in their guts and gnawing on their intestinal walls. Intestinal symptoms are universal, and in worse cases you get clobbered by severe anemia and protein deficiencies (about as nice as those sound). Some of the typical results of children getting infected by these little wonders are growth, intellectual and cognitive retardation. And of course they’ll feel horribly tired and weak all the way through the school years.

    * Huge, often one-parent families. Daddy isn’t around much and mommy works herself to death all day long. She’d be hard pressed to give any individual attention to two children, let alone six to eight.

    * Bad schools and not many years of those. Self-evident.

    * Uninspiring environments to grow in. Nothing much really happens in rural Africa, and while slums may have as much variety and stimulation as the worst kind of TV&videogame consuming Western kid has, that’s not saying much.

    However – Africa is intensely unequal place. There are quite a few people who are relatively well off and of course a small, filthy rich elite. These people can isolate themselves from most of these horribly damaging effects. Their kids are much smarter. While “the next Einstein from Africa” is at best a nice slogan, the continent can in theory provide some decent and a few excellent scientists.

    Of course the problem is that for one thing, those people who can tend to send their gifted children to study in West already. Only a part is left for those African centres. And of course, if they start getting good results, they’ll get hammered by the full force of African corruption. All kinds of corrupt functionaries want to have their idiot kids go through the school to get a nice diploma, and soon enough that’ll be the end of that dream. Too bad.

  • Anonymous

    “That said, there are always exceptions to the rule. There will always be a Larry Bird, a Yow, a Walter Williams, Allen Keyes”

    What are you saying that Williams and Keyes are brilliant because they are CONservatives. They are no smarter than Al Sharpton or any other Black. They just identified a quick way to make money. Black CONservatives are very much in demand these days. I suppose also Herman Cain is brilliant like Clarence Thomas who by the way has not asked a question in Five Years on the Supreme court. Five Years! I know we should also defend Herman Cain against all those blond liars also.

  • Factmeister

    In response to Juggernaut who stated “John Michell was the first to suggest the existence of black holes. He referred to them “dark stars” and based his calculations on Newton’s Laws of gravity. However, he doubted that such objects could exist and after publishing his information, he abandoned further research on the subject.”

    You are correct, John Mitchell was the first to propose the concept of Black holes and Pierre Simon Laplace promoted the same idea in the first and second editions of his book Exposition du système du Monde. However, both of these great scientists pale in comparison to Chandresekhar’s ideal application and understanding of the Black Hole. It was this great Indian Physicist’s work that is still used by all advanced Physics students in the modern world.

    Chandrasekhar’s most notable work was the astrophysical Chandrasekhar limit. The limit describes the maximum mass of a white dwarf star, ~1.44 solar masses, or equivalently, the minimum mass above which a star will ultimately collapse into a neutron star or black hole (following a supernova). The limit was first calculated by Chandrasekhar in 1930 during his maiden voyage from India to Cambridge, England for his graduate studies. In 1999, NASA named the third of its four “Great Observatories” after Chandrasekhar. This followed a naming contest which attracted 6,000 entries from fifty states and sixty-one countries. The Chandra X-ray Observatory was launched and deployed by Space Shuttle Columbia on July 23, 1999. The Chandrasekhar number, an important dimensionless number of magnetohydrodynamics, is named after him. The asteroid 1958 Chandra is also named after Chandrasekhar. American astronomer Carl Sagan, who studied Mathematics under Chandrasekhar, at the University of Chicago, praised him in the book The Demon-Haunted World: “I discovered what true mathematical elegance is from Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar.

  • South African

    Neil Turok’s father Ben Turok (from Latvia) was one of the accused in the 1956 treason trial where the ANC planned to overthrow white South Africa by means of an armed communist uprising. But let us pretend the son has not been influenced by the sins of his father.

    Now while Canada is pushing millions of dollars into for the upliftment of African maths and pushing diversity in Canada, our minister of higher education is Blade Nzimande, a hard line communist of the old school (the types created during the Cold War, those that sent a chill down your spine) and our own white potential Einsteins are refused a higher education, for example

    “AfriForum Youth today asked the Minister of Higher Education, Dr Blade Nzimande, to intervene urgently about apparent injustice at the University of Pretoria (UP).

