Montana Boy: Bones Show Ancestral Links to Europe

Rex Dalton, Spiegel, February 20, 2014

It must have been a pretty special child, otherwise the two-year old wouldn’t have been buried in such a ceremonious manner. The boy was sprinkled with celebratory red dust and given distinctive stone artifacts for his last journey.

The characteristic fluting of the stone weapons serve as archaeological evidence that the boy, who died some 12,600 years ago, came from the Clovis culture. It was one of the earliest New World groups, disappearing mysteriously a few centuries after the child’s burial in present day Montana. From the summit of a hill towering over the burial site near the Yellowstone River, the boy’s Ice Age contemporaries could monitor their hunting grounds for mammoth and bison.

Now a team of scientists led by the Danish geneticist Eske Willerslev has analyzed the boy’s origins and discovered that he descends from a Siberian tribe with roots tracing back to Europe. Some of the boy’s ancestors are likely even to have lived in present-day Germany.

Their findings go even further: More than 80 percent of all native peoples in the Americas–from the Alaska’s Aleuts to the Maya of Yucatan to the Aymaras along the Andes–are descended from Montana boy’s lineage.

Surprising Similarities

Last week, the scientists published the results of sequencing the child’s DNA in the scientific journal Nature. Late last year, the same team published the decoded genome of another early human: A juvenile buried near Lake Baikal in Siberia some 24,000 years ago. Their genomes showed surprising ancestral similarities.

This earned Willerslev’s team an astounding publishing achievement in just 100 days: The decoding of the genomes of the oldest analyzed members of homo sapiens in both the Old and the New Worlds. This has allowed them to reconstruct the settlement of the Americas via the Beringia land bridge during the ice ages–when what is now the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska was frozen over–in greater detail than ever before.

A third of both juveniles’ DNA can be traced to the earliest European. Physical evidence also supports this European origin: Archaeologists discovered 30 ivory pendants at Mal’ta, the Stone Age settlement site near Lake Baikal where the remains were found. The pendants show great similarity to ones found at Hohle Fels cave, an important Paleolithic site in southern Germany’s Swabian Jura mountains.

The results of the finds in Montana and Siberia now provide the scientists the opportunity to trace metabolic characteristics, susceptibility to disease and other properties during the intercontinental migrations.

Overcoming Resistance to Research

The analysis of the Montana probe is important for still another reason: It may signal a new era for genetic analysis of such ancient remains, overcoming a tradition of resistance from Native-American communities. Although American museums house the remains of many pre-historic inhabitants of North America, DNA analysis of them has largely been blocked by resistance from their descendants.

But this time, the relevance of the Willerslev team’s studies was appreciated by representatives of the Crow, the Northern Cheyenne, the Flathead and the Blackfoot Nations. None of the leaders representing these nations near the burial site resisted the publication of the DNA data. “This is righteous science,” Shane Doyle, a member of the Crow Nation, said after learning of Willerslev’s project in September.

This success would not have been possible without the family that owned the land on which the remains were found in 1968. Years ago, the owners of the ranch, Mel and Helen Anzick, had the idea to have the bones’ DNA analyzed. The challenge was later picked up by the couple’s daughter, Sarah, herself a molecular biologist who worked on decoding the human genome in the late 1990s. She is a co-author of the Clovis publication in Nature.

Sarah had considered extracting DNA samples from the Clovis bones while working on the initial human genome project. But the technology was not mature enough at the time, and her plan faced resistance from some Native Americans.

Enthusiastic about the new findings, she said: “When I saw the results, I almost jumped out of my skin I was so excited.” The Anzicks’ 35 hectare (86 acre) property is located approximately 150 kilometers (93 miles) north of Yellowstone National Park, set amid undulating prairie. In past centuries the ranch’s lookout hill served as a bison trap: Hunters could drive the animals over a cliff to more easily kill them for food.

At the same time the hill offered early inhabitants shelter from the fierce winds. The gales also blow the snow off the grasslands, thereby attracting foraging game that natives could hunt. Indeed year-round feed was the reason that Mel Anzick bought the land as pasture for his horses.

The boy’s remains and the artifacts were uncovered by a tractor moving earth. Over subsequent years, portions of the collection were sent to various scientific groups for study across the United States. Some bones went to Arizona, others to Washington DC’s Smithsonian Institution.

For decades, Native Americans were outraged by what they see as disrespectful treatment of remains–their link to “the ancient ones”–which were displayed in museums and shipped around like baggage. They fought tenaciously for their rights, earning in 1990 a federal law allowing for repatriation of human remains along with funerary artifacts.

However, the legislation only affected finds from government-owned land. The Montana boy’s bones were found on private land. Thus it was up to the Anzick family to make the only known Clovis bones available to scientists for DNA sequencing.

An Explosive Issue

Such genetic analysis of Native American bones is highly controversial. It is a sacrilege to some. Others fear it could link their ancestors to Europeans, as this study has done. And some worried it could be misused in tribal disputes over who shares in the economic bounty from casinos that operate on the sovereign reservations.

An ongoing federal court case shows just how explosive the issue is. University of California archaeologists are fighting for the right to conduct DNA analysis on a pair of 9,300 year-old skeletons found on the San Diego campus. If the scientists lose the case, many such human remains could be repatriated to the tribes.

The sequencing plans first materialized when Willerslev took on the project four years ago. In addition to being a renowned authority in decoding ancient DNA, Willerslev also has experience in negotiating with indigenous peoples on such sensitive projects. In 2011, he sequenced the first Aborigine genome from DNA in hair samples held in a British museum. This enabled him to show that Australia’s original inhabitants descended from peoples who had left Africa a full 70,000 years ago.

Willerslev sought Aboriginal leaders’ permission to publish the results. He remembers arriving in the Outback after a long drive, exasperated by his driver’s assertions’ that he would not get consent. “They will never agree, never agree”, the driver repeated. After meeting Aborigine leaders, Willerslev won their endorsement for publication, even securing a written proclamation from the governing council.

Understanding Sensitivities

After starting the Clovis project about four years ago, Willerslev and colleagues planned to follow the same course and seek permission from Montana tribes for publication. The first meeting was organized by 70-year-old Montana archeologist Larry Lahren, who has helped the Anzicks to look after their collection for decades. He knew well the sensitivities, too. “Historically, the US government has treated Native Americans like livestock. It was always white man’s rule,” he said.

