Serum Sex Steroids Measured in Middle-Aged European and African-Caribbean Men Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Frank Giton et al., European Journal of Endocrinology, September 27, 2011

Abstract

Background. Differences in circulating steroid hormone levels have been hypothesized to explain ethnic differences in steroid-related diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the serum levels of a wide panel of steroid hormones, both androgens and estrogens, in healthy middle-aged African-Caribbean and European men.

Design and methods. Serum steroid hormone levels were determined in men participating in a systematic public health study funded by the French National Health Insurance system. Blood was collected in the morning from 304 healthy African-Caribbean and European men aged between 40 and 69. Serum steroids were measured by mass spectrometry-gas chromatography, except for dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate and sex hormone-binding globulin, which were determined by radioimmunoassay. Data were analyzed in 10-year age intervals by analysis of covariance, with adjustment for age, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, tobacco and alcohol consumption, and season of sampling.

Results. Compared with Europeans, African-Caribbean men presented significantly higher serum levels of measured bioavailable testosterone, 4-androstenedione, and estrone whatever the age group, of 5-androstenediol in those 40 to 49 and 50 to 59, and of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in those aged 40 to 49. In contrast, European men aged 40 to 69 showed significantly higher serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate.

Conclusions. Significant differences in serum steroid hormone levels were observed in middle-aged African-Caribbean and European men. Whether such differences could contribute to ethnic differences in disease risk in adult men remains to be investigated. Some steroids, such as bioavailable testosterone, 4-androstenedione, 5-androstenediol, and estrone deserve particular attention.

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  • Anonymous

    This is why they have more blood pressure and heart related diseases, hepatic disease, etc. They may not need boner pills, but they die younger.

  • Hirsch

    This is the sort of study blacks would laud, as it ostensibly complements them, and they can avoid the deeper implications, and the studies which tell us the downside of a testosterone surfeit, like the negative effects on impulse control, production and regulation of serotonin, evidence showing that men suited to be fathers experience a signifigant drop in their testosterone. No, none of this will make it to their ears. “Testosterone be good because it makes me jump higher, and punch harder.”

  • Question Diversity

    There are three science related race stories in AR today, including this one. For something that’s just supposed to be a social construct, there sure is a lot of science concerning it.

    Whether such differences could contribute to ethnic differences in disease risk in adult men remains to be investigated.

    What also “remains to be investigated” is “whether such differences” explain the racial disparity in violent crime rates.

  • RJS

    How can this be? Isn’t race a myth or at worst, a social construct?

    Next thing, they’ll be telling us blacks and whites have different brains…

  • Anonymous

    This shouldn’t surprise anyone. Phillipe Rushton, Richard Lynn and even the mendacious Jared Diamond have concluded that blacks have higher testosterone levels than whites. The Bell Curve found that even when you control for IQ, blacks are much more likely to commit crimes than people of other races. And I’m sure if you were to compare the crime rate of the two sexes based on IQ, you’d find much higher criminality amongst males. The obvious culprit is Testosterone.

  • (AWG) Average White Guy

    It seems every day Amren links to another example of physiological racial differences.

    These reports force any thinking person to dismiss the notion of race being a mere ‘social construct’.

    Multiculturalists, however, are not interested in honesty. They are interested in destroying Western culture.

  • Anonymous

    #2 Its not testosterone in itself that makes blacks so violent, I have myself elevated my testosterone levels by 150% trough consuming medical products without noticing anything else than the typical “boost” that bodybuilders feel. The reason black people are casually violent lies in their brains, not in their hormone levels. Otherwise it would be trivial to disable their streak for destruction. The negative effects testosterone have on the black brain is prenatal since it affects the formatting of the brain. It is thus indirect and not direct and the problem lie in black women, not in black men.

    The funny thing is that black or brown women have higher levels of estrogen and testosterone, and high levels of estrogen during gestation leads to homo or bisexuality in males. Its no wonder so many black males are casual bisexuals.

    Low testosterone levels are dangerous because you get a gut, lose musculature, your dick goes limp and you become reluctant to use your body. Its a pleasure to exercize your body if your testosterone levels are high enough. Many white males over 35-40 have a testosterone deficiency and this is easily visible in many of them.

  • Wowzer

    i cannot for the life of me understand how the question of race flies over the heads of people like question diversity. “race” is a social construct based on regional and ethnic characteristics. that is all. being a different “race” means about as much as being a different breed of dog. overtime people in various areas began to look a certain way, develope in certain ways, and take on biological characteristics of the people in their area. this does not suggest superiority or that somehow one group is more or less human than another. that’s like saying german shepards are dogs but poodles aren’t. they are just different. i honestly think “breed” would be more accurate than “race”. but basic science tells us that two similar, but separate species of animal can have offspring, but that offspring will be sterile. obviously this is not the case with humans. all of these scientific articles are interesting, but meaningless for your cause.

    and to the person who said that whites have a drop in testosteserone that makes them more suitable to be fathers, you need to reread that study. the drop in testosterone happens after MEN have children and begin to raise said children, not because some white man is magically ready to raise children. half truths are full lies.

  • WR the elder

    Obviously this research proves that testosterone is a social construct.

