The Essence of Innocence: Consequences of Dehumanizing Black Children

Phillip Atiba Goff et al., Journal of Personality and Psychology, February 24, 2014

The social category “children” defines a group of individuals who are perceived to be distinct, with essential characteristics including innocence and the need for protection (Haslam, Rothschild, & Ernst, 2000). The present research examined whether Black boys are given the protections of childhood equally to their peers. We tested 3 hypotheses: (a) that Black boys are seen as less “childlike” than their White peers, (b) that the characteristics associated with childhood will be applied less when thinking specifically about Black boys relative to White boys, and (c) that these trends would be exacerbated in contexts where Black males are dehumanized by associating them (implicitly) with apes (Goff, Eberhardt, Williams, & Jackson, 2008). We expected, derivative of these 3 principal hypotheses, that individuals would perceive Black boys as being more responsible for their actions and as being more appropriate targets for police violence. We find support for these hypotheses across 4 studies using laboratory, field, and translational (mixed laboratory/field) methods. We find converging evidence that Black boys are seen as older and less innocent and that they prompt a less essential conception of childhood than do their White same-age peers. Further, our findings demonstrate that the Black/ape association predicted actual racial disparities in police violence toward children. These data represent the first attitude/behavior matching of its kind in a policing context. Taken together, this research suggests that dehumanization is a uniquely dangerous intergroup attitude, that intergroup perception of children is underexplored, and that both topics should be research priorities.

[Editor’s Note: The full article is available here.]


Share This

We welcome comments that add information or perspective, and we encourage polite debate. If you log in with a social media account, your comment should appear immediately. If you prefer to remain anonymous, you may comment as a guest, using a name and an e-mail address of convenience. Your comment will be moderated.
  • Garrett Brown

    Maybe it’s because all these “black yoofs” be raping and pillaging all the time!

  • Spartacus

    “Further, our findings demonstrate that the Black/ape association
    predicted actual racial disparities in police violence toward children.”


    • MekongDelta69

      Yeah – but which one is the ape?

      Inquiring minds want to know…

      • IstvanIN

        The cute little guy.

    • 4321realist

      Yes, the theory of evolution has just been proven.

      And not only that we’ve found the missing link.

    • itdoesnotmatter

      Umm, let me guess. She is singing the National Anthem at last years Super Bowl?

  • Spartacus

    You cannot dehumanize that which has never been human to begin with .

  • IstvanIN

    They do look older than White kids, and Asian kids and even non-black Hispanics kids. They’re bigger, cruder, and more violent. They leave childhood much sooner than we do, without becoming adults in our sense of the word. They are very different and it makes no sense to use a “White” model of maturation on blacks.

    • John R

      Seriously, if I had my way, the age of majority should be different for blacks than for other races. They DO physically mature much earlier than Whites do. If you just observed a group of say college aged blacks and Whites, you would know this intuitively.

      • 1stworlder

        that’s because the spend 5 years in first grade

      • Tarczan

        That is the reason so many more blacks are recruited in college football.

        • John R

          Good point. And probably one of the reasons that young White girls think black men are more “manly.” (I know: disgusting.)

        • Jesse_from_Sweden

          It also skews the numbers in a much more evident way from early on.

          As anonymous below writes, there is a 1 year difference in physical maturity between black girls and white, and it’s reasonable to assume that the same goes for boys.
          Essentially, black boys are one age grade ahead of white boys in physical maturity.
          That one years difference is huge when it comes to the early teens, where boys start to get competetive in sports.

          It means that if a school is to make a team, and picks the best players, that means black players will have a large advantage due to essentially being one year older than their white peers.
          This of course will then become even more pronounced, when those that are picked get training for the team, which will keep them ahead when it comes to the next level and there are new tryouts.

          So if you wonder why blacks dominate in NFL when it comes to numbers, despite there being great white players, one reason is that potentially good white players were never given a chance to join the school team in the early teens, and receive the training that they needed to become players (instead choosing to do something else), simply because they were competing for spots with someone who was one age grade ahead of them in physical maturity.

          Which is why those white players that make it to the age where physical maturity evens out, starts to shine compared to the black players.
          Imagine someone always playing with the class that is one year older than him and you’ll get the idea.

          That is also a reason why white players tend to come from overwhelmingly white schools, where they don’t have to compete over the limited amount of slots with boys who got an advantage in physical maturity on them.