    The youth group took this decision after another seven top matrics – who, between them, have about 50 distinctions – came forward, saying that they, too, had been turned away by this University’s Faculty of Veterinary Science for study next year on account of “poor academic performance”.

    AfriForum Youth revealed last week that a top student with seven distinctions, Kiara Haylock, had been turned away by the University for the same reason. Haylock had 92% for Mathematics and 86% for Science”.

    http://www.afriforumyouth.co.za/?p=940

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matriculation_in_South_Africa

  • Juggernaut

    In response to Factmeister:

    Not like Newton did anything, is it? He only developed theories of gravitation and mechanics, and invented differential calculus.

    neutron star:

    In 1934 Walter Baade and Fritz Zwicky proposed the existence of the neutron star only a year after the discovery of the neutron by Sir James Chadwick. In seeking an explanation for the origin of a supernova, they proposed that the neutron star is formed in a supernova.

    Chandresekhar not mentioned by Wikipedia as to “history of discovery” of neutron stars.

    Quasar:

    In 1962 a breakthrough was achieved. Another radio source, 3C 273, was predicted to undergo five occultations by the moon. Measurements taken by Cyril Hazard and John Bolton during one of the occultations using the Parkes Radio Telescope allowed Maarten Schmidt to optically identify the object and obtain an optical spectrum using the 200-inch Hale Telescope on Mount Palomar.

    Chandresekhar not mentioned in Wikipedia entry on quasars. Wonder why. He is noted for having “studied light scattering and discovered the Raman effect.”

    Japanese: Yukawa ( Discovery of the Meson):

    The first true meson to be discovered was the “pi meson” (or pion) in 1947, by Cecil Powell, César Lattes, and Giuseppe Occhialini, who were investigating cosmic ray products at the University of Bristol in England.

    Lebanese Catholic ; Steve Jobs ( what more needs to be said about this late legend!).

    Jobs mother was an Anglo-Saxon midwestern Protestant. His adoptive parents were Anglo-Saxons.

    When asked about his ‘adoptive parents,’ Jobs replied emphatically that Paul and Clara Jobs ‘were my parents, they ‘were my parents 1,000%.’ Asked in a 1995 interview what he wanted to pass on to his children, Jobs replied, “Just to try to be as good a father to them as my father was to me. I think about that every day of my life.’

    Here’s a list of famous physicists. Not one is Asian.

    http://cnr2.kent.edu/~manley/physicists.html

    A quick perusal of Nobel Laureates in physics shows a vast majority of Americans and Europeans with few Asians.

    Case Closed.

  • Ashley

    I am dating a man from India. Despite India’s horrific poverty, they produce a large number of math and science geniuses while Africa does not.

    Your average white American would mistake an dark skinned Indian for Black. My India bf is quite dark skinned and several people have commented on me dating a black guy.

    The underlying question is why does Indian produce such brilliant minds while Africa does not?

    The second question is if whites perceive dark skinned Indians as ‘Black’ due to their skin color, why can’t the U.S. government classify them as ‘Black’ as well in order to meet their affirmative action quotas.

    There are so many great Indian doctors and engineers that virtually all of the Black quotas could be met with them rather than our descendents of slaves OR by looking in Africa.

  • South African

    Why does Indian produce such brilliant minds? Perhaps due to the Indo-Germanic heritage?

    Extract from the book ‘White America’, by Earnest Sevier Cox (I am not an Israelite, the site just happened to pop up first on searching for an online text version. The hard copy book version is in my possession).

    (Chapter 6 : Civilizations That Have Perished Through Contact With Colored Races: India)

    http://goo.gl/wlr9V

  • Laager

    @ Ashley 10:01

    South Africa is an excellent case study of the varying degrees of performance within an ethnic melting pot – Blacks, Whites, Mulatto and Indian

    South Africa’s Indian population was imported into the British Colony of Natal c1860.

    The sugar plantation owners needed manual labour to sow and harvest the crops as the local black tribe – Zulus – flatly refused to do this sort of work. The Indians were the poorest of the poor from Indian and came on 5 year Indentured Labourer contracts [Euphemism for slaves as slavery had been abolished] They were paid about $1 a month.

