Africa: Where Black Is Not Really Beautiful

Pumza Fihlani, BBC News, December 31, 2012

South Africa is marketed to the world as Mandela’s rainbow nation, where everyone is proud of their race and heritage. But for some black South Africans there is such a thing as being too black.

A recent study by the University of Cape Town suggests that one woman in three in South Africa bleaches her skin. The reasons for this are as varied as the cultures in this country but most people say they use skin-lighteners because they want “white skin”.

Local musician Nomasonto “Mshoza” Mnisi, now several shades lighter, says her new skin makes her feel more beautiful and confident.

Nomasonto Mnisi

Nomasonto Mnisi

She has been widely criticised in the local media and social networking sites for her appearance but the 30-year-old says skin-bleaching is a personal choice, no different from breast implants or a having nose job.

“I’ve been black and dark-skinned for many years, I wanted to see the other side. I wanted to see what it would be like to be white and I’m happy,” she says candidly.

Over the past couple of years Ms Mnisi has had several treatments. Each session can cost around 5,000 rand (£360; $590), she tells the BBC.

Unlike many in the country, she uses high-end products which are believed to be safer than the creams sold on the black market but they are by no means risk-free, doctors say.

Costly beauty

Ms Mnisi says she does not understand the criticism about her new appearance.

“Yes, part of it is a self-esteem issue and I have addressed that and I am happy now. I’m not white inside, I’m not really fluent in English, I have black kids. I’m a township girl, I’ve just changed the way I look on the outside,” she says.

The dangers associated with the use of some of these creams include blood cancers such as leukaemia and cancers of the liver and kidneys, as well as a severe skin condition called ochronosis, a form of hyper-pigmentation which causes the skin to turn a dark purple shade, according to senior researcher at the University of Cape Town, Dr Lester Davids.

“Very few people in South Africa and Africa know the concentration of the toxic compounds that are contained in the products on the black market and that is concerning. We need to do more to educate people about these dangerous products,” says Dr Davids.

He says over the past six years there has been a significant increase in the number of skin lighteners flooding local markets, some of them legal and some illegal. This is what prompted their research.

Local dermatologists say they are seeing more and more patients whose skin has been damaged by years of bleaching—most of the time irreversibly.

“I’m getting patients from all over Africa needing help with treating their ochronosis. There is very little we can do to reverse the damage and yet people are still in denial about the side-effects of these products,” says Dr Noora Moti-Joosub.

In many parts of Africa and Asia, lighter-skinned woman are considered more beautiful, are believed to be more successful and more likely to find marriage.

The origin of this belief in Africa is not clear, but researchers have linked it to Africa’s colonial history where white skin was the epitome of beauty.

Some have also suggested that people from “brown nations” around the world tended to look down upon dark-skinned people.

‘I don’t like black skin’

The World Health Organization has reported that Nigerians are the highest users of such products: 77% of Nigerian women use the products on a regular basis. They are followed by Togo with 59%; South Africa with 35%; and Mali at 25%.

South Africa banned products containing more than 2% of hydroquinone—the most common active ingredient in in the 1980s. But it is easy to see creams and lotions containing the chemical on the stalls here. Some creams contain harmful steroids and others mercury.

While skin-lightening creams have been used by some South Africans for many years, they have become more common recently with the influx of people from countries such as Nigeria and Democratic Republic of Congo, where they are even more widespread.

In a bustling African market in the centre of Yeoville in Johannesburg, it is skin lighteners galore.

Walking through this community is like walking through a mini-Africa: you can find someone from any part of the continent here.

I notice that many of the women have uncharacteristically light skin faces while the rest of their bodies are darker.

Some even have scabby burns on their cheeks from the harmful chemicals used to strip the skin of pigmentation.

They don’t want to speak openly about why they bleach their skin, or even have their pictures taken.

Psychologists say there are also underlying reasons why people bleach their skin—but low self-esteem and, to some degree self-hate, are a common thread.

But skin-lightening is not just a fascination and obsession of women. Congolese hair stylist Jackson Marcelle says he has been using special injections to bleach his skin for the past 10 years. Each injection lasts for six months.

“I pray every day and I ask God, ‘God why did you make me black?’ I don’t like being black. I don’t like black skin,” he tells me.

Mr Marcelle—known in this busy community as Africa’s Michael Jackson—says his mother used to apply creams on him when he was young in order to make him appear “less black”.