On a blue-sky September afternoon last year, the scientists finally were to meet Doyle of the nearby Crow Nation. Willerslev and some members of his team waited anxiously on the Anzick ranch for Doyle to arrive. Doyle knew nothing about the bones, but from the hill he could point to landmarks of more than a century of his family’s history. While Doyle grew up amid poverty on the Crow reservation, he now has a doctorate and teaches at Montana State University in Bozeman.

Gathered at the burial site, Willerslev revealed the team’s results: the remains’ age, the boy’s ancestry to native tribes of the Americas and the links to Siberia and Europe. Doyle’s reaction would determine whether or not Willerslev’s study could be published or not because the scientist had promised to destroy it if he didn’t obtain permission.

After learning the results, Doyle was emotionally overcome. But then, with the tension relaxed, he joked with Willerslev about wondering if he would be told he himself was of Danish ancestry. Finally Doyle proclaimed: “This boy is my cousin.”

Doyle fetched a drum from his van, conducted a short ceremony and sang to his newfound relative. Afterward, Doyle agreed to introduce Willerslev to the other Montana tribes, with the group setting off that week for reservation visits.

As a result of these discussions, plans are underway to rebury the bones at their discovery site on the Anzick ranch. There also is to be a roadside monument for all Native Americans to visit–just like the white man’s cemetery across the highway in the tiny hamlet of Wilsall.

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  • MekongDelta69

    I’m sure somebody will find some kind of hidden ‘evil racism’ in this story.

  • John Ambrose

    “Others fear it could link their ancestors to Europeans, as this study has done”

    Like these people..

    • AutomaticSlim

      “White Racists go back to Europe”????

      And how about we take all our money, technology, and intellectual capital with us?
      No more WIC, welfare, food stamps, head start, school lunch, medicaid, section 8, etc…

      How long would these mestizos last?

      • Extropico

        Let me add to your thought that were YT to leave, it would be American Indians who rightly own the land instead of invading tribes from south of the border with whom our Indians had been previously warring.

        • Bossman

          All the Natives of the Americas are of the same race. Different tribes did wage war with another but land boundaries are fluid things and also just before the arrival of Columbus, the various tribes were beginning to unite.

          • Whiteplight sees the Emperor N

            Most natives in the Americas are mixed race, especially in North America and especially in the east, but also in the west.

            There is zero, zero evidence that the tribes were uniting before the arrival of Columbus. You are thinking of a few tribes in the American East that learned something of European governing from the early French settlers in Quebec and then in the New England colonies. Columbus found cannibal tribes raiding other tribes in the Caribbean islands. We know that the Aztecs were raiding other tribes and that they and the Mayans had barbaric “civilizations” that practiced extreme forms of human sacrifice. Christian explorers regardless of how brutal they were had to be understandably horrified at what they found and so felt justified in destroying every vestige of it.

            You don’t know much about the indigenous history and cultures you seem to be defending. Even today in Mexico, different tribes resent another and practice “racism” against them.

            Land boundaries are NOT fluid things, not if they actually mean anything. The reason for national boundaries is so an organized state can function. With organized states the benefits of civilization can be enjoyed by more people. The opposite is chaos and history shows that establishing borders prevents war and helps stabilize and advance people. Where there are no borders, war lord societies always spring up and lots of people, ordinary people die and “evil” rules.

          • Edruezzi

            I saw that movie. It was called Apocalypto.

          • Whiteplight sees the Emperor N

            I never saw that movie. I was referring to history.

          • Edruezzi

            About Native American unity: One reason Cortez succeeded in his invasion of Mexico was that several of the tribes there were more than willing to join his army in fighting the Aztecs. At least, the Spaniards were clearly not interested in eating them or ripping their hearts out to feed the sun.

          • Whiteplight sees the Emperor N

            You can end this tutoring. You ought to guess that I don’t require this information. You’re preaching to the choir. However, addressing Bossman IS a good idea.

          • Edruezzi

            Sorry about the tutoring.

          • Edruezzi

            They weren’t beginning to unite. They were living the way their ancestors had lived for thousands of years. If Columbus hadn’t landed on Watling Island the natives would still be living in 2014 the way they were living in 1492.

        • Edruezzi

          If YT left the natives would eat each other.

      • newscomments70

        I was thinking that as well. My question to the anti-white racists, if we whites go back to our European homelands, can we kick out the Africans and Muslims that have invaded Europe and abuse social services?

        • Edruezzi

          The EU wouldn’t let you do that.

      • Edruezzi

        Actually, they’d like it. Most of mankind DOES NOT want to live in modernity. They only have contempt for it and those who represent it.

      • Edruezzi

        They’d probably like it that way. Most people on this planet do not want modernity and have only hatred and contempt for those who represent it.

    • Sue

      Then it is the country they left. If it was all that good they’d stay there!

    • JohnEngelman

      “European” genes found in American Indians are not Caucasian. They are genes all modern humans who left Africa sixty thousand years ago share. The division between Caucasians and Mongoloids happened later.

      • John Ambrose

        The differentiation between Caucasoids and Mongoloids probably occurred sometime prior to humans arriving in the New World.

        In any event, anti-white racists have dwelled on the (widely claimed) Asiatic origin of Amerindians as reason to claim that all the people from Europe who’ve arrived since Columbus are invaders living on land “stolen” from a subset of the Mongoloid race. If in fact the same ancestral group that gave rise to whites hybridized with another group from Asia to create the Amerindians, it would make “go back to Europe” signs just as idiotic as “go back to Asia” signs.

      • Bossman

        I kind of believe that myself. Well then, could we call the Natives of the Americas proto-Caucasians or pre-Caucasians?

    • TheAntidote

      It’s readily apparent some in that crowd above have a generous admixture of European blood—-and so also have rayciz white forefathers. Some of the squaws were probably anxious to meet and greet the conquistadors or the U.S. Cavalry or the French fur trappers in the Grand Tetons. Believe me, I’ve been all the way around the block; I know how these things happen.
      So where does that leave these demonstrating knuckleheads if a Whites Out movement takes hold? They’d have to live on rafts in the North Atlantic.

      • Whiteplight sees the Emperor N

        The Indians that are demonstrating like this know that their suggestion is ridiculous. But they have learned that this sort of behavior often brings beneficial concessions from the government and they are a culture that has long found that being a ward of the white state is beneficial. If they can pull out some more guilt they might get some more stuff. I’ve heard that there is a new move to demand that the Blacks Hills be returned for example.