          • Tarczan

            I think the number is more like 18 months; the earlier maturity of blacks. It’s just about men against boys. Even given all that, here in Ohio the black High School football teams rarely win championships. Partly because of the numbers (more white schools), but mostly due to the terrible black coaches. Glenville HS, which feeds many players to Ohio State has yet to win. Recruiting is not allowed, but Glenville openly admits they recruit players (all black) from all over Northeast Ohio. They even have one player from So Carolina. They lost in the semifinals in a snowstorm to an all white team from Cincinnati. The skinny little white 9th grade running back ran away from all the darkie superstars. Naturally the darkies starting getting unsportsmanlike penalties when the score got out of hand.

          • LHathaway

            That’s because the all black schools often let them win.

    • DudeWheresMyCountry?

      Of course, in their natural proto Stone Age jungle existence Africans rarely lived past 40.

  • Pro_Whitey

    Of course, the “white debils” and “ice people” talk will continue to be uncontroversial.

  • DaveMed

    Apparently, the authors missed the memo that Blacks reach puberty earlier than Whites do.

    I know that liberals aren’t big on politically-incorrect science, but this is just ridiculous.

  • Puggg

    Guess his age.

    • MekongDelta69

      I’m gonna go with twelve for a thousand Alex…

    • Alexandra1973

      I’d say 14.

    • Luca

      What is 16 and has three kids?

    • The Final Solution

      Who is Rachel Jenteal’s baby daddy?

    • 14?

    • DaveMed

      Good heavens! Gauging by his beard style, I think you’ve managed to find a Black Amish man!

      • Alexandra1973

        No way. Being Amish entails a lot of work. Think they want to participate in barn-raising? LOL

        • 1stworlder

          He just too lazy to shave.

    • Katherine McChesney

      I say 16 years.

      • Puggg

        Okay I’ll quit taking guesses.

        I should have known that everyone here would guess close to the right answer, because we all know that blacks physically mature faster than whites. The average person who does not know this would guess he’s early 20s.

        The correct answer is 17.

        Here’s the story from Smoking Gun.

        Reefer Badness: Teen Torched Mom’s Clothes After She Refused To Give Him Money To Buy Pot

        Meet John Carter.

        Angered that his mother would not give him money to purchase marijuana, the Texas teenager allegedly retaliated by setting her clothes on fire inside the family’s Houston apartment, according to investigators.

        Carter, 17, allegedly torched the garments Saturday morning, causing minor damage to their residence.

        A subsequent probe by the Harris County Fire Marshal’s Office determined that “Carter was angry at his mother because she would not give him money so he could buy marijuana, so he started setting her clothes on fire.”

        Arrested for arson, Carter was booked into the county jail, where he is being held in lieu of $30,000 bail.

        • John R

          Seriously, if I didn’t know better I would say about thirty!

        • Does this mean his mom isn’t going to bail him out?

    • WR_the_realist

      I’d guess 11,000 years old (late Pleistocene).

    • JohnEngelman

      Guess his number of felony convictions.

      • Garrett Brown

        Guess how much your jokes about blacks don’t matter because you’re ignorant about everything else in the world.

        • I have been doing my level best to convince Mr. Engelman to be an honest white guy, and someone jacks it up every damned time. Please cut that stuff out!

          • Garrett Brown

            Whatever that means.

          • David Ashton

            The road to hell is paved with good intentions.

          • It costs me nothing at all. As dd121 knows, I’m not really an orc.

          • David Ashton

            As I said before, you should write your life story.

        • JohnEngelman

          I know why trash like you resent Orientals and Jews.

          • Hush, troll.

          • LHathaway

            I have this theory. . . that most of the quick reponses to most of the ‘asians and jews are smarter’ posts are intended to be a kind of irony. The main storyline often here is that whites are smarter than blacks. Everyone agrees. Then someone will mention ‘asians are smarter than whites’. And a response will be that ‘it’s a different kind of intelligence’ ‘etc’, ‘etc’ and in a way, these are all arguments someone might also use to disagree with the ‘whites are smarter than blacks’ argument. Some of them are just natural pro-white responses, some are likely intended to be some kind of irony.

            Then again, you’re likely part of some kind of conspiracy yourself (as much as I like to read you here). If fact, are you really mad at this guy and does you really think he is ‘trash’? Is that just the way communists talk?