“I like white people. Black people are seen as dangerous; that’s why I don’t like being black. People treat me better now because I look like I’m white,” he adds.

Entrenched in the minds of many Africans from a young age is the adage “if it’s white, it’s all right”, a belief that has chipped away at the self-esteem of millions.

Until this changes, no amount of official bans or public information campaigns will stop people risking serious damage to their health in the pursuit of what they think is beauty.

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  • David Ashton

    Sorry folks, but I do not think it right to sneer or laugh at this phenomenon, which is also relevant to India.

    • The Worlds Scapegoat

      They don’ need skin bleaching, they need good old fashion American brainwashing. They will learn to love black skin and hate white skin.

      • So CAL Snowman

        So true, so true. Western media will set those nigerians straight!

      • eduard

        Blacks in mandelatopia hate the whites here with a passion. It is noticable in their behaviour and they are aggressive and have an attitude towards the whites. They have that “get out” expression on their faces. But they will not survive without the white race here. It is the whites that is still holding together what is still left of a once first world civilization. Their concept of what “civilization” is, is all warped.

    • So CAL Snowman

      Why is it not right to laugh? WE are told every day that we are disgusting, pale, lily White and disgusting. Well the facts are in and everyone and their mother wants to be White. So na na na the joke is on them, not us.

    • Tim_in_Indiana

      We make fun of this because every rationalization the “experts” make to explain these things is a sneer or dig at white people. It’s due to “colonialization,” “racism or some other form of white wrongdoing. Why is it all right for whites to be sneered at and not to respond in kind?

    • Skincognito

      “This phenomenon” is the precursor to Fanonist rage. Once the colonized realize they cannot be us, the colonizer, out come the machetes. For the currently tiny vanguard of racially conscious Whites adrift in a sea of self-loathing and hypocrisy, laughter is a luxury all too often denied us by multiculturalism, anticolonialism/racism/fascism, aka Cultural Marxism.
      I say yuck it up while we can, but recall that Brothers Malcom, Eldridge, Muhammad, WEB, and many other brothas physically aped (pun intended) Europeans only to become radicalized by the cold hard reality of natural law; Whites are uniquely creative, industrious, and yes, beautiful.
      We are heaven’s breed sir, thus we should lament and vigorously denounce whiggerism, but callously disdain and perhaps mock hostile aliens’ attempts to make themselves members of our tribe.

      • David Ashton

        I don’t think we should ridicule people who cannot help how they are born, including grossly ugly, disabled or “uncreative” white people, although I favor eugenic birth-control. I see skin-lightening as a compliment to white people, however sad. I certainly have views on race, miscegenation and colonialism, already briefly expressed in posts on this site, in defense of the white biotype and achievements, and in opposition to Cultural Marxism. That does not mean that I cannot understand the resentments of Frantz Fanon or the sexual craving for white female flesh as described, for example, by Eldridge Cleaver in “Soul on Ice”.
        I am in favor of individuals of all races having self-respect, taking an appropriate pride in their appearance, but also in keeping to their own communities and making the best of them. The “black community” as a whole needs a synthesis, at a higher level, of the self-respecting separatism of Marcus Garvey, the self-help of Booker Washington and the “eugenic” minority-leadership of the early W. E. B. DuBois, but the “liberal ideology” is against all three.

        • Skincognito

          Booker T. sent American blacks to German Southwest Africa to help the indigenous people learn American farming techniques. Along with the Haber-Bosch process of synthesizing nitrogen, Western crop rotation and irrigation techniques have largely facilitated Africa’s population explosion, thus lowering the global IQ. Must uplifting the black race mean dragging down the human race?
          W. E. B. DuBois died a bitter communist in Ghana, convinced that American hegemony and capitalism would never allow for black equality. How dreadfully wrong he was!
          Garvey’s movement made sense, I would have donated a few pennies, but correct me if I’m wrong, didn’t Garvey go for the White gals? I know a young DuBois had a thing for White women?
          I have nothing temperate to say about Fanon or Cleaver.
          You’re right. Skin-bleaching is sad. Africa is sad. Perhaps when my people stop bleeding my heart will. Until then I am responsible for raising children in a society in which the media elites prefer to make supermen of blacks, fetishize miscegenation, and mock White men while desecrating White culture.
          This is not “liberalism” and you know it.