        In fact, the Indians that lived along the fur trading route of the Hudson Bay Company that mixed with the Quebecois fur traders (most of the HBC employees were Quebecois) formed separate tribes along that route and were given a name for their tribe “Metis.” “Metis” is from the French word that means “mixed.” Notice how it resembles the Spanish “Mestizo.”

        We all know the story of John Smith and Pocahontas. But is it pretty plain that most of the Indian tribes readily traded women and otherwise made marriages as part of bargains between fur traders and other situations. But I wouldn’t exactly say that the squaws were anxious to meet anyone in particular, they just did what they did as a normal way of doing things. I do personally believe that many Indian women find white men attractive. I grew up in Northern California and in my earlier years had three girlfriends that were half Cherokee and one that was half Apache. In each case, they pursued me, a blue-eyed white man.

        • Edruezzi

          The demonstrators should go look for jobs. In history the rule of finders keepers applies. That’s just the way it is.

        • Edruezzi

          One of the great silent spots in human history is what women have been thinking. They’ve done a god job of keeping that roiling lust concealed. I’d reckon that the Pochanotesses, and before her thousands of Aztec and Inca princesses and so on, saw that the old order was dead and that these two continents had new masters and they sought out the white men. It gave us a largely mestizo South America. It didn’t work so well in the emptier realm of North America.
          But I’m digressing. This page is not about what happened after Columbus. It’s about what happened before him. Thousands of years before there was a Columbus, or even a Spain or Italy or Genoa to begin with.

          • Whiteplight

            A complete, unsupported guess about what pre-Columbian women were thinking, full of present day stereotypes, from the roiling sexuality of today projected backward onto “princesses” and their tendency toward Biblical betrayal, “originial sin.” I think we can rely on actions for a revelation of what people think. But in primitive societies, necessity trumps the sort of deviations we can observe in Ancient Rome and in the modern world. Luxury creates corruption, you could say and not just in women.

            Also, your assertions of population densities are without source or support. Some scholars today support a fairly large population in North America with the extremists claiming tens of millions. The reason that there are more Mestezos in “South America” (Mexico in is North America) is largely that the Catholic Church promoted mixing through assigning Spanish surnames onto everyone while often simultaneously converting them by force. Because missionaries traveled about assigning names and making nominal contacts often followed by eons of empty time due to transportation problems (into jungles or because of the long, long decline of Spanish influence in the New World). Contact in North America was closer and so diseases like smallpox took a greater toll quicker. This is noted in the history of the treaty made in French Canada in 1701 between the aboriginals and France. An encampment was made at Montreal of 1300 representatives of 40 native “nations” from the entire Great Lakes region to the upper Mississippi – which were all part of French Canada (New France) at the time. (This allowed new French settlements to established and Detroit was founded not long afterwards). There is no similar event of such a size to be noted anywhere in the New World. On the other hand, the whites that settled New England (and the “American Colonies”) were nearly 100% Protestant. They did not readily mix with natives, established large farming settlements (plantations) using slaves and had a system that actually did not do things like assign surnames or convert aboriginals by force. They were rather forced westward. But the largest factor that created Canadian “mestizos” was the fur trade as I already noted and they were identifiable often identifiable through Church records. This allowed a tribe to exist separately, whereas in the south Catholic lands south of the American border, they were generalized into the population with only a ruling elite defined separately.

            If you research history in the world, you will find that solely male expeditions of all sorts, especially merchants as with the huge Jewish example (from Europe, to Africa., to India, to China), wives were always supplied by the local inhabitants. That has been proven through dna tracing. Alliances have long been made through marriages. It is also important to note that it was a biological necessity that provided just enough genetic infusion to prevent the rise of genetic trysomy, etc. (Which we only find in cases of unnatural genetic isolation). There is no need to suppose that aboriginal women or tribal practices were any different from any other in the world and the stranger is usually absorbed into the tribe if not outright killed initially.

            You were responding to a digression from the subject, as most of these posts are – merely to remind me that 12,000 years ago there was no European civilization. No need, I get that.

          • Edruezzi

            Sir,
            If the sexuality of the people of the past was not “roiling”, as you say, you and I probably wouldn’t be here typing these words.

    • Pro_Whitey

      These people are just earlier immigrants, and perhaps not the first ones. I call Indians the First Nativists, because of their occasionally violent treatment of European settlers. Funny how nativist does not get applied to the reds or browns.

      • Whiteplight sees the Emperor N

        For a good read, get a copy of “A Fate Worse than Death,” – Michno.

        Anyone who reads this book will understand why most whites hated Indians with a vengeance and felt just fine about putting them on reservations and making sure they stayed there or just hunting them down like animals. It is also important to understand that many tribes were peaceful and had been victims of raider tribes long before whites arrived. These tribes often cooperated and provided guides and translators.

    • Edruezzi

      It’s weird, but they’re telling people to go back to Europe using signs written in a European language.

  • Michiganman6

    “And some worried it could be misused in tribal disputes over who shares in the economic bounty from casinos that operate on the sovereign reservations.”
    LOL…follow the money. Isn’t it funny how the least intelligent, professional victims types are the most against scientific discovery.

    • Rhialto

      Money may be a factor in some cases, but I think the main motive is a gut hatred of White men and their achievements.

      • Whiteplight sees the Emperor N

        Jealousy exacerbated by their innate laziness. The response is “Indian Pride” and an insisting on old complaints and assertions. The big problem is that the casino money had made them more politically powerful. But so much of what they want is ridiculous that no one really cares too much about what they say.

    • Whiteplight sees the Emperor N

      I can tell you that in 1993 there was a tribal war in Lake County, Northern California, over the “owership” of the local casino. The FBI had to shut down a couple highways going through the region for three days. It was a “shooting war.”

  • Tarczan

    It’s common sense that the Americas were visited by European explorers repeatedly over time.

    • Bossman

      If that happened, they certainly did not plan on doing that. Maybe a few got lost on the great western ocean and were washed up on the shores of America. It took Columbus almost six months of pure misery to reach America.

      • Whiteplight sees the Emperor N

        “Everyone” knows that the Vikings made the landing intentionally and established a colony in Newfoundland. They already had a colony in Greenland and Newfoundland was first sighted by a merchant on his way to that colony that got off course due to a storm. It was just a little too far to be supported with the technology of the time. When Europeans returned to settle they had gunpowder (and better weather to the south). However, there has been evidence found over and over that others made it further inland and were absorbed into some tribes. I saw some documentary a few years back where some Canadian Indians spoke of it and some archeological evidence has been found.