  • Pinche Gabacho

    I understand why Amren posts these type of articles, and agree for the most part, but my first response to this, is did they factor for activity level? As an avid weightlifter I would venture to say that at 40, my testosterone levels across the board are fairly high. Not only physical activity, but the type of physical activity, are key factors in testosterone levels. A person who runs an hour a day has a completely different hormone profile than someone who lifts heavy every day. I’m of English and German descent, but somehow have a Type I haplogroup. Type I is a Viking haplogroup. I refuse to believe that Kobe Bryant has higher testosterone levels than say Eric the Red. White men need to get into the gym and become men again. Sorry for the rant, but I’m sick of seeing overweight or scrawny white men. Our ancestors were warriors.

  • fred

    The evidence supports racial differences. But the politics does not. I’ve always assumed that deep down “political correctness” was merely a parallel system to label those things correct that science and reason deemed incorrect.

  • conservative

    One reader wrote, “What also “remains to be investigated” is “whether such differences” explain the racial disparity in violent crime rates”. I would say no. Black females also have a higher crime rate and lack of impulse control compared to white females.

    I also spent 4 years playing college football and must admit alot of my friends (and I) were on HIGH doses of testosterone. Of all my friends (and me) on these high doses I do not recall any violence off the field. We had fun during those years but never affected ANYONE other than ourselves. Our respect to strangers and adults was always present. Of course, If I could do this again, I would have never done it (I was wrong and admit it), but again this never affected my respect to others.

  • Anonymous

    Men commit and are victims of violent crime more than women. Young men commit and are victims of violent crime more than boys or the elderly. These are connections between biology and behavior that few disagree with (although there are some who say even this is culturally determined). The wedge is already there, it’s just the penalty for pushing it further is high.

  • Anonymous

    I wonder if this has anything to do with the finding of the study recently featured on Amren revealing that blacks had higher self-esteem than other races.

  • Buridan

    #7 Anonymous.

    You say simultaneously that

    .1 High level of testosterone of the mother has decisive (and bad) effects on the brain of the child

    .2. The level of testosterone vary extremely on one person following medical products, or physical activities (that last point from “Pinche Gabacho”).

    The consequence of that seems to be : by receiving a medicine, or having such or such physical activity, a black woman could have a child who would be not so black in his psychology, and conversely a white woman…

    That seems contradictory with the evidence. In peculiar, it is not known that female athletes of such and such sports, or women who work physically hard, have children very different in their psychology from the general population.

  • Anonymous

    With adjustment for age, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, tobacco and alcohol consumption, and season of sampling.

    In other words, the results, rather than be presented as is, were changed to reflect whatever the researchers wanted them to.

    An example. Blacks are morbidly obese, as a group, when compared to whites. Obesity is known to lower male sex hormone, so, we’ll just triple the numbers from all the fat blacks to “adjust for obesity”. How do we know it’s supposed to be triple instead of a minor 10%? Never mind that. Look at our “findings”. Black men are rippling, studs of hormonal potency despite averaging in at 350 pounds, 70% body fat and not having moved off the couch in the last 10 years straight. No really. Despite needing a heavy duty electric wheelchair to make it down to the local chicken shack to swipe his EBT card, that guy is “superior” to you despite your rippling muscles and 3 nights a week lifting the heavy iron, white boy.

    Amazing.

    Don’t you people believe it. This is right up there with black organ length, where, for some bizarre reason, WHO actually stuck the knife in this lie by doing a massive study on race and organ length finding two things…..almost all races of men average the same length (differences were minor), and, of those minor differences, blacks come in second to last, behind asians.

    YOU are being manipulated. RESIST!

  • Question Diversity

    I should probably clarify my statement in 3 above. It’s very likely a combination of testosterone and intelligence. People with low T and high I will hardly commit any violent crime, high T and low I will commit a lot of violent crime. It is probably the case that just sliding the “T” scale doesn’t make as big of a crime difference as sliding the “I” scale along with it.

  • Bardon
  • Anonymous

    #15 #7 Anonymous.

    You say simultaneously that

    .1 High level of testosterone of the mother has decisive (and bad) effects on the brain of the child

    .2. The level of testosterone vary extremely on one person following medical products, or physical activities (that last point from “Pinche Gabacho”).

    Levels of sex hormones that are not fitting to the childs gender (testosterone in case of a girl, estrogen in case of a boy) will likely make the child homo or bisexual and give it a mental profile with traits from the wrong gender.

    Sex hormones – of the right sort – are necessary for proper development of a child. Its not their testosterone levels that make black males so violent, its their genes. Black fetuses with a gender hormone imbalance (like a testosterone deficit or estrogen surplus) would have brains that are more like the brains of a black female. Some of them would be bisexual, others would be full homos. In case you dont know, there are large physical differences between male and female brains, and these are governmed by gender hormones like testosterone.

    Since black females are not much less violent than black males, its pretty pointless to blame testosterone for black male violence. Blacks are just made that way because it was evolutionary advantageous in the environment they developed in. It seems to work just as well in USA as in Africa considered that their numbers have increased by ~50% over the last half century.

    Testosterone levels in a person will never vary as much from exercize as they will from medical products. The women of yesteryear were much more physically active than women of today and they did not have bumper crops of bisexual/lesbian girls.