          • David Ashton

            DuBois went Marxist, Garvey publicly opposed miscegenation…that is why I said “synthesize at a HIGHER level”. I do not mind Africans having clean water and self-supporting farms, so long as they control their birth-rate and stay in Africa.

    • Al Gator

      Scientifically, Indians are classified as “Caucasian.” Most folks are shocked to find that out.

  • mendells-selection

    She can afford skin bleach but she can’t afford mustache bleach?

    • ZB

      Having the mustache means that she’s keepin’ it reallllll’!

  • One thing that people like her do not want to hear is that light skinned women have white blood in their veins. It is as simple as that . She never be any lighter than she is now.

    • The Worlds Scapegoat

      She admits that in this statement: ““Yes, part of it is a self-esteem issue and I have addressed that and I
      am happy now. I’m not white inside, I’m not really fluent in English, I
      have black kids. I’m a township girl, I’ve just changed the way I look
      on the outside,” she says.”

      P.S. I feel better being white also.

  • kingoldby

    Fascinating to read all the near hysterical, grossly exaggerated scare stories about the effects of these creams. It gives an insight into the leftist mindset, automatic demonisation rather than actual reasoned argument. It would be perfectly possible to argue that these creams are bad for a variety of reasons but instead they plump for scare stories.

  • cecilhenry

    Only one word for this behavior and it is never admitted: ENVY.

  • Pelagian

    Wow! Incredible quotes. “Out if the mouths of babes” as it were:

    “I like white people. Black people are seen as dangerous; that’s why I don’t like being black. People treat me better now because I look like I’m white,” he adds.

    Entrenched in the minds of many Africans from a young age is the adage “if it’s white, it’s all right”, a belief that has chipped away at the self-esteem of millions.

    • IstvanIN

      A belief or a fact ingrained by experience?

      • pcmustgo

        YEAH, DITTO WITH LITTLE BLACK KIDS WHO ADMIT DURING THOSE “DOLL TESTS” THAT THE WHITE DOLL IS “NICER”… whites are nicer on average. The kids are just telling the truth. They probably have some “nice white teacher” and all the blacks in their life are hostile, abusive a -holes

        • IstvanIN

          Black mothers beat the stuff out of them.

    • He’s only conning himself. All the white people know what he still is ……

  • Tim

    The good thing about White Skin Privledge is that they can tax it, but they can`t take it…

    • So CAL Snowman

      But they can miscegenate is out of existence. Hey- O!

  • WmarkW

    Fair skin on women is generally considered beautiful in every society in which complexions vary widely, like India, Indonesia and the Middle East. Even among Caucasians, whose women frequently work at darkening their skin, the nationality most commonly cited as the epitome of feminine beauty is Swedes.

    • So CAL Snowman

      Yeah how did colonial Whites convince an entire RACE of people that Whites are more beautiful than africans? It seems to me that the Africans came to that conclusion on their own!

    • Gunrunner1

      Gotta find a way to blame Whitey SOMEHOW!

  • The__Bobster

    Skin-bleaching: It’s not just for the ladies.

    • WmarkW

      A famous user of artificial enhancing pharmacology.

    • Fredrik_H


  • PesachPatriot

    Was some of this magical skin bleaching cream used by the media on george zimmerman to get him from hispanic brown to WASP white? Their is definitely a caste system among american blacks based on skin color…often times in while working in the hood i would hear them mocking each other’s skin tones while they waited in line for their ice cream and post basketball sodas. I do not understand the reason for these creams in africa…there is no white society around them to climb the corporate ladder in or try to blend in with…Still plenty of white girls in the states tan themselves in to looking like leathery carrots, guess it just shows vanity exists all around the globe.

    • Sherman_McCoy

      Yes, I cannot understand the desire of any white person to become brown. The dangers of overexposure to the sun are well documented. Ever see a female from Switzerland who skies a lot, and smokes? A 30-year-old will look 40, if she’s lucky.

      • falsedawn

        I don’t think people tan themselves to get darker. They do it because it looks healthier. In my own case, I’ve worked outdoors my entire life and I’m sunburned in the summer and windburned in the winter. Doesn’t seem to have done me any harm.

        • Caracal

          “Doesn’t seem to have done me any harm.”…so far, you mean.