        In 1972, I read a book titled, “They All Came First.” It chronicled the various evidence of New World landings from the Old World since Egyptian times. Thor Heyerdahl proved that Egyptian boats could have reached the New World in his “Rah Expeditions.” Now were are learning that many Europeans made it to today’s American East Coast during the Ice Age when the oceans were much lower than now and land/ice bridges existed.

        There is a lot more to the story than you imagine.

        • Bossman

          If they made it to the East coast of North America, then it would be purely by accident..

          • Edruezzi

            Even accident couldnt have gotten them there.

        • Edruezzi

          Think about this for a moment. If Europeans could get to the East Coast via the Atlantic because the sea levels were lower, isn’t it logical that crossing the Bering Strait would have been far easier under the same conditions for Asians.
          A not very well known department of the Chinese government operates an American geostrategy think tank that argues that the Americas are almost a long-lost fragment of Asia and that the heavy Asian presence in California makes sense because of that.

        • Edruezzi

          Thor Heyerdahl was trying to prove that Polynesians crossed the Pacific and got to the Americas. Well, you can’t prove that people got to a place by getting there yourself. Meanwhile, genetics has shown that the Polynesians are simply Asians. So while Heyerdahl’s saga is exciting and sold a lot of copies, it wasn’t science.
          Think about this for a moment. If Europeans could get to the East Coast via the Atlantic because the sea levels were lower, isn’t it logical that crossing the Bering Strait would have been far easier under the same conditions for Asians. I mean, mammoths and camels and the ancestors of horses had done it for millions of years. The Asians who got to America were almost certainly stalking those beasts.
          A not very well known department of the Chinese government operates an American geostrategy think tank that argues that the Americas are almost a long-lost fragment of Asia and that the heavy Asian presence in California makes sense because of that. China resents the fact that the USA is both forced to act in Europe (WWI, WWII, Cold War) and Asia (Korea, Vietnam), so it’s obessed about interconnectivity with North America.

      • Edruezzi

        Yeah, a lot of European explorers must have washed up as skeletal remains on American shores. Columbus mattered because he came back, and he came back with documentation.
        Things got so desperate for Columbus on his first voyage that he had to put down a near mutiny. At a time only flights of birds headed consistently westward and southward convinced him that there was land out there.

    • newscomments70

      There is reasonable evidence of European settlement in Salem, NH as far as 4000 years ago.

      • Edruezzi

        Not the kind of evidence that can get an article into a peer-reviewed archeology or anthropology journal. Like advice, evidence is cheap.

        • newscomments70

          There was an interesting episode of “In Search of” that reported on the artifacts. If you’re not a 70s guy, “In Search of” was a documentary series that focused on unexplained phenomena. It was narrated by Leonard Nimoy.

          • Edruezzi

            Isn’t that the kind of show that investigates UFOs, ancient alien visitations and the paranormal?

          • newscomments70

            It varied. Some episodes were as you describe. The Salem, NH episode, called, “Strange Visitors” was more scientific and relevant. For some reason, the anti-white media has not mentioned this place since then though.

  • http://saboteur365.wordpress.com/ bigone4u

    I love these science studies no matter how the results turn out, but it’s doubly satisfying to know that Euro man’s genes were a world traveler thousands of years before Columbus. Wouldn’t it be wild and crazy if even earlier bones are found that are 100 percent Euro. That would drive the anti-white racists crazy.

    • Jesse_from_Sweden

      Depends what you mean with 100 percent euro.

      DNA changes over time with different groups.

      After all, we all once shared a common ancestry (wether that was in Africa or Asia is still under debate, rather hotly in some circles) and the split is based much upon how long groups have been separated from each other.

      And since humans hasn’t been able to travel very far, very fast until just the last couple of centuries and even less several milennia ago when most of these splits happened, which means that the Montana boys ancestry might have been 100 percent euro, but that they simply changed during the several generations it would have taken him and his ancestors to move from Europe to Montana.

      After all, DNA differences exist even between fairly close geographical groups, including in Europe.

      There is a genetic difference between brits and french, danes and poles etc.

      And even between very closely related groups such as swedes, danes and norwegians.

      Posting maps on migration patterns and DNA groups in a separate comment due to moderation issues….

  • Bossman

    It is very nice to hear that all the Natives of the Americas are related to this distant ancestor who also carried European genes. In light of all this, being anti-Hispanic and anti-Mexican becomes ever so meaningless.

    • AndrewInterrupted

      Still not happy with the landscaping prices you’re getting, huh?

      • Edruezzi

        My god, this is the most entertaining site on the Web.

        • AndrewInterrupted

          Would that be the good kind of entertaining or the bad kind?

          • Edruezzi

            I mean good. Your joke about landscaping was excellent.

    • Whiteplight sees the Emperor N

      As usual, you’re doing that uneducated “Native of the Americas” of ignoring the details and making huge, unsupported conclusions for a perceived political gain.

      What it actually means is that being anti-white presence in the New World is meaningless. Whites in Europe brought civilization to the “Americas” and therefore you are enjoying your day and using your computer due to white man’s civilizing then. The difference of why it happened that way is what matters.

      • Edruezzi

        It doesn’t matter who got here first. It matters who got here with the guns and horses and steel, and the written word, and printing, and farm animals, and the maps, and the navigational skills, and the support from monarchs willing to charter settlement corporations, and the hunks able to seduce the Pocahontesses and Dona Marina types, and the ability to advertise for additional immigrants in the streets of European towns and cities. It’s why Columbus ranks as probably the most influential individual in history. His skill at navigation changed not just America and Europe but the world. (Dat be how massa come takes them homies to America)
        So you mean you guys have never heard that history is written by the winners?
        The Native Americans never knew what hit them.

    • Edruezzi

      On a related note, what effect does this Montana boy have on lingering Mexican resentment of the fact that the USA seized a huge hock of Mexico in the War of 1850? I mean, look at the maps. Territorial gains on that scale would have given Alexander, Genghis and Hitler wet dreams.

  • AndrewInterrupted

    Old Shane Doyle the Irishman should be feeling a moccasin in his butt soon.

  • LHathaway

    We’re all the same race. . at least whites and indians – and some of the cute girls from central and S America. Wish they were taller sometimes. . .

    • So CAL Snowman

      I would down vote your comment but DISQUS wants to keep a “positive” environment for the community.