    After their contracts ended they could (1) be repatriated to India (2) sign on for another 5 years (3) take their chances as free citizens in the colony. Most chose option 3. During the apartheid era they were affected by the laws in the same way as the Blacks. Yet 150 years down the track they are probably per capita the most successful ethnic group in the country. From starting out as market gardeners they now have a professional class of doctors, lawyers, accountants, educators, engineers and architects with their own educational institutions. They are clothing manufacturers, traders, shop owners and import/export merchants.

    While they were progressing parallel to the white man the Blacks remained content in their subsistence farming lifestyle.

    So colour is not the issue.

    Ethnicity and God given intelligence is..

    Only the extremely well educated (white) liberals can’t see this.

  • Netzach

    #65 South African,

    “Why does Indian produce such brilliant minds? Perhaps due to the Indo-Germanic heritage?”

    Perhaps… Though it should be noted that even before Aryan (ie. Indo-European) conquest, Indus Valley area produced a large and sophisticated Harappan civilization. Their cities exhibited high degree of professional urban planning, and their sewers were better than those in many parts of modern India. At their height (about 2600-1800 BC), arts and sciences were pretty developed as well.

  • Factmeister

    In rsponse to Juggernaut:

    “Not like Newton did anything, is it? He only developed theories of gravitation and mechanics, and invented differential calculus.”

    Newton was a legend in his own right. But, his work on gravity was influenced heavily by Galileo’s observations who preceded him. Add to this fact the number of errors made by Sir Newton, which were later corrected by Einstein ( Jewish Physcist who added Time as the other dimension and gave the curvelinear concept of space as opposed to Newton’s rather inaccurate linear space) and even by LaPlace ( in thermodynamics). As for gravity:

    Bhaskaracharya ( Ancient Indain vedic mathematician) in his Surya Siddhanta wrote:

    “Objects fall on the earth due to a force of attraction by the earth. Therefore, the earth, planets, constellations, moon and sun are held in orbit due to this attraction.”

    It was not until 1687 AD, about 1200 years later did Sir Issac Newton “rediscover” the Law of Gravity. Thus the Indians predate both Galileo and Newton in terms of their understanding of gravity.

    And there is strong evidence to suggest that Calculus & even the earlies theories of trigonometry was first invented by Indian Mathematician Bhaskara. Bhaskara’s work on calculus predates Newton and Leibniz by half a millennium.He is particularly known in the discovery of the principles of differential calculus and its application to astronomical problems and computations. While Newton and Leibniz have been credited with differential and integral calculus, there is strong evidence to suggest that Bhāskara was a pioneer in some of the principles of differential calculus. He was perhaps the first to conceive the differential coefficient and differential calculus.

    Preliminary concept of infinitesimal calculus, along with notable contributions towards integral calculus.

    Conceived differential calculus, after discovering the derivative and differential coefficient.

    He essentially stated Rolle’s theorem, a special case of one of the most important theorems in analysis, the mean value theorem. Traces of the general mean value theorem are also found in his works.

    he also calculated the derivatives of trigonometric functions and formulae. In “Siddhanta Shiromani”, Bhaskara developed spherical trigonometry along with a number of other trigonometric results

    Selin, Helaine (2008), “Astronomical Instruments in India”, Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures (2nd edition), Springer Verlag Ny, ISBN 9781402045592

    Stillwell, John (2002), Mathematics and its history, Undergraduate texts in mathematics, Springer, ISBN 9780387953366

    Steve Jobs may have been adopted by Anglo Saxon parents but his genetic heritage cannot lie. He is an Arab ( born of Syrian-American parents). His real biological father’s name is Abdul Fattah Jandali and his mother was an American woman Joanne Carol. Thus like President Obama, he is mixed race (with Middle eastern ancestry). President Obama may have been adopted and essentially raised by his white Anglo Saxon grand parents from Kansas, but does that make him a white Anglo Saxon? Also, culturally, Steve Jobs would be better described as an Indian Buddhist. His vedic influence in both his personal life and career was well established after his travel and fascination for India. Even from his early formative years, he always travelled and associated with the Hindu Hare Krishna and later was a disciple of Neem Karoli Baba ( Indian sage). he shaved his head, stayed in North India for several months before he returned to America as a Buddhist. he even stated that people around him who did not share his countercultural roots could not fully relate to his thinking. He even married his white Christian American wife according to vedic Buddhist tradition and converted her into the Buddhist faith.

    http://goo.gl/OmnR

  • Bantu Education

    I’m not a racist, but….