          All this sunburning due to your fair skin is unnatural and is skin cancer waiting to happen in older age. I strongly urge you to know better and protect yourself before it’s too late. Even cutting it off will not be a walk in the park…

          • falsedawn

            Caracal, Thanks much, but it’s too late. Whatever will be for me will be. I’m of an age that it doesn’t matter anymore. I’ve lived this way my entire life and I’m not stopping now. I guess the Lord is just going to take me another way.

  • So CAL Snowman

    They may have lighter skin, but what about the smell? I’m not joking here, they have a distinct and very unpleasant odor no matter how many bottles of cologne/perfume they apply.

    • Individuals of African ancestry have the largest and most active apocrine glands.

      • gemjunior

        Well that explains the odor, but they also have the most shocking breath. It would knock you down. I wonder what that is, they seem to have bright clean teeth that look like they have dental hygiene. And it’s always always noticeable.

        • Mouth breathing ….. they never shut up too.

        • It’s caused by their diet of rotting meat and the amount of flies that land -and stay on the bushmeat at the market.

      • Doesn’t this put the into the “Bigfoot” catagory? At least Bigfoot doesn’t attack humans.

    • IstvanIN

      When I was a kid the generally accepted reason was that they ate so much catfish.

    • D.H. Andrews

      When I was a kid my father had a home-owned Western Auto franchise. A small store in a small Southern town. Every summer in the ’60’s we’d have a bunch of Black boys come in to try to steal merchandise. We knew they weren’t going to buy, but we couldn’t just throw them out b/c they were Black.
      But wow, the smell! They stunk so bad that it took practically a can of Glade deodorizer to kill the smell – an hour after they’d left! I am well familiar with the scent of body odor of White kids in the summertime. They are too young to use deodorant and just really don’t need it. But Blacks – whew! Their odor – even at a young age – is so repellant and obnoxious it could peel the paint off the walls of the store….and it lingered, lingered and lingered.

      • Gereng

        After more than a decade living in Belize and three African nations, I can attest to the fact that eventually one gets used to the funk. As it is everywhere, even in one’s own house, if you have negro domestics, it becomes all prevading. If one is working in these negro nations, that stench is just one of the reasons why the pay is pretty good. The other reason, of course, is because it is damned dangerous. The threat to one’s life is unending and like the stink it is everywhere.

        • Pelagian

          I went to a rich kids private school for grade school. There was only one black kid in the first grade, Jeffrey, and he stunk to high heaven. I don’t recall any of the white kids smelling bad, ever. It could have been a coincidence, that he just had dirty clothes, or wasnt fully potty trained. But those kinds of “coincidences” at that age make an indelible impression. His father was a doctor, too.

        • eduard

          There is nothing that smells like a Herero woman in the summer. In Namibia the summers get hot and these herero’s wear seven dresses on top of each. You cannot imagine the pong.

      • saxonsun

        One more stink story. My uncle used to cater weddings. He told us he hated when blacks had their receptions at the hall because not only did their food smell but they did. The staff had to put in extra time cleaning up.

    • Sloppo

      I don’t know why the teen race smells different, but I noticed that a long time ago. I lived in a very safe and peaceful 99% non-teen community when I was in high school. I was driving down the road in my pick-up truck and I suddenly noticed that certain distinctive smell and thought to myself “teen”. I THEN I looked out the window and saw a teen walking on the sidewalk. I HAD to admit to myself that they have a distinctive smell at that time. I left that community long ago. Today, the community has a murder rate, the high-school basketball team is much more competitive and most long-term homeowners have been burgled or robbed at least once.

      • LaSantaHermandad

        I love it! “Teen”. Can “youth”, “youngster” or “young people” be substituted without compromising comprehension?

        • Sloppo

          I think so because the word “youth” is frequently used exactly the same way by the propaganda networks when they refer to criminal perpetrators from the teen race. “Youngsters” and “young people” are occasionally used in a similar manner so they may also be in the process of becoming racial designations. Here is a link to a video which seems to relate to this subject entitled “Youths Gone Wild” by RamzPaul, one of my favorite news commentators.

    • Spartan24708

      I briefly went to a church that sponsored a group of people from several African countries. The smell was absolutely appalling! When I went through an agency to rent my house they sent a group of african immigrants who immediately asked if I took section 8. The stench lingered for hours. I cancelled the agency and rented the house myself.