      • LHathaway

        eh, was kinda making a joke. . but in jokes there is often some truth. and to be honest. . i don’t always think with the upper part of my body. . no offense ment by the ‘taller’ comment by the way (in case any such girls are listening).

        • Whiteplight sees the Emperor N

          No form of truth in your first comment, though. The entire discussion is happening because EVERYONE perceives that there IS a difference and the “Indians” want to benefit from it.

    • Lt_Greyman_NVA

      Why are they not taller if we are all of the same race?

  • kjh64

    Not necessarily. Asian peoples and Whites could have come together and mixed back in Siberia or Europe and when the “Indians” arrived in North America, they could have been mixed already. We just don’t know.

    • Edruezzi

      Have you ever heard of Ockham’s razor?

  • Romulus

    That is correct. It is fact that humans share 98.9% of DNA. The minute changes show demonstrable differences, clearly.
    Any who choose to see excellent photographic evidence of native Indians please view
    EDWARD S. CURTIS’ work!

    • Jesse_from_Sweden

      A somewhat false statement really, that has been used and abused to “prove” that races doesn’t exist.

      We also share DNA with chimpanzees to something like 96%.
      And 70% or so with trees…..

      A lot of the DNA is about basic cell interaction and structure, which all life have, and which every living thing shares.
      It is those small changes that make the difference between humans and other mammals. So a 1% difference between different races is actually a very big one.

      And then there is also the case of how they are counting these differences in DNA.
      After all, all living things actually share 100% of DNA, in that every living things DNA is made up by only four nucleobases (Guanine, Adenine, Thymine and Cytosine), which are then matched up to each other side of the “ladder” (Adenine-Thymine and Guanine-Cytosine).
      It is then the sequences of these four nucelobases that form the “unique” DNA found in each living thing (as well as things that has once been alive).

      So how do you count the differences?

      Mark Twain and statistics….

      • Edruezzi

        You got the numbers slightly wrong. We share 98% of our DNA with chimps, and all humans are 99.9% genetically similar. All individual and racial differences arise from that 0.1% difference.
        Yes, all living things share 100% of the four bases, in the sense that it’s the same bases that show up. It’s what’s encoded in the bases that makes the difference.

        • Jesse_from_Sweden

          Again, it depends on how you count.
          A lot of what is encoded in the bases are basic things that all life share, just as they all share those four bases.

          So where do we draw the line of what’s to be counted as individual “pieces” which should be counted and compared?

          And then there is also the issue of various markers and their actual placement, since there has been shown that various races can have the very same markers and still have differences based on where they are in relation to other markers.

          • Edruezzi

            Your third paragraph is utter nonsense. If the markers were jumbled around as you say then the entire business of genomic reading would be impossible. We can compare relatedness in different populations and even different clades precisely because markers are different at the same locations.
            Your first paragraph actually supports the notion that race does not exist. Most of the genome of whites and blacks is indistinguishable because of the “basic things that all life share” as you said. The areas that are different are numerically insignificant and code for things like skin color and hair form and resistance to local diseases. Moreover, this variation shows no systematic regional variation besides the clinal. As for where we draw the line in the counting, that is no mystery. We cannot “draw the line.” There are no lines.

      • Edruezzi

        Your 96% figure applies, I think, to orangutans and not chimps. Chimp-human similarity is on the order of 98.4%
        And race does not exist.

    • Edruezzi

      It’s 99.9%

  • Spartacus

    These researchers are naziswhowanttokillsixmillionsapaches .

    • Bossman

      Is that what you’re reduced to these days? Very feeble attempt at sarcasm? How about contributing some solid ideas to these discussions?

      • Whiteplight sees the Emperor N

        Why don’t you?

        • MBlanc46

          Solid ideas? He wouldn’t recognize one if it walked up and bit him on the nose.

      • IstvanIN

        You do realize that the tribe always tries to reduce everything down to Whites want to kill everyone, don’t you? It is both sarcasm and sad truth.

  • connorhus

    This article seems to generate a different feel and a whole different set of possibilities from the one on this topic a week or so ago. It also isn’t the hammer blow that killed the Solutrean theory that it was made out to be either. Clovis culture died out some 13000 years ago so this boy could very well be nothing more than the remains of a mixed remnant that included Ice Sheet Europeans from the East and Land Bridge Siberians from the West.

    The inclusion of European DNA clearly shows there is no definitive single racial or DNA group that made up a “Native” North American Genotype. In fact what it says is if you aren’t naturally from the peoples of the Northern Hemisphere you have no business here.

    Northern Hemisphere for Natives only.

    • M&S

      I would suggest that it is in fact another agenda’d attempt to suggest that ‘there is no race but only immigrants’.
      Which is simply the gutless and witless among liberal scientists singing to a political harmony.
      Explain what caused the massive dieoff of animals in America. Explain what the ‘charcoal layer’ is.
      Then we can talk about when Europeans in America died in a given location and by whose hand: Nature’s or another Immigrant.
      The NA’s should teach two lessons:
      1. What happens when you no longer control your territory by population count as eternal POW status.
      2. What it means when one group triumphs over and marginalizes another has nothing to do with good vs. evil, slaves vs. Holocaust as ‘motives’. It is simply an outcome driven condition where what comes next can be worth something.
      Or not.
      Ninety percent of the planet’s population growth in the next 70 years is going to come from sub-90 IQ populations whose cultural history is _zero_.
      In this, grave goods aside, they will be just as lacking in capacity as any other HG population which horde pillaged a settled culture far higher in capacity than they are.
      It took an ‘explosion’ of 60,000 years for whites to get here from where we started, as L1/2/3 gene groups crossing another land bridge, over the Red Sea, out of Africa.
      Nominally white peoples from Homer’s age, despite the Iliad and Odyssey were -nothing- like we are. Nor, from brain imprints on skull cavities, were the Italians of late Renaissance culture in 1650AD.
      Which means what and who we are is an artifact of living in the last 400 years.
      Whereas those who have shared this earth with us, since that split 60KYA, have done nothing with the same period of time.
      And that is the squalid truth of this. That what we have gained in only a precious few centuries could be lost again in just one.
      Without our ‘just a good an immigrant’ competitors changing or improving a bit.

      • Whiteplight sees the Emperor N

        Yes, it is funny how scientists like these prove how specific racial and even ethnic groups came into being and celebrate that (if they’re not white) and then destroy it by saying that its meaning is that everyone is the same. Of course, they must say that, or they’ll loose their jobs, let’s remember that.