            I love your opinions. . it’s nice to hear a dyed in the wool official communist party member give his alternate opinion (they often sound very much like the mainstream leftist thought!)

            Is there one part, John, where you disagree with mainstream AmRen postion? Or what we must imagine it to be from glimpse we get from official AmRen. Is there one single point of contention, disagreement, uncertaintly you have with any AmRen position?

            Who did you talk to, and when did you talk to them? Who did you know? Are you or have you ever been. . .

            Sorry, I really do wish I was Joe McCarthy, God rest his immortal soul.

            I hope I’m not giving you or your parents any flashbacks or anything. . . Mostly jokin around. It all started with jokes. . .

          • JohnEngelman

            Is there one part, John, where you disagree with mainstream AmRen postion?

            – LHathaway

            I am unaware that there is a “mainstream AmRen position.” There are a lot of vigorous arguments here even when I do not take part in them.

            I believe that genes are more important than anything else in determining not only ability, but personality.

            I believe that race is an important biological category. I believe that the different races differ significantly in average ability levels and behavior. I believe that these differences have been caused by different evolutionary pressures lasting for hundreds and thousands of years.

            I believe that diversity is more frequently a source of weakness than of strength. I believe a high rate of immigration contributes to the growing income gap.

            I believe that Jared Taylor shares these beliefs. I am confident Joseph Stalin would not. Where Jared Taylor and I may differ is on likes and dislikes. I like immigrants. I am fascinated by different cultures. One could call this a contradiction. I prefer to think of it as a complexity.

          • I suspect the “mainstream” position on AmRen is pro-Western Civilization. Us tearing into each other over the details doesn’t help.

            Where is Bon from the Land of Babble? She gets either angry or depressed and needs to be appreciated. When I become bored or unhappy I make more tools, another crossbow or some fishing lures, or else I talk with my sergeant. I have discovered that a 77 year-old Scottish sergeant is a good thing to have if one needs cheering up; I highly recommend them. My sergeant is like the father I never had.

          • JohnEngelman

            The achievements of Western Civilization are too obvious to require the defense of my modest talents. Admiring Western Civilization is like agreeing with the truths revealed in the multiplication tables.

            Bon from the Land of Babble is an interesting poster, whose comments are always interesting, and usually worth thinking about.

    • Erasmus

      Homo Erectus walks among us.

    • Good lord. Did you have to post that pic, Puggg?
      I was literally eating lunch at the computer when I scrolled down to it!

  • David Ashton

    Some people may reach physical sexual maturity earlier than others, though without compensating self-controls found in the frontal lobes.

    • In various tables in the late Professor J. Philippe Rushton’s paper “RACE, EVOLUTION,AND BEHAVIOR:A Life History Perspective” (google it to find the PDF anyone).
      It clearly shows that Blacks, Whites and Asians gestate, go through puberty and die in the exact same racial order with Blacks going through life the quickest and Asians the slowest.
      Which I think is fascinating and is also one of the first concepts I think of when you hear progressives talk about subjects such as this article, and closing various other gaps, such as longevity among different racial groups.
      I’m cynical though, I think that those who want to fight the war on racism or close what ever gap, probably don’t ever want to win their chosen war, but instead want to have an endless, never ending, White guilt motivated funding stream.
      Even if parity is momentarily achieved, it’ll turn out to be an anomaly of some sort,like with teachers cheating on students tests.
      We’ll never be the same, well not until we start altering genes.
      Making us Whites feel guilty for racial differences implies some sort of injustice is being played out, it’s a sleazy and opportunistic way to play on our good intentions.

      • David Ashton

        The guilt stream flows on…the Caribbean governments plan to sue the British and other white peoples for slavery reparations, one justification being that current illnesses are a direct result of what “our” ancestors did to theirs. Lamarck risen from the dead theories.

  • MekongDelta69

    All these idiotic leftist studies do, is cite other idiotic leftist studies.

    And NO MATTER the result – it’s ALWAYS White people’s fault.
    (i.e. It doesn’t matter to leftists that black youfs commit most of the crime. It only matters that the ‘evil white po-leese’ ‘target’ these innocent youfs, not because they commit crimes, but only because they’re black.)

    • dd121

      Kind of like supreme court decisions.

      • We get some good decisions out of SCotUS once in a while. They ruled that firearms ownership actually is an individual right.