    White liberal patronism of the black mans insatiable ego knows no bounds. Because no black man is ever likely to win one of the scientific Nobel prizes (without risking the organisations credibility) they have virtually reserved the Nobel “peace” prize for blacks, since the whole notion of “peace” is relative and deliberately vague.

    They also conspired to elect a black UN boss who was widely considered to be the most ineffective leader of the worlds most ineffective international organisation. They conspired to elect a black US president whilst sweeping aside his dubious bona-fides. They conspired to eulogise a black virtual saint (Mandela) who sanctioned savage violence against white civilians, and numerous other blacks undeserving of the accolades they have been showered with.

    Since even that was not enough they then ensured that a black man (Morgan Freeman) played God (clothed in all white – how ironic is that?) because if a white man had been chosen for the role it would have been “racist”.

    Since South Africa is the only properly functioning country on the African continent it was gifted with the soccer world cup and its only a question of time till they get the Olympics too. Because if they dont it will be racist. Nobody ever dares mention that none of this would have been possible without that countries unsung 4 million white “intellectual slaves”.

    I also know for sure that if the US ever goes back to the moon they will have to carry live black baggage with them. Anything less would be “too white” (like the movie “Apollo 13”) and therefore racist.

    I’ve forgotten countless other examples but thats just as well since to recall them would make me even more of a racist if that were at all possible.

  • Molotov

    4 — Ashley wrote at 10:01 AM on November 16:

    Interesting. Well this is not new, in general Indians outperform all other ethno-racial groups including whites in terms of success in academics at reputed institutes in science & math but more so in terms of their shrewd business acumen at becoming wealthy. In almost all the nations where Indians have become citizens, except 2-3 nations in SE Asia, Indians are the wealthiest ethnic group or at least amongst the wealthiest. Could wealth co-relate to their IQ or more so selective immigration which sounds almost Darwinian.

    Here are a set of people who come from the harshest and most challenging conditions ( horrific poverty, deprivation, lack of resources, filth, malnutrition etc) and despite all the odds they end up gaining success in a very short time, outclassing their hosts in western societies.

    Along with the Chinese students, Indians are certainly the top scorers in any high level advanced tests or competitive exams for medicine, engineering, business management etc. This phenomenon is observed every year in the UK:

    http://goo.gl/MwVy6

    Indians and Chinese students also dominate the Science and technology creativity/ innovation competitions here in the United States. Whether its the Intel Science talent competitions or Junior Nobel Prize – there seems to be a tectonic shift to the east:

    http://goo.gl/YXeA4

    http://goo.gl/HrVkj

    http://goo.gl/7JXnQ

    And last but not least, even the late Steve Jobs was very pedantic in understanding that the future of America’s Science-technology prowess was in the hands of such talented immigrants as opposed to the dwindling homegrown skills in science and math. In a 2011 interview with biographer Walter Isaacson, Jobs revealed at one point he met with U.S. President Barack Obama, complained of the nation’s shortage of software engineers, and told Mr. Obama that he was “headed for a one-term presidency.” Jobs proposed that any foreign student who got an engineering degree at a U.S. university should automatically be offered a green card. After the meeting, Jobs commented, “The president is very smart, but he kept explaining to us reasons why things can’t get done…. It infuriates me.”

    http://goo.gl/ku1A4

  • Al Gator

    “What are you saying that Williams and Keyes are brilliant because they are CONservatives. They are no smarter than Al Sharpton or any other Black.”

    No, I am NOT saying they are brilliant because they are right thinkers. That’s your ideological bias.

    Being from Philadelphia, I happen to know both Al Sharpton and Walter Williams personally. Dr. Williams is intelligent and articulate. Al Sharpton is an ignoramus and a stupid street thug.

    As for ‘Reverend’ Al; never let a rat’s cunning and survival skill lead you to believe that it is “smart”.