      • IstvanIN

        There is a commercial running now with some old actress and a crying African baby asking us to send money so they can send animals every month to the tribes so the babies have a steady supply of milk. Right, if the government doesn’t take the cattle and goats and eat them the tribesmen will. And we will be stuck sending a never ending supply of cows and goats to Africa so they can kill each other and then come here and kill us.

  • DudeWheresMyCountry?

    Native American privilege; having the irrational right to block the ability to use science to learn the truth about unidentified, prehistoric human remains. One only suppresses the truth to hide a lie.

  • IstvanIN

    And what point do a people become “native”? I feel it is absurd to call anyone who happens to be White and whose family was in the US prior to Independence not Indigenous. The early European settlers, largely British, with large numbers of Dutch, as well as German and Swedish, are certainly the indigenous people of the United States. They founded the country, not the Indians, built the country, formed its system of government, and fought for its independence. Why wouldn’t they be considered indigenous.

    Additionally, I am always suspicious of people who attempt to suppress scientific discovery. Why suppress the truth, to protect the failed political agenda of certain groups?

    • DonReynolds

      That is simple. Native means you were born here. Nativity….land of your birth. Has nothing to do with where your ancestors were born. If you were born in a place, you are native to that place. That is why the term “native American” is silly.

      • IstvanIN

        You’re indigenous!

    • Whiteplight sees the Emperor N

      In fact, the first and most populous (then) group of settlers were French and in Canada. There were also early American French Huguenot and Martinist colonies in the Carolinas and other places. Also, the American Revolution would have been lost if not for France’s support. However, Germans, Swedes and Norwegians largely came later in the 19th century, after the establishment of the U.S. They also brought the ideas of Marx with them.

      • IstvanIN

        The Swedes came way before the revolution, they had colonies in the upstate Delaware/South Jersey area. Think Christiana, DE and Swedesboro, NJ. And I am sure there were German settlers in Pennsylvania before 1776.

  • wildfirexx

    Hmmm…the more the DNA tests reveal, the more new questions must be asked !
    So far, we know that 80% of the native Indians are related to the Montana Boy, but who are the remaining 20% related to?
    They state that 80% of native Indians carry approx. 1/3 of his DNA Genome.
    Which means the other 2/3rds of their DNA… is related to Mongoloids?
    Europeans are also related to the Montana Boy…but by how much ?
    And assuming if the Europeans did migrate to the New World first, before the Mongolians… how did they become the Native Americans of today ?
    Was it Voluntary interbreeding, War and rape, Disease, starvation, or all of the above ?

    • Bossman

      What does that matter? You’re here and the Native Americans are still here and a lot of them are called “Hispanics” these days.

      • Whiteplight sees the Emperor N

        Stop trying to create false identities for Mexican citizens trying to steal U.S. citizenship and taxpayer money.

      • wildfirexx

        The Hispanics, Latinos, Wetbacks, whatever you wish to call them… is a recent addition to the mix of Spanish and Central and South American Indian blood.
        I think most people would be interested in knowing the truth about the people who first inhabited the New World, and shed some light on the beginning of the America culture and what part our ancient European ancestral tribe may have played in it, some 25,0000 years ago.
        It’s obvious you have no interest in your ancient past!

    • BaronBaal

      Ancient whites in the Americas were slaughtered by Asiatic newcomers and the white women were taken as slaves and then had mixed race children white the Asiatic men. That’s why almost all present day Indians who have Haplo-group X DNA (i.e. ancient white DNA) inherited from the maternal line, meaning that the ancient DNA came from females and not males.

      • Whiteplight sees the Emperor N

        It’s plausible, not just because of the mitochondrial evidence, but because this is what Mongolians did even up to the time of Genghis Khan. He’s one of the foremost, if not the primary figure among the most genocidal maniacs the world has ever seen. American Indians are related to him. If you look at Mongolian culture, even as it exists today, it has strong resemblances to North American Indian cultures. The book, “A Fate Worse than Death” (Michno) further supports this notion.

  • humura

    If the boy is related to those in Baikal and Germany, why not the possibility that the boy’s ancestors reached the New World across the Atlantic?
    Why rebury the boy? Better than Kenniwick Man, whom Clinton allowed to be reburied and lost to science.
    I am skeptical of much of this science; yet when Amerindian leaders assert “we were always here,” and government yields to such anti-scientific proclamations, we are in a sorry state.

    • libertarian1234

      I agree.

      Too, I’d like to see some additional study done on this subject, because the people involved are the white weenie types who could just as easily falsify information as their brethren at NBC did to Zimmerman’s 911 tapes, just to keep their sick agenda alive.

      Leftist “scientists” have lost a LOT of credibility in the last several years. And those like Clinton, Carter, and Obama stifled any efforts to find the truth.
      Remember Dr. Watson? He slipped and told the truth and was set upon so viciously by the mutants in academia he had to retract what he asserted.

      They’re liars who promote lies. That’s why when they might come out with evidence that could be true aware people regard everything they say with a large amount of skepticism.

      • Whiteplight sees the Emperor N

        I think that it unfortunately comes down to people that want to keep their jobs. No white can find the truth, or at least call it that, without paying for it and no non-white is interested in the truth.

        • libertarian1234

          I think that sums it up in a nutshell.

    • Whiteplight sees the Emperor N

      Science is based in skepticism. That’s the investigational premise of it. It can be abused, but not used to prove a falsehood.

      • IstvanIN

        Based on skepticism or curiosity? The European has always been the most curious of all the races of men. East Asians look inward for the most part and blacks are just content with the status quo.

  • Patricia Therese Wolff-Keaton

    For what it is worth, I am partially Cherokee and Choctaw. I KNOW why NAGPRA was done: people would graverob recent graves for clothes and “artifacts”. A great great great aunt’s grave was desecrated(she was buried in 1880 at age 6) for a doll and her clothes.

    • WR_the_realist

      It is legitimate to protect graves a couple of centuries old from grave robbers trying to get Indian artifacts. It is quite another to say we can’t study the DNA of a skeleton that’s more than a thousand years old when such an analysis can tell us a lot about who peopled this continent and when, I have no respect for people who are opposed to research because it might reveal an uncomfortable truth, no matter what race those people are.

      • IstvanIN

        Thank goodness the South Americans and Egyptians are not so scared of the truth, learning about the lives of such ancient peoples is fascinating.