    • saxonsun

      I used to sometimes go up to City College in Harlem with a friend–we were the only whites on the bus and that sweet stink blacks give off always made me want to lose a week’s worth of groceries.

  • pcmustgo

    “The World Health Organization has reported that Nigerians are the highest users of such products: 77% of Nigerian women use the products on a regular basis. They are followed by Togo with 59%; South Africa with 35%; and Mali at 25%.”

    HOLY SH..T. Now we know where all that aid money goes to…. that and hair braiding.

  • pcmustgo

    It’s a known fact that the White Males who do go for black chicks like them really dark and also to have natural, kinky hair… the real thing.

    • StillModerated

      Not to mention that funky bouquet of Poontang.

    • Skincognito

      Yuck. A coked-up black chick hit on me once and it was an horrifying experience. Any White man who would court/solicit such intimacy may as well request a golden shower and a dose of STD’s. They are pretty gross up close and from afar. Obviously White women should be equally aware of the ofactory factor of miscegenation, preferably without direct diversification.
      My other observation, related to the article, is the black male “nerd” here in the states. I used to skateboard and I enjoy Highland Games and Renaissance Fair-type events. Blacks have invaded both. Clearly White-female marking is part of the motivational nexus, but I think it goes deeper. They have Anglo names and don’t live in the hood or like rap. Why not do “White boy” stuff? They also use video games, comic books, and “nerdy” attire as a means of appearing less threatening to Whites, especially our young women. A plague in black sheep’s clothing they are.
      Don’t get me started on “black rednecks” or “hick-hop!”

    • Michael_C_Scott

      A “known fact”? Who exactly “knows” this “fact”?

      • pcmustgo

        The internet and blogs run by black women who date white men are full of it + anecdotal evidence. It’s kind of like how Black men are known for preferring white women with blond hair.

  • Laager

    And in the UK virtually every town has a Tanning Salon where white girls sit under ultra violet lights and add browning creams to their skins.
    It seems as if English Pink Rose is too white and they want to be Venice – Bondi – Clifton Beach brown.
    Don’t blame this phenomenon on Slavery, colonialism or apartheid but on Baywatch and Neighbours.

  • kjh64

    On the other hand, many White people here go to tanning salons where they risk skin cancer or looking like a leather purse. Either that or “spray on their tan” like my sis does, which often makes them look rather orange.LOL I guess many want won’t they don’t have.

    • Angry White Woman

      White girls are taught that “white, pasty-looking skin looks unhealthy” I have extremely fair skin (it goes with the red hair…) that DOES NOT tan. I do burn however, after just a few minutes of sunshine, even with a high SPF sunscreen. After many painful burns, I may acquire a slightly pinkish tinge to my ghostly white hide. Any sunless tanner ever produced turns me an unpleasant shade of bright orange, so I have given it up as a bad job, and I stay fish-belly white year round.

      • Sherman_McCoy

        My wife has lusciously pale white skin, which, coupled with her cornsilk hair and stunningly beautiful hazel eyes makes her absolutely gorgeous, and a standard by which I judge all other women. Congratulations on having “pasty-looking skin.” I’m sure your significant other feels the same as I.

        That said, I also think that dark-haired girls with blue eyes and very fair skin are also striking. Think, “Snow White.” Ah, the diversity of white women!

  • These women must be really disappointed when they discover skin bleaching has no effect on IQ, depriving them of the true “white experience”. You would have they would’ve known better by now after they figured out hair straightening failed to make them more intelligent.

  • We should all agree that being around white people is a real threat to the self-image of blacks and we should structure society so as to minimize harmful contacts.

  • Angry White Woman

    “a severe skin condition called ochronosis, a form of hyper-pigmentation which causes the skin to turn a dark purple shade”

    She thinks having black skin is bad? Just wait till she turns purple and we’ll see how much she likes THAT!!!

  • Tim_in_Indiana

    The origin of this belief in Africa is not clear, but researchers have linked it to Africa’s colonial history where white skin was the epitome of beauty.

    Ah yes, here comes the officially accepted rationalization. Unfortunately it implies that blacks must be pretty stupid if they believe something that isn’t true simply because that’s what they were told. And how come the slogan “Black is Beautiful” hasn’t had the same effect?

    • I saw that coming when I read the headline. ‘In Africa, black isn’t beautiful? Now whose fault could that be?’

