Cristina, an illegal immigrant living in South Tucson, recently went to a government office to sign up her children for a state-run Medicaid program.
The boy and girl, ages 7 and 3, respectively, are U.S. citizens and entitled to the benefits. But Cristina, who spoke on condition her last name not be used, was fearful. She’d heard of a new state law requiring public workers to alert Immigration and Customs Enforcement when illegal immigrants apply for benefits they are not legally entitled to.
So when workers asked Cristina, 32, for identification, she fled. She now says she has no way to treat her daughter’s liver problems or her son’s asthma and impacted tooth.
Cristina, a single mother and part-time house cleaner, is even reluctant to take her children to a hospital emergency room. “I feel so alone,” she said.
The new law has terrified the immigrant community here, leading to agonized discussions at schools, churches and community meetings about whether it is safe to get government help in Arizona. The author of the law, state Sen. Russell Pearce, is happy about that.
“I have a hard time having compassion for criminals,” Pearce said. “It’s about time people started being afraid.”
Pearce contends that a large number of illegal immigrants improperly receive public benefits, and his law makes it a misdemeanor for a public worker to fail to report one. The law also allows citizens to sue public agencies if they believe immigrants are receiving improper benefits.
The law took effect in late November, and it is not yet clear what government services it applies to. Some fear it could mean libraries and fire stations are obligated to report illegal immigrants, an interpretation Pearce said is silly.
He said the bill applies only to a range of welfare, Medicaid and other government aid programs that are not already guaranteed to illegal immigrants under federal law.
But many Arizonans are awaiting an opinion from the state’s attorney general on the law’s scope and which government workers are obligated to report illegal immigrants.
Critics of the law say it creates fear and uncertainty over a problem that doesn’t exist.
Experts on both sides of the immigration debate agree that illegal immigrants rarely receive government benefits illegally. Many economists have found that immigrants pay for benefits they receive through taxes, though some studies show a net loss to government.
The main cost to taxpayers comes from the use of public schools or emergency medical care–benefits guaranteed illegal immigrants under federal law.
Also, children of illegal immigrants who are U.S. citizens are eligible for the same benefits as those of any other citizen, such as food stamps.
In 2004, Pearce, a Republican, helped write a ballot initiative that required state workers to report illegal immigrants who receive benefits. But Arizona Atty. Gen. Terry Goddard, a Democrat, interpreted the measure narrowly so the law applied to only a couple of obscure programs.
This year, as the state struggled to address its budget deficit, Pearce inserted language in the budget bill reiterating those requirements. Many immigrant advocates and local officials were unaware of the move until the law took effect. Its impact was swift.
Jennifer Allen, executive director of the Border Action Network here, said the group has been swamped with calls from terrified parents, like Cristina, fearful of seeking benefits for their U.S. citizen children.
“It’s sent a shock wave of fear through immigrant communities,” Allen said.
The state Department of Economic Services, which administers welfare benefits, has referred to federal authorities more than 750 people who applied for benefits without proof of legal residency. Officials at ICE have not said whether they have taken action on those cases, but stressed that their priorities in deportations lie with violent criminals.