    • Whiteplight sees the Emperor N

      I don’t think anyone’s grave ought to be desecrated or violated. However, “Indians” seem to have super-special rights in this area. My ancestors have been on this continent since the 17th and 18th century and most of their graves have been lost, the graveyards only reported as “desolated.” (Official records). There are white people buried all over North America and no one knows where or who.

  • Fathercoughlin

    I have a son from a relationship with a Native woman. His name:Broken Condom

  • Bossman

    What does it matter who was here first? When Columbus arrived in the Americas, he did not meet any Europeans. And more importantly, the Natives of the Americas have no legend of an East Asian homeland. They identify themselves only with America.

    • Whiteplight sees the Emperor N

      No, they did not identify themselves with America, there was no America. In fact, they didn’t understand nationalism or even racism (as in what race is). They just understood that they were of one tribe or another. The other fact is that NO “indigenous” New World inhabitant at that time had any idea where they were located in relationship to any other geographic location in the world. They were primitive peoples that yes, sometimes built with stone (not in blocks like Egyptians, either), but had not even invented the wheel. The notion that any advanced people that found them should have refrained from trying to develop a region or tip-toed around them in respect is a ridiculous notion on its face. Yet today, we allow these groups to pretend that they did understand and that they were “nations” equivalent to Old World standards when they were mostly hunter gatherers that benefited immediately from the European arrival. Yes, bad things happened, like disease, etc., but those things had also happened in Europe and mostly brought there by the accepted ancestors of the “Indians” – Mongols and Asians. Europeans had suffered the purges of invasions and disease and emerged stronger in the end. Why indigenous peoples have not cannot be blamed on the European arrival but on something deeply ingrained in their culture and nature (genetics).

    • Lt_Greyman_NVA

      It matters because we (and by “we” I mean Europeans) have been driven out of the North American Continent twice. The first people here were Solutrean, relatives of this boy. They were genocided out by the “Native Americans”. The second wave was in the time of Lief Ericsson, evidence of copper tool sharpening, runes carved on rock and the written history of the Vikings. The third time we came back with the Technology necessary to take back our lands and keep them. This land is White European by right of both first occupancy and by right of conquest.
      Why? “Because we LIVE here!”

      • Bossman

        So why is this boy related to all the Natives of the Americas? What you’re saying doesn’t make any sense to me.

        • Lt_Greyman_NVA

          Let me help you. “Now a team of scientists led by the Danish geneticist Eske Willerslev
          has analyzed the boy’s origins and discovered that he descends from a
          Siberian tribe with roots tracing back to Europe. Some of the boy’s
          ancestors are likely even to have lived in present-day Germany.”

          We arrived there first. The “AmerIndians” came in later and wiped us out along with the knowledge of how to make the Clovis point and other European style tools. Any remaining Whites were “intermarried”. More waves of Amerindians arrived.

          Buy the time of Lief Ericsson the Amerindian had devolved into the low form of Culture that insured a permanent stone age. The Vikings were driven off by sheer numbers despite that fact they had metal Swords and superior tech in shipbuilding, etc.

          In the final stage, Whites returned to their land armed with a technology that could not be defeated by the Tomahawk, Firearms.

          • Edruezzi

            Ancient locations and modern ones need not match. After all, there are whites in South Africa and Australia.

        • Edruezzi

          He’s using the Force. His statement doesn’t have to make sense.

        • Edruezzi

          It depends on what you mean by “making sense”. Some people don’t live in the reality-based community. If facts or reality don’t fit their beliefs they deny or ignore it or say someone is plotting against them. Once again therefore, can someone explain to me how Europeans beat Asian right next door to the Americas in getting to America? And why is it that the Pilgrims and the Jamestown settlers and Cortez and Pizarro and Hernando De Soto and of course Columbus met no White Europeans as they explored America?

      • Edruezzi

        To paraphrase the Joker, from The Dark Knight, I thought my jokes were bad. You screed is a mix of fantasy, delusion, wishful thinking and paranoia. Leif Erikson and co never established anything more than encampments in the Americas. As for your second to last sentence, one can only feel sorry for you.

      • Edruezzi

        I mean no offense but all the historical and archaeological evidence available, and logic itself, weigh against your account of Europeans driven out of America twice. In history, possession never turned on first occupancy. Leif Erikson and his guys established what were at most encampments in America.
        I’d reckon that a group of Stone Agers trekking across the Bering Strait from Siberia stood a greater chance of getting to the Americas than people in Europe. Remember, the only transportation technology available to them was walking.

      • Edruezzi

        Since White Europeans were here long before the Indians maybe the Columbus story taught in schools should be junked.
        Sir, it’s cliché now, but while we are entitled to our own opinions we can’t make up facts as we go along in order to please ourselves.

  • libertarian1234

    “In past centuries the ranch’s lookout hill served as a bison trap: Hunters could drive the animals over a cliff to more easily kill them for food.”

    Amazing isn’t it?

    I mean they roundly criticize whites for killing more buffalo than they could eat, which was true, but usual Indian practice was to kill an entire herd for just a few carcasses, and not one word of criticism from the white weenie “scientists” about it.

    And what is it with this brilliant doctorate holder? I mean he pulled out his drum and started chanting, displaying his true contribution to the field of advanced technology.

    • Whiteplight sees the Emperor N

      I read an article in 1999 about how many species the “Natives” had made extinct through this way of hunting. The information was apparently suppressed soon after. Seeing it mentioned here so casually is a cause for notice.

      The fact is that the buffalo herds ran wild all over the plains and railroad beds, telegraph lines, etc., would be destroyed. If the West was to be tamed and settled, the buffalo herds had to be reduced and the remainders ranched like cattle. However, if you’ve ever had buffalo to eat, you’ll know that beef is ten times better. Buffalo was a subsistence food that was abundant, not a culinary choice!

      I would say that it is not the job of scientists to make any political comment about their findings either way. Complaining about hypocrisies like this is up to you and me. The problem is that they want to keep their jobs and they are not in control of that anymore.

  • Whiteplight sees the Emperor N

    Absolutely spot on. These people enjoyed a quick recovery from the initial population losses due to disease (that Europeans had suffered from and survived (and that came from Asia)) because of the introduction of the horse. They were able to hunt and move more efficiently. The claim that we were restricting their movements is a farce because prior to the horse, they couldn’t get around nearly as well or far as after. And then there’s the white man’s gun. I find it remarkable how the tribes that are around here (Northwest) make such a big deal out of their horse culture when it came from the white man. You wouldn’t guess it from listening to them. Today, they are the only ethnic group in the world that enjoys large reservations put aside for their own exclusive use. Not only that, they have unlimited hunting and fishing rights. And on top of it all they get money and other special privileges like exclusive rights to gambling casinos. They are also allowed to be openly racist and use racist language.