  • IstvanIN

    It wasn’t colonialism that made them think white people were better looking, it was the mirror.

    • Dutchman

      But don’t you see, the mirror was introduced to Africa by white devils. I suppose before mirrors they just looked at their reflection in a pool. One can make everything somehow the fault of whites if you try hard enough.

  • Anonymous

    Any non-white woman who whitens her skin to become more beautiful is exhibiting internalized racism. Just ask any Geisha before 1853, when regular contact between Japan and the West began. White people and their racist time machines of hate ruin everything!

  • bigone4u

    For a woman of that darker shade of brown, Mrs. Obama sure likes herself a lot. Keep the skin bleach away from her or she’ll be ever more insufferable,
    On another note, I once knew a 20 year old girl whose absentee father was blonde and very white, while her mother was black. She was an albino of sorts with very white skin, red hair, and unattractive facial features. When I was getting to know her, she felt compelled to tell me she was “black.” She did not need to. Pale white skin plus black features made it clear that she was a mulatto. Oh, and she did not figure out that her fatherwhom she had never seen was white until she was an adult and asked her mother about it.

    • eduard

      They look hideous here in mandelatopia too. Amongst their own they stand out like a sore thumb. In mandelatopia we ask: why do you get black albinos? Answer: To see what a f%^&*p they are if they are white.

  • PesachPatriot

    anonymous…aren’t you using “a racist machine of hate” called a computer that was invented by white people?…why don’t you take a nice midnight stroll down an MLK boulevard somewhere. Come back and post if you make it back in one piece. Are trains, boats, airplanes and cars also “racist machines of hate”? No white person forces anyone in Africa to bleach their skin…you’re barking up the wrong tree troll.

  • potato78

    “I notice that many of the women have uncharacteristically light skin faces while the rest of their bodies are darker.”

  • longing4abetterworld

    Of course, things are much different in this country. I hate when I look at a Macy’s ad and on the cover is the blackest of African male or female dressed to the 9’s, with the whitest and straightest of teeth. Repulsive.

  • falsedawn

    I remember reading about two carpetbagger women down south after the civil war. They said they had a problem with highyellas lording it over other blacks about how much whiter they were than the other blacks.

  • Don

    Once you go black, we don’t want you bacKKK!

  • Gereng

    Gosh! Is there a fund we can contribute to? I’d like to see every black women who thinks she is ugly being black skinned, to have all the street chemicals she wants to use. I’ll certainly donate to the best, most honest charity aiding these ladies to look as white as they can look.

    I just hope these ladies are not being taken in by white scientists who say these chem treatments endanger the ladies health. That is possibly just more white lies…..

  • Bob Wallace

    I had a Filipina tell me most Filipinas would marry white guys. When I asked her why, there were several reasons. The main one was that they wanted “exotic-looking babies” (all the entertainers in the Philippines are half-white). When I pressed her she blurted “That white skin!”

    Ultimately, everyone wants to be white.

  • Laager

    Let me guess – lightened skin, blond wig – is she trying to catch a white stud?
    Someone who is more likely to stick around than her own unreliable kind?
    A lesson that many a white woman with a black stud will be learning in the years ahead in this age of multi-culturism, diversity and enrichment.

  • liberalsuck

    Probably the evil white man that makes them bleach their skin. Probably the evil white man that makes them hate themselves for being blacks, and not the fact they hate themselves because they are resentful of whites because they have neither the intelligent or will to build the societies and civilizations that whites do.

    • Michael_C_Scott

      Perhaps some of them hate themselves because negritude represents most of the worst things people can do to each other – they are excused from industrial scale mass-murder, because they never produced industry.

  • Lygeia

    Apparently, on December 14, 2011, popular kwaito singer Mshoza was reportedly admitted to a Witbank hospital on Monday after taking an overdose of pills. Here is the website:

    Mshoza, real name Nomasonto Mnisi, allegedly tried to end her life by taking a handful of pills. She was found unconscious by one of her husband’s assistants at the couple’s home in Witbank and was rushed to the Life Cosmos private hospital.

  • Al Gator

    I lived in the Philippines for a time. I noticed that the Illicano from the north of Luzon were far more fair skinned than the the Nigretos from the southern islands. The tension between the groups was sometimes violent.

    No white intervention caused that tension, it was internal and dated back way before whitey ever set foot on the islands.

    Go figure.