  • South African

    @67 Netzach:

    Harappan culture – perhaps, perhaps not : here is an article that claims the Harappans where conquered by the Aryans:

    http://tinyurl.com/7bpmnw8

  • Lonestar Patriot

    To South African who wrote:

    “Harappan culture – perhaps, perhaps not : here is an article that claims the Harappans where conquered by the Aryans”:

    Yes, the Harrappan Indus Valley civilization was indeed one of the earliest ( Bronze) age river valley civilization and probably one of the greatest too – along with the Yangtze Kiang Chinese civilization, Mesopotamian-Sumerian and Egyptian civilizations.

    The central Asian Aryans compared to the more civilized Dravidic Harrappans were primitive nomadic warriors – barbarians. Just because the Aryans defeated the Harrapans, does not make the Aryan civilization in anyway more civilized, advanced or superior to it. Infact quite the converse is true. The Harrappans were the first to come out with the concept of towns & urban cities, docks, mettalurgy, irrigation ( shared credit with the Mesopotamians), Mathematics, Medicine, Dental surgery and even the concept of egalitarianism. In fact, it was one of the most prosperous nations on Earth. The denizens of the Harrapan culture enjoyed a very high standard of life. This golden era lasted for thousands of years ( (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) until the barbarians from the north eroded and invaded the land.

    Sounds eerily familiar to another great medieval civilization in Europe – Rome! The Romans were the most civilized culture during the Later Iron age, but alas, they too were overrun by the Germanic barbarians from up north. And today, the highly civilized western world is overrun by 3rd worlders.

  • Lauren

    I had never heard of the Harappan Civilization. So, I looked it up. According to Archaeology Online, evidence contradicts stories of any significant Aryan invasion/subjugation.

    I am also skeptical of traditional notions of Rome’s ‘Downfall’ having been the result of Barbarian Invasions. Many of us in the Race Realist Community see Dysgenic Fertility and importation of inferior subject peoples (along with the replacement of small farms by giant slave-staffed plantations) to be primary among Rome’s problems. When the Roman People substantially lost their genetic integrity, Rome ceased to be.

  • Anonymous

    #73- You are very correct. The darker South Indians having Dravidian ancestry are actually more civilized and mature in their attitudes even till today compared to their fairer skinned northern counterparts.

    Most of India’s problems (religion, ethnic and social ones) have to do with the mental make-up of north Indians.

    Unlike the Germanic tribes, these invaders from Central Asia (among them, Mongols, Scythians, etc) were uncivilized barbarians. Typical physical traits include unibrows, curved noses and eyebrows which are higher to the sides and form a ‘V’ (Many Pakistanis would also fit into the category). States of India in the northwest such as Punjab and Haryana which have a disproportionate number of such people are the most unstable politically and socially, despite enjoying a higher per-capita wealth than others.

    Most of the Indians/Pakistanis who create problems in Western nations are of this type. The academic high achievers (including spelling bee winners) are mostly from the southern parts of the country.

  • South African

    @ Netzach and Lonestar Patriot:

    highly interesting, the Harappan civilization. But I am a layman on this topic.

    I do not hope the third worlders will overrun us and replace us with something better, that would be quite a disconcerting thought.

  • Lonestar Patriot

    IN response to Lauren who wrote :

    “I am also skeptical of traditional notions of Rome’s ‘Downfall’ having been the result of Barbarian Invasions. Many of us in the Race Realist Community see Dysgenic Fertility and importation of inferior subject peoples (along with the replacement of small farms by giant slave-staffed plantations) to be primary among Rome’s problems. When the Roman People substantially lost their genetic integrity, Rome ceased to be.”

    The downfall of Rome was due to the barbarian primitive savage Germanic tribes from Northern & Western Europe – Franks, Visgoths, Vandals ( from where the English word “Vandal” is derived) etc. So the “inferior subject peoples” you are referring to are the Northern Europeans. And today, the Germanic tribes are those 3rd worlders causing the downfall of America and the west.

    http://www.korcula.net/ppages/markomarelic_german.htm

  • Question Diversity

    77 Lonestar Patriot:

    Your post in light of current events is ironic. The so-called “P.I.G.S.” countries in most need of bailouts and most likely to cause a global depression, Portugal, Italy, Greece, Spain — Those countries were either once among the most very powerful or respected on Earth, either on their own or as part of a larger empire. And they were all once part of the Roman Empire. Now, they’re begging the “barbarian primitive savage Germanics” from the north for money.