    • Edruezzi

      So massa not be de firstest in de America. Maybe it be Yaqub done it. De Bering Strait be rayciss.

  • IstvanIN

    There are Indian legends about a race of red-headed men that they encountered and wiped out. They no doubt intermarried with the women of those people, which would explain why American Indians became so Caucasian looking so fast when intermarrying with White Americans. They already had some distant European ancestry. On the other hand the South American Indians did not, as evidenced by the Mestizos, and retained many or most of their mongoloid features.

    • Bossman

      Did you not read what the researchers found out? The boy is related to all the Natives of the Americas. South American Indians are of the same race as those from the North. And when they mix with white people, they produce the same kind of offspring.

      • IstvanIN

        Yes, in fact I did, the fact that North American Indians are related to South American Indians does not preclude North American Indians having European DNA prior to the discovery of the New World by Christopher Columbus.

  • Randall Ward

    DNA is only part of the picture; undiscovered coding, that is most surely there, has yet to be found in the cell. DNA only contains instructions to make protein folds; where is the rest of the instructions that tell how to make an arm or heart? The instructions are there but are yet undiscovered. When they are found that will be a whole new ball game.

  • AndrewInterrupted

    Your information is incomplete. The Europeans-First hypothesis that Dennis Stanford professes would include the haplogroup X chart migration. These are the Solutreans from the Iberian peninsula.

  • Garrett Brown

    WE were here first!

  • Jesse_from_Sweden

    Replying to the other answer, but which I can’t do directly because of moderating-related causes due to pictures….

    Reading the article, your map seems to be from some other source completely.

    Since the main problem with the solutrean hypothesis is that there is no DNA-evidence at all.
    The
    entire Solutrean hypothesis is based on archeological artefacts that
    are found in North America and that resembles artefacts found in Europe,
    rather than the Clovis-style artefacts that are normally seen as the
    first culture in North America.

    So this Haplogroup X seems to be a
    theory without evidence and is just an assumption of what it might look
    if they ever find any direct human remains that they can test.

    Maybe
    this Montana-boy is that evidence that is lacking, but since the
    Solutrean-culture is 20’000 years old, the Clovis is 15’000 years old
    and these remains are 12’000 years old, that is far from certain.

    • Edruezzi

      The Solutrean whatever arises from the fact that the implements of early humans in different regions looked like each other. Why is that awe inspiring? These were savages.

      • Jesse_from_Sweden

        Not awe-inspiring per se, but there is quite a bit of interest in the fact that someone uses a mac instead of a pc, despite them both being computers and used for the same purposes.
        Things evolve in different ways, despite being intended for the same use. And that goes for both tools as well as species.

        And in this case, the tools found that is the origin of the solutrean hypothesis shows that they are the same type of tools as those that evolved in Europe.
        While the Clovis-cultures tools had evolved in another direction and as such came from another source.

  • Uncle Bob

    It is strange that many Americans Indians look like a mix between East Asians and whites yet have not inherited the genes for a beard. Could this be due to ancient white men being killed and their women being taken or were these Proto Europeans beardless? The native Americans certainly didn’t just evolve into a new race over a span of a few thousand years!

  • Edruezzi

    Come one people. These were just some starving savages following reindeer around 40,000 years ago. They didn’t know what history was.

  • Edruezzi

    Actually, DNA shows that the Native Americans are descended from Mongolians.

  • Edruezzi

    So you actually went to the trouble of getting and posting these maps. Don’t you get it? The entire notion of Whites First in the Americas belongs in Marvel Comics. These are the same people who wouldn’t vote for a Mormon president. Well, i recall some Mormons preaching to me once. One of them, a woman, told me to listen first before I rushed to judgement. I soon understood why. The book of Mormon was one of the most ridiculous things I have ever encountered.

  • Edruezzi

    My gripe with all this is how people can go about cherry-picking bits of history they don’t like and revising them. The logical positivist Vienna Circle, who have been unjustifiably ridiculed, were right on the button. All correct propositions are of two types: the tautologies of logic and mathematics and the experientially verifiable propositions of science. All others are nonsense. Based on that, the entire notion of North America teeming with white people before the Indians arrived is utter nonsense. Anybody above fifteen years of age who goes about parroting that hogwash should be ashamed of themselves, in therapy or looking for an adult education course to sign up for.

  • Edruezzi

    So you didn’t do social studies or history in grade school? There is no question. The Native Americans were here first. When the Vikings got to America they did not see any white people. Asia is closer to the Americas than Europe is. Coming to America from Europe required sophisticated maritime technology that did not exist until the time of Columbus. As for the Vikings they needed the land platforms of Iceland and Greenland to get here. Stone Age Europeans could not have crossed the Atlantic and they were too far from the Bering Strait.
    It’s that simple.

  • Edruezzi

    Curiously, the Romans, as sophisticated and organized as they were, with complete command of the Western European coast and England, never accomplished that feat. Somehow, Stone Age Europeans stood a better chance of doing that.

  • Edruezzi

    Wait. This is just simple logic. If the Romans couldn’t do it, how could stone age people do it? Heyerdahl had 20th Century maps and even if he didn’t have maps he knew that Polynesia lay across the ocean. He knew where he was going.
    It could be possible that Europeans were there first. After all, people from East Asia settled the Polynesian Islands with what was pretty much stone age technology. Until more evidence is found for the demographics of America before the arrival of the ancestors of the Indians, isn’t it better to refrain from declaring that one group or the other got there first? The science of archaeology is not over, and the past is another country. A good example is what happened in a related science. China was closed off to Western paleontologists for most of the 20th century. As soon as they could start to work in China after the mid-80s the science of dinosaur paleontology was changed completely by what they found there. Science is done by accumulating and evaluating evidence, however, not by making assertions.

  • Edruezzi

    There probably weren’t clear lines dividing the populations and they must have been freely interbreeding. If people of a little earlier than that could interbreed with Neanderthals it’s clear that the group that got into the America’s were a pretty mixed population.
    Another possibility is that the original European homeland was further eastward. The history of the Indo-European languages seems to point to that.
    The brute fact however is that the archeologists have to dig more.