  • shawnmer

    Seriously? Just like the pseudo-science a few days ago about whites assuming they blacks less pain, this has literally never occurred to me in my life! I see black toddlers all the time, I am quite aware they all experience birth, infancy, childhood, puberty, whole nine yards.

    Do they make it into juvie more often? Yeah, the stats bear that out. How is acknowledging that MY character flaw??

    If this kind of faux academia didn’t exist, the people who author this dreck would be scrubbing toilets.

  • JSS

    The consequences of trying to humanize congoids have been catastrophic.

    • Alexandra1973

      I’m not one who says they’re not human, but I believe in a place for everyone and everyone in their place.

      • John R

        Oh, they are human, of course, but that is all. They are just a different subspecies of homo sapiens.

        • Einsatzgrenadier

          I’m more inclined to believe that blacks are Homo erectus, rather than Homo sapiens.

          • John R

            I’m being generous, I know, a bad trait of White people like us, ha ha!

          • David Ashton

            Does this refer also to the hominid species known as Homo homo homo?

          • John R

            I thought that homo erectus was a homo with…never mind-I don’t want to get moderated!

  • Rhialto

    Note the last sentence, an advertisement for more funding for Goff et al.’s Liberal propagandizing

  • Alexandra1973

    I don’t deny that some little black kids are rather cute…but when you realize what their future in all likelihood will be, you shake your head and don’t think they’re quite so cute.

    • John R

      I don’t find black children cute anymore. Too much has come to pass. I see little black toddlers, and I see future Trayvon Martins, that’s all. “Nits make lice.”

      • Alexandra1973

        Yeah, that’s what kills it. That cute little two-year-old with the pacifier, and her hair all done up in those beads? Fifteen years down the road she’s going to require a “Wide Load” sign and have a few kids of her own that may turn into ghetto lobster.

        • Who Me?

          The baby and young of nearly every species is appealing, that does not mean you want to live next door to it, or let it marry your daughter…

          • Alexandra1973

            Yes, I’m aware of that. 🙂 I think tiger cubs are cute, but I really don’t want one for a pet.

            And little black boys aren’t quite so cute when they decide to knock over the building your son has made with blocks at the library. That did happen once. Of course my son likely learned something–whites build, blacks destroy.

    • 1stworlder

      Never thought that. Even when I was brainwashed I thought blacks were ugly.

    • Carney3

      Irish-American politician Al Smith (Governor of New York, Democratic Party nominee for president in 1928) famously said about black boys, that they’re like kittens: the problem is, they grow up.

    • saxonsun

      Well, every time I see one, I am compelled to offer it a banana.

  • Andy

    Nobody’s mistaking black “children” for adults. They’re mistaking black teenagers for adults, which is hard not to do as they reach sexual maturity earlier than whites and age less obviously. Calling them “children” makes it sound like we’re talking about people below the age of real moral responsibility.

    • Nancy Thomas

      Exactly, Trayvon was 6’2″ and around 170, and easily beat the crap out of the grownup chubby man. With the hoodie up I’m sure you couldn’t tell if he was 17 or 67.

      • John R

        You can’t tell a 17 year old black male from a 27 year old black male. And if anything, the 17 year old is probably MORE dangerous.

        • Nancy Thomas

          As I recall, the most dangerous are from 18 to 28.

          • Who Me?

            I’d change that to ages 15 to 40.

    • Who Me?

      Blacks are routinely called “children”, “youths”. and “teenagers” until they are nearly 30 years old. “A black youth aged 23… “and “a White man aged 17…” how many times have we seen or heard that from the MSM?

  • Tarczan

    The entire test was obviously formulated to come out with a desired result, that blacks are victims of discrimination. Jeez, does this stuff get old. They never let up, always some new study or research to disprove what anyone with a bit of common sense knows. Blacks are different, they are not as intelligent.

  • Sure I think of blacks as more animalistic. But I also think of porn stars as more sexual, gays as more perverted, and Christians as nice. Stereotypes exist because they’re true.

  • Luca

    This is exactly the type of psuedo-psycho-babble that passes for scientific fact, but only serves to further the liberal cause of victimhood for blacks.

  • The Final Solution

    Maybe it has something to do with them being 6″ tall and having facial hair in elementary school?

    • Who Me?

      and being still in elementary school at the age of 14. (Sitting in 6th grade class drooling over your little White 11 year old daughter.)

  • Martel

    Its not about black kids initiating puberty on an earlier age and looking like grown men by the age of 16. Its racism. Whites are universally racist. Which i’m fine with.

  • Ronald

    What a bunch of gobble-dee-gook. If African “youth” were “peers” of White children, the writer of this scholarly “study” would have no need to make the distinction.

  • bubo

    Seems like another reason for a complete withdrawal of blacks from our “racist” society. Please segregate and emigrate to the black paradise of your choice.

  • Xerxes22

    These idiots probably believe that the photo of Saint Trayvon at age eleven was how the feral seventeen year old thug really looked when he attacked George Zimmerman.

  • ncpride

    Blah, blah, blah! If society is dehumanizing black ‘children’ it’s strictly due to their own savage, uncouth, gang-banging, degenerate culture and behavior. Period.

  • Evette Coutier

    It is known medical fact that blacks mature faster than whites. Of course being that their research is agenda driven, they over looked that fact.

  • TXCriollo

    I want these reporters to spend a week in an all black school and a week in an all white school. This would sure change their view on this

    • Alexandra1973

      The stupidest of them would claim that all the black school needs is “more money” and it’ll be fixed.

      • TXCriollo

        Idk ive met a few white liberals that have seen the light after working with the innercity’s finest.

  • Nancy Thomas

    High testosterone, low IQ, low impulse control; of course they seem more mature because they mature earlier and faster, and they’re far more aggressive, and they’re unable to control themselves. Add to that powderkeg keg mixture the fact that they have no father’s in the homes to show the boys any kind of boundaries or limits, and you essentially have savages roaming the streets. The browns are not far behind.

    • Einsatzgrenadier

      This is exactly why there was racial segregation in the southern US until 1964. They knew what they were talking about when they said “separate, but equal.”

    • kikz

      i don’t know which is worse, outright negligence by abandonment, or corruption by association… w/the browns, one tends to wonder, when one notices things like a large silver metal belt-buckle worn in public, 2″ high x 4″ wide, fashioned as the word “F*CK” and no, the U was present.

  • Einsatzgrenadier

    Fight black crime by encouraging black women to get abortions! As the great Benjamin Franklin one said: An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.

  • Jesse James

    I think growing up in the average black household is what really hurts black children. All that pressure to not conform to white standards of behavior and culture, starting with the goofy Afro-Americanized names and watching momma chimp out at ChuckieCheese.

    • Who Me?

      Nope. Even the ones that are adopted by stupid White Christian do-gooders and even stupider Hollywierdo liberals grow up to be what they are genetically destined to be.

  • Dale McNamee

    Where are the black churches & the NAACP in helping to correct this problem ?
    Oh ! It’s not their problem…It’s “racist” society…NOT !
    Before the “Great Society” and its programs, you didn’t see this because the majority of blacks lived in stable families, even with discrimination, Jim Crow laws,etc.

    • Carney3

      Even then, they were disproportionately criminal. But it wasn’t out of control like today.

    • In black churches the preachers say “God Damn America”.

  • John R

    So, we evil Whites are looking at the innocent young black males as older than they are? But it is the blacks that are fond of calling young White males “white boys” all the time? As usual, blacks want to have it both ways.

  • Frank_DeScushin

    Based on this study it seems that all non-black have perceptions about black boys that negatively affects them. If this is true and is so important, the logical thing is for the black mother to return to an exclusively black land where her precious son can’t have his feelings hurt.


    I love how all these so called studies look at the issue as if black boys observable bad behavior has nothing to do with the way they are perceived. As if there is no difference between any of the “children” other than the color of their skin. And any difference in perception of those “children” can be attributable to nothing other than their skin color. Not their observable, disproportionate aptitude for engaging in bad behavior.

    This is an effect, and the cause is the undeniable propensity for black males of all ages to engage in criminality at vastly disproportionate rates. As always, they want to condemn the effect without acknowledging the cause. How appropriately black of them.

    My Advice: Behave as children and you will be seen as children. You’re welcome!

  • MBlanc46

    They mature more rapidly, and, from my observation, act less innocently, than whites.

    • kikz

      Having spent over 2 months in a Class 4 NICUnit at Medical City Dallas, back in the mid ’90’s w/a preemi set of twin girls, I can attest to the entire nursing staff’s common knowledge shared freely with parents, that yes indeed, black boys, then girls, then white girls, and last white males is the order of physical maturation for babies. White boys are called white wimps, as they are last in utero to mature. I asked at the time, but they had no discernible data on Asian or Hispanic births with respect to maturation order.

  • 1stworlder

    One football recruiter said whites in high school football where “boys amongst men” probably because they didn’t spend 5 years in 1st grade. Actually they hit puberty faster, especially black girls.

  • PvtCharlieSlate

    The first thought that I had about this article was the memory of a scene in the original ‘Jurassic Park’ where the visitors are all totally absorbed in watching some dinosaur eggs hatch. The little dino chicks crawl out and totter around and everyone is going “Ooooh” and “Aaaah” and “Aren’ they just so cute?” So someone asked the scientist in charge “By the way, what kind are they?” The answer was “Oh, these are velociraptors.” And there was a stunned silence and then “Uhhhhh … ” as reality dawned on them.

    • De’Ontavious Jizzaiah Jones

      I have same reaction to all black babies and children. My mind fast forwards a few years to a,feral animal.

  • gemjunior

    “Dehumanizing” them? THEY are better at dehumanizing themselves than anyonel

  • smedley

    Let’s see, first knock down game at eight, first comatose victim at eleven, first knocked up girl at twelve, first felony conviction at thirteen, first prison riot at fourteen, second knocked up girl at fifteen, third knocked up girl at fifteen, fourth knocked up girl at fifteen, first drive by at fifteen, first cross country cocaine delivery at sixteen, first murder trial at seventeen – nope sounds like a normal childhood to me.

  • John K

    Stereotypes exist for a reason. Stop blaming the white race for black failure and crime.

  • Jesse_from_Sweden

    1 years difference in physical maturity does make quite a bit of difference though.
    It also affects their behaviour, if you are bigger then others and can bully them, then you tend to become more violent and aggressive.
    Simply using what you have to get what you want, which is nothing strange really, just that it is more noticeable in those that use size and strength for this reason rather than those that use intelligence or charm.

    As for individual variation, that it irrelevant when we are talking about group differences.

  • LHathaway

    lol, where is John PM? Paging John PM. . . while I cannot begin to do justice to what a John PM re-write of this article might look like, I can offer an opposing view of a sort of my own.

    I do believe the authors are write when then say, “dehumanization is a uniquely dangerous intergroup attitude, that intergroup perception of children is underexplored, and that both topics should be research priorities”.

    Black boys are less innocent and more violent because chastising and asking them to stop this could be seen as ‘racism’, and a continuing of ‘the dehumanization of black boys’ (nown as the ultimate victims by every thinking citizen of this world). The reality might be that black boys believe an ‘anything goes’ atmosphere, and free, random violence as an ideal solution to problems, favors them. The believe they are stronger than white boys, white girls, black girls and everyone else. If a few other blacks get in the way of their ultimate goal and suffer, that’s a small price to pay for ‘overcoming’. If whites turn into ‘Jerry Springer’ cast possibilities, at least, in their violence too, these whites know the only true sin in this world is disrespecting black boys (perhaps because black boys are so dehumanized) and they know they are anything but sinners or ‘insensitive’, at least, as they are flailing about on stage, at least they can rest assured and safe in the knowledge that they are politically correct and tolerant.

    Might an underexplored perception, that should be the topic of further research, suggest that the best avenue toward preventing black children dehumanizing each other would be to teach black children not to disrespect white children? Surely black readers, of this little note, surely they must be smiling if not in outright laughter at the idea of respecting white citizens or especially white citizens as white persons. Bear in mind, a moment, racism hurts the racist too. Such an approach would be completely novel but it also might be a good first start in ending black boys hurting each other?. Is not this the desired outcome? Certainly we won’t get to a ‘nonviolent’ society if we ask that something be done for the good of whites, or that we should do something about white boys hurting other white boys. If white boys hurt each other, that’s obviously of no consequence or of nothing to note. And heaven forbid, saying Black boys hurt white boys, that would likely be some kind of hate. But we should, perhaps in reality, be on guard against the potential or possible, (bear in mind readers this is some kind of science fiction like scenario) idea of black boys harming others. So in manner of speaking, we are sort of ‘sensitising’ them, if one can say that.

  • Europe belongs to whites. I pass for white, but I’m 3/16 Amerind: Cherokee and Tuscarora. I belong here.

  • No blacks, please.

  • Women are completely wonderful, except when seriously